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This  Volume  is  for 


t^&iivfaf&tot'  8^ 

S?  *?  p4  m., issas"*  5-0. 

•ZZzX?    Arom  .pa^AJ1   ts^Z ^w^11    oeiec- 
XIII   to  Piuf  WT  **?lW«nt»,   Leo 



Principles  for  Peace 

Selections  From  Papal  Documents 

Edited  for  the  Bishops'  Committee 

on  the  Pope's  Peace  Points 

By  the  Reverend  Harry  C.  Koenig,  S.T.D., 

Librarian,  Saint  Mary  of  the  Lake  Seminary, 

Mundelein,  Illinois 

With  a  Preface 

By  the  Most  Reverend  Samuel  A.  Stritch,  D.D., 
Archbishop  of  Chicago 

C*o  T  no  // 





Bishops'  Committee  has  designated  the 
as  e«^sive  distributor  for  the 
EEACE.          _ 





Pius  XII 
with  the  prayer 


"peace,  the  work  of  justice," 

may  be  realized 

in  our  time. 


We  are  looking  forward  to  garnering  the  full  fruits  of  the  hard- 
ships and  sacrifices  of  war  in  a  lasting  and  just  world  peace.  "It 
must  not  happen  again"  are  the  words  on  the  tongue  of  the  common 
man,  as  he  goes  into  the  armed  services,  sweats  in  war  industries, 
accepts  the  deprivations  which  war  imposes.  Word  goes  out  that 
war  production  must  be  increased  at  the  cost  of  longer  hours,  more 
acres  must  be  sowed  with  reduced  farm  labor,  women  in  greater 
numbers  must  go  into  the  factories.  News  of  casualties  comes,  there 
are  stories  of  heroic  bravery,  the  strength  of  the  enemy  is  not  con- 
cealed, perhaps  years  will  be  needed  before  victory  comes.  With 
grim  determination,  resolved  to  do  his  full  loyal  part,  the  common 
man  faces  hardships  and  sacrifices,  whispering  to  himself:  "It  must 
not  happen  again."  Once  before  since  the  turn  of  the  century  he 
engaged  in  war  to  outlaw  war  and  to  bring  security  to  the  nations. 
Something  happened  in  the  aftermath.  He  is  not  sure  of  just  what 
did  happen.  Things  which  should  have  been  done  were  not  done, 
and  things  which  should  not  have  been  done  were  done.  He  was 
disappointed.  The  seeds  of  the  greatest  war  in  history  were  allowed 
to  germinate  and  grow.  Somebody,  something  failed  him.  This 
time  the  common  man  is  determined  as  he  tells  himself  over  and 
over:  "It  must  not,  it  cannot  happen  again."  And  we  have  a  duty  to 
see  to  it  that  he  is  not  disappointed  again.  This  time  we  must  make 
a  peace  which  will  give  lasting  security  to  all  nations  and  peoples. 
It  is  hard  to  contemplate  what  would  be  the  consequences  of  a  failure 
at  the  peace-table  when  victory  comes.  There  is  the  resolution  in  all 
of  us :  "It  must  not  happen  again." 

The  Axis  Powers  offer  a  peace— a  sham  peace.  With  immoral 
propaganda  they  deluded  and  deceived  many  thousands  of  men  into 
accepting  their  proposals.  When  their  propaganda  failed,  they  em- 
ployed brute  force  to  impose  their  wills  on  more  thousands  of  un- 
willing, undeceived  human  beings.  Even  in  their  own  countries 
great  numbers  are  looking  to  us  and  not  to  them  for  a  good  peace. 
There  is  no  hope  of  peace  from  the  Axis  Powers.  They  made  much 



of  national  inequalities  and  the  sorry  state  of  the  "have  not"  nations. 
Yet  so  great  an  authority  as  Pope  Pius  XII  early  after  the  first  aggres- 
sions of  the  Axis  Powers  wrote:  "The  international  problems  in- 
volved were  by  no  means  insoluble."  Whatever  were  the  problems 
pressing  on  some  nations,  they  could  have  been  solved  without  war. 
Despite  all  efforts  to  preserve  peace,  the  Nazi  Party  went  to  war.  It 
did  not  conceal  its  objective  of  setting  up  by  force  a  new  world 
order  in  which  a  single  nation  would  dominate  and  the  other  na- 
tions would  be  mere  tributaries  to  its  wealth  and  power.  In  this 
vaunted  world  order  social  and  historic  realities  were  forgotten,  the 
moral  law  scoffed  and  even  in  the  bosom  of  the  privileged  nation 
human  rights  denied.  Let  any  student  in  full  calmness  and  impar- 
tiality examine  the  proposal  of  the  Axis  and  study  the  philosophy 
which  inspires  it,  and  he  will  be  compelled  to  conclude  that  it  holds 
no  promise  of  world  peace.  We  cannot  look  therefore  to  the  Axis 
Powers  for  a  contribution  to  the  lasting  and  just  world  peace  which 
honest  men  are  looking  forward  to  with  the  victory  of  our  arms. 

Our  own  country  has  proclaimed  its  war  objectives — the  defense 
of  the  four  freedoms  and  the  making  of  them  the  basis  for  neigh- 
borly international  collaboration.  This  is  the  language  of  honest 
peacemakers.  We  recognize  the  rights  of  other  nations,  large  and 
small,  strong  and  weak.  We  have  no  ambition  to  dominate  the 
world.  Every  nation  has  its  own  individuality,  its  own  cultural  in- 
heritance. We  shall  not  attempt  to  impose  our  political  institutions 
on  other  nations.  We  do  believe  however  that  there  is  a  necessary 
common  denominator  in  all  national  institutions  and  that  is  the 
recognition  of  basic  native  human  rights  under  the  moral  law,  and 
we  intend  to  use  our  full  international  influence  to  securing  men 
everywhere  in  their  native  rights.  History  has  bestowed  on  us  a 
great,  grave  world  responsibility.  We  shall  be  a  mighty  force  at  the 
peace-table.  Men  everywhere  are  looking  to  us  to  give  them  a  good 
peace.  We  dare  not  fail  Even  in  the  midst  of  war  we  are  trying  to 
make  the  plan  of  a  peace  which  will  offer  lasting  security.  To  us 
men  look  for  a  genuine  peace  and  we  must  leave  no  stone  unturned 
to  give  it  to  them  when  victory  comes  to  our  arms. 

It  is  easy  to  say  that  we  want  a  good  peace.  There  is  no  doubt 
about  our  sincerity  and  our  purpose.  The  hard  thing  will  be  to 
formulate  the  good  peace.  Good  will  alone  is  not  enough.  There 
must  be  a  deep  understanding  of  the  ills  which  afflict  our  world,  a 



right  evaluation  of  the  problems  of  nations  and  peoples,  a  frank 
admission  of  past  mistakes,  a  willingness  to  sacrifice  seeming  na- 
tional advantages  beyond  even  the  limit  of  justice.  Antecedent  to  all 
this  there  must  be  a  deep  humility  in  the  nations,  particularly  the 
powerful  nations,  a  humility  which  is  inconsistent  with  sordid 
national  interests  and  frees  the  mind  to  discover  reality  in  its  full 
proportions.  In  the  long  story  of  the  nations  there  have  been  many 
indefensible  injustices  and  some  of  them  cannot  be  righted  fully  at 
this  time  without  added  injustices.  A  willingness  to  forget  historic 
hatreds  and  prejudices  in  the  interest  of  a  true  peace  must  inspire 
the  peace-makers.  The  task  will  be  difficult  but  it  is  not  impossible 
and  it  must  be  done. 

There  are  certain  facts,  truths  and  principles  which  must  guide 
the  peace-makers.  In  such  an  undertaking  it  is  imperative  that  right 
principles  be  clearly  understood  and  undeviatingly  followed.  Failure 
in  the  past  was  due  in  no  little  measure  to  the  weakness  of  substitut- 
ing expediency  for  principle.  It  is  not  realistic,  but  fanciful,  to  depart 
from  ageless  truth.  True,  we  are  living  in  a  world  of  men  and  must 
never  forget  human  equations,  and  for  that  very  reason  we  must 
keep  our  eyes  always  on  true  human  values  and  not  allow  ourselves 
to  drift  into  the  unreal  dreams  of  ideologies  which  obliterate  these 
values.  Nowhere  do  we  find  a  clearer  statement  of  the  truths,  facts 
and  principles  which  are  postulates  in  the  making  of  a  good  peace 
than  in  the  Statements  of  the  Popes  of  our  times.  These  Pontiffs, 
from  Leo  XIII  to  Pius  XII,  have  stood  above  parties  and  apart  from 
nationalisms,  and  yet  nobody  questions  their  knowledge  of  their 
times.  Courageously  they  have  pointed  to  sorry  aberrations  and  un- 
falteringly they  have  indicated  the  path  which  leads  to  peace.  When 
their  warnings  were  not  heeded,  they  did  not  desist  in  their  admoni- 
tions and  condemnations  and  pleadings.  In  the  light  of  events  the 
warnings  of  these  Popes  now  read  like  the  language  of  prophecy. 
We  need  these  Statements  on  peace  and  the  conditions  for  peace. 
Unfortunately  they  are  scattered  through  many  letters,  allocutions, 
addresses  and  messages. 

To  meet  a  real  need,  scholars  under  the  sponsorship  of  The 
Bishops'  Committee  on  the  Pope's  Peace  Points  have  gathered  them 
together  and  now  offer  them  to  the  public  in  a  single  volume.  Here 
we  shall  find  carefully  indexed  these  Statements  which  are  a  clear 
exposition  of  truths,  facts  and  principles  for  the  making  of  a  good 




peace.  Some  may  be  disappointed  in  finding  that  these  Statements 
are  not  detailed  specific  applications  of  principles  to  particular  politi- 
cal problems  of  our  times.  They  forget  that  the  Church  recognizes 
and  defends  the  independence  and  sovereignty  of  the  State  in  its 
own  sphere  and  that  the  Popes  do  not  enter  the  domain  of  statesmen. 
They  are  the  witnesses  of  religious  and  moral  truth.  Peace  involves 
this  truth  and  the  Popes  have  spoken  within  their  own  sphere,  leav- 
ing to  statesmen  to  add  what  is  purely  social,  purely  political.  And 
yet  it  must  not  be  understood  that  the  Popes  have  merely  enunciated 
abstract  moral  principles  which  have  to  do  with  peace.  Courageously 
they  have  taught  these  principles  in  the  language  of  the  changing 
experiences  of  nations  and  individuals.  These  Statements  offer  a 
practical  guide  for  the  peace-makers  who  will  seek  to  give  the  world 
a  lasting  and  just  peace. 

Pope  Pius  XII  on  Christmas  Eve  offered  to  the  nations  his  Five- 
Point  Peace  Plan.  This  plan  delineates  in  broad  outline  a  good 
peace.  Great  interest  has  been  shown  in  it  throughout  the  world 
and  it  has  been  imbedded  in  the  studies  of  serious,  able  students  and 
in  the  pronouncements  of  many  groups  on  the  peace.  Much  of  what 
is  in  it  is  a  statement  of  the  moral  law  for  international  life,  and  its 
proposals  for  international  security  are  fully  consonant  with  the  dic- 
tates of  justice  and  national  sovereignty.  Christian  truth  permeates 
it,  and  it  may  be  called  the  Christian  plan  for  peace.  To  understand 
it,  something  more  than  a  reading  of  the  text  is  necessary.  It  calls 
back  to  the  many  Statements  of  the  Popes  on  peace  for  a  proper 
interpretation.  These  Statements  strongly  defend  native  human 
rights,  assert  the  dignity  of  man,  inculcate  the  social  derivations  from 
human  personality,  defend  against  racists  and  tribalists  the  unity  of 
the  human  race,  vindicate  the  moral  law  in  all  human  relations,  so- 
cial, political  and  international,  denounce  the  usurpation  by  the 
State  of  authority  to  dominate  all  human  behavior  under  the  tyran- 
nical claim  that  it  is  the  sole  source  of  all  rights,  call  for  the  freedom 
and  dignity  of  the  family,  and  postulate  Christian  brotherhood  in 
our  dealing  with  all  peoples.  They  point  out  the  errors  in  political 
systems  which  threaten  tyranny  and  oppression.  When  the  Pope's 
Peace  Plan  is  read  and  studied  in  the  light  of  these  Statements,  it  is 
clear  that  it  offers  to  statesmen  a  safe  guide  in  formulating  the  peace 
in  justice  and  charity  which  we  are  demanding  as  the  fruits  of  our 
victory.  Our  own  peace  aims,  which  are  enunciated  only  in  large 


outline,  are  complemented  and  supplemented  by  the  papal  plan.  Not 
only  is  there  no  contradiction  between  our  aims  and  the  papal  plan, 
but  that  plan  comprehends  our  aims  and  gives  them  the  weight  of 
sound  philosophy  and  moral  right.  It  is  hoped  that  this  volume  will 
be  a  distinct  contribution  to  the  making  and  enduring  of  a  good 
world  peace. 

>5&  Samuel  A.  Stritch, 

Archbishop  of  Chicago, 
Chairman,  Bishops'  Committee  on  the 
Pope's  Peace  Points. 




Preface  vii 

Introduction  xv 

I.     Leo  XIII  i 

II.     Pius  X  i  TO 

III.  Benedict  XV  126 

IV.  Pius  XI  318 
V.     Pius  XII  552 

List  of  Documents  807 

Bibliography  821 

Index  828 



At  some  future  hour,  known  now  only  to  God,  a  group  of  states- 
men will  take  their  places  around  a  conference  table  and  hammer 
out  a  treaty  designed  to  settle  the  staggering  problems  of  a  world 
torn  apart  by  years  of  bitter  war.  When  that  hour  strikes,  what  role 
will  the  pope  play  in  forging  that  instrument  which  will  decisively 
determine  the  character  of  the  post-war  world? 

Will  the  pope  remain  a  complete  outsider,  a  mere  bystander?  In 
the  Peace  of  Paris  at  the  end  of  the  last  war, '  Benedict  XV,  by 
explicit  provision  of  the  secret  Treaty  of  London,  was  deliberately 
excluded  from  having  any  voice  in  the  peace  settlement.  The  Treaty 
of  Versailles,  with  all  its  short-sighted  ineptness,  can  be  laid  squarely 
at  the  doorstep  of  self-sufficient  secular  statesmanship.  Will  the 
mind  of  the  men  of  Versailles  live  again  at  the  end  of  the  present 
conflict?  Or  will  their  disastrous  failure  to  achieve  a  lasting  peace 
so  chasten  the  leaders  of  the  world  that  in  the  coming  peace  settle- 
ment the  unique  competence  and  vision  and  disinterestedness  of  the 
pope  will  be  allowed  to  help  mould  a  document  wiser  than  that 
signed  in  the  Hall  of  Mirrors  in  1919  ? 

Today  these  questions  come  to  the  lips  not  only  of  Catholics- 
some  three  hundred  million  strong,  in  every  nation  under  heaven— 
but  of  all  men  of  good  will,  men  who  are  fired  with  a  determination 
that  this  time  no  avenue  will  remain  unexplored  in  the  quest  for  a 
peace  that  will  end  forever  the  horror  and  bloodshed  under  which 
mankind  has  groaned  these  many  years. 

Fourteen  years  ago  Pius  XI  defined  the  stand  which  the  Papacy 
itself  will  take  toward  participating  in  the  conference.  In  the  Lateran 
Treaty  of  1929  he  wrote:  "The  Holy  See  declares  that  it  wishes  to 
remain  and  will  remain  extraneous  to  all  temporal  disputes  between 
nations,  and  to  national  congresses  convoked  for  the  settlement  of 
such  disputes,  unless  the  contending  parties  make  a  joint  appeal  to 
its  mission  of  peace;  nevertheless,  it  reserves  the  right  in  every  case 
to  exercise  its  moral  and  spiritual  power."  In  broad  principle,  then, 
the  stand  of  the  papacy  is  clear:  the  pope  will  play  only  that  part 
which  victors  and  vanquished  assign  him.  But  precisely  what  will 
that  part  be? 



To  anyone  sincerely  concerned  with  the  establishment  of  a  just 
and  lasting  peace,  it  is  inconceivable  that  the  peacemakers  will  spurn 
the  invaluable  contribution  which  the  pope  can  make  toward  the 
settlement  of  the  deep  problems  that  lie  at  the  roots  of  modern 
political  and  social  disorder.  For  the  past  sixty-five  years  the  Church 
has  been  uninterruptedly  blessed  with  magnificent  leadership  almost 
without  parallel  in  its  history.  During  these  years  five  great  men 
have  sat  on  the  throne  of  Peter  and  each  has  tried  with  the  assistance 
of  Almighty  God  and  the  best  minds  in  Christendom  to  plan  the 
construction  of  an  order  based  on  justice  and  charity. 

These  popes  were  not  untried  in  the  field  of  statesmanship.  They 
came  to  the  papacy  experienced  in  the  intricate  problems  of  contem- 
porary Europe.  Leo  XIII  was  a  career  diplomat  and  had  served  as 
Nuncio  to  Belgium;  Benedict  XV  was  secretary  to  the  Nuncio  to 
Spain,  and  for  many  years  assistant  secretary  of  state;  Pius  XI  was 
•Nuncio  to  Poland  during  the  trying  reconstruction  period  at  the 
close  of  the  last  war;  and  the  present  Holy  Father,  Pius  XII,  has 
spent  the  entire  forty-odd  years  of  his  priesthood  in  the  diplomatic 
service  of  the  Church. 

During  the  years  of  their  pontificates  they  enjoyed  avenues  of 
information  that  have  no  counterpart  among  secular  governments. 
The  pope  is,  indeed,  served  by  a  highly  capable  diplomatic  force  all 
over  the  world;  but  far  beyond  that,  he  is  the  spiritual  father  of 
three  hundred  million  Catholics  who  come  to  him  for  guidance; 
he  is  the  trusted  confidant  of  countless  bishops  and  priests  who 
minister  to  his  flocks.  No  one  else  in  the  world  is  in  as  advantageous 
a  position  to  feel  the  pulse  of  mankind  as  is  the  Holy  Father. 
Among  rulers  he  is  unique  in  that  his  viewpoint  is  as  broad  as  the 
world  itself,  charged  as  he  is  before  God  with  the  welfare  not  of 
one  nation,  or  a  group  of  nations,  but  of  all  nations.  Victor,  van- 
quished, great  nation,  tiny  principality,  soldier,  civilian,  statesman, 
citizen,  Englishman,  Italian,  German,  Frenchman,  American,  Rus- 
sian—all look  to  him  as  their  father  in  Christ,  and  hi?  is  the  respon- 
sibility before  God  of  thinking,  planning,  caring  for  all;  irrespective 
of  nation  or  language  or  class. 

To  harvest  the  accumulated  wisdom  of  these  past  sixty-five  years 
during  which  each  of  the  five  popes  was  deeply  concerned  with  the 
problem  of  peace;  to  make  the  riches  of  that  wisdom  available  to 
the  English-speaking  world;  to  reveal  to  all  men  the  incalculable 



help  the  popes  can  offer  in  the  making  of  a  lasting  peace — these  are 
the  aims  of  this  book.  Within  its  covers  lies  the  mature  thought  of 
the  five  popes  on  the  issues  which,  unsolved,  have  turned  Europe 
into  a  vast  mire  of  blood  and  devastation.  The  book  aims  to  make 
the  principles  for  the  solution  of  those  problems  accessible  to  all 
concerned  with  building  a  new  and  better  world. 

This  is  not  a  book  for  the  faint-hearted.  Dealing  for  the  most 
part  with  general  principles  rather  than  with  concrete  situations,  it 
sometimes  makes  hard,  slow  reading.  Most  of  the  documents  are 
given  only  in  part,  since  the  complete  text  would  require  a  book  of 
unmanageable  proportions.  Translated  from  Latin  or  one  of  the 
modern  European  languages,  some  of  the  selections  still  retain  traces 
of  the  original  idiom  which  may  seem  strange  to  one  who  is  accus- 
tomed to  the  terseness  and  directness  of  English;  .a  more  perfect 
rendition  into  English  would  have  required  more  time  than  was 
available.  Nevertheless,  the  inherent  value  of  the  doctrine  itself  and 
the  realization  of  the  unthinkable  calamity  in  store  for  a  world  that 
refuses  to  find  a  solution  for  the  problems  herein  analyzed  will 
more  than  encourage  the  sincere  student  to  bear  with  the  hardships 
involved  in  reading  the  text. 

As  the  reader  becomes  more  thoroughly  acquainted  with  these 
documents  and  appreciates  more  and  more  the  skill,  the  confidence 
with  which  the  popes  attack  the  issues  involved  in  the  establishment 
of  an  enduring  peace,  the  conviction  will  deepen  that  herein  the 
popes,  as  pastors  of  souls,  are  dealing  with  matters  entirely  within 
the  scope  of  their  authority.  The  pope's  province  is,  of  course,  not 
politics;  neither  is  it  diplomacy,  nor  international  relations,  nor 
economics — as  such.  His  province  is  faith  and  morals.  But  only  the 
most  shallow  of  minds  would  refuse  to  admit  deep  moral  implica- 
tions in  the  issues  that  today  disturb  the  tranquillity  of  society.  Prob- 
lems that  in  one  generation  led  to  the  slaughter  of  eight  and  a  half 
million  men,  to  impoverishment,  suffering,  and  hatred  without 
precedent  in  history,  and  that  less  than  a  quarter  of  a  century  after- 
wards flared  up  anew  with  consequences  which  will  probably  be 
much  more  catastrophic—these  problems  fall  squarely  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  pope  as  spiritual  and  moral  leader.  And  any 
hollow  accusation  that  the  pope  in  outlining  a  peace  program  is 
interfering  in  a  sphere  foreign  to  his  office  cannot  stand  up  under 



There  are  four  general  characteristics  o£  the  peace  documents 
that  merit  the  reader's  attention. 

First,  there  is  the  broad  sweep,  the  all-embracing  nature  of  the 
solution  offered  by  the  popes.  The  many  languages  from  which  the 
documents  were  translated  help  to  emphasize  the  universality  of 
the  papal  peace  proposals.  The  pope  is  planning  not  for  one  nation, 
not  for  any  favored  group  of  nations,  but  for  all  the  wide  world. 
The  documents  themselves  are  the  most  eloquent  refutation  of  any 
charge  that  the  pope  is  not  genuinely  neutral  and  impartial,  that 
he  forgets  that  he  is  the  common  father  of  all  belligerents.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  pages  that  follow  illustrate  strikingly  the  pope's 
solicitude  for  those  nations  that  are  the  victims  of  injustice.  There  is 
no  hesitation  on  his  part  in  springing  to  the  defense  of  any  nation 
that  has  been  unjustly  invaded  or  attacked,  no  timidity  in  castigat- 
ing the  perpetrator  of  evil,  no  matter  who  he  may  be.  More  than 
once  the  popes  have  explicitly  condemned  aggressor  nations. 

It  is  not  merely  "peace  in  our  time"  that  the  popes  desire,  but 
peace  for  all  time.  It  is  not  merely  order  that  the  popes  work  for, 
nor  merely  the  absence  of  war;  it  is  deep,  lasting,  internal  peace 
founded  on  Christian  charity  and  justice.  The  papal  principles  aim 
not  merely  at  a  more  stable  political  order,  a  more  equitable  eco- 
nomic order;  they  aim  at  a  thoroughly  Christian  human  order. 
Their  program  is  not  merely  an  assortment  of  isolated,  unconnected 
suggestions  for  reform;  it  is  a  completely  integrated  program  of 
political,  social,  economic  principles  based  on  natural  law  and 
Christian  revelation.  It  is  a  radical  program;  it  goes  down  deep  to 
the  roots  of  modern  disorder.  The  popes  will  not  rest  satisfied 
merely  with  a  surface  redistribution  of  territory,  a  "working  agree- 
ment" among  nations;  the  popes  call  for  a  change  deep  in  the  hearts 
of  men  if  there  is  to  be  any  lasting  peace. 

Secondly,  the  reader  will  be  impressed  by  the  essential  unity,  the 
continuity  of  the  pronouncements  made  by  all  five  popes.  It  would 
be  inaccurate  to  think  of  a  distinct  peace  plan  of  Leo  XIII,  or  one 
of  Benedict  XV,  or  one  of  Pius  XIL  As  Archbishop  Stritch  has  said 
recently,  there  is  one  papal  peace  plan,  a  plan  of  all  popes.  Through 
the  doctrines  and  pronouncements  of  the  five  popes  there  runs  an 
unmistakable  oneness  in  principle,  a  reiteration  of  the  same  basic 
tenets.  Linked  with  this  essential  unity,  however,  is  a  gradual  de- 
velopment, a  greater  clarification  and  unfolding,  a  growth  as  the 



principles  come  to  be  applied  to  new  issues.  The  more  complete 
industrialization  of  modern  society,  the  startling  advance  of  technical 
science  in  the  past  sixty-five  years,  the  invention  of  the  airplane  and 
its  ever-increasing  use  as  a  weapon  of  warfare,  the  adoption  of  new 
military  tactics,  the  historical  evolution  of  individual  nations — these 
factors  raise  new  moral  issues;  and  the  intimate  contact  of  the 
papacy  with  the  realities  of  the  ever-changing  world  scene  is  re- 
flected in  the  new  problems  attacked  by  later  popes. 

A  hasty  glance  at  the  index  in  the  back  of  the  book  will  reveal 
how  well  the  popes  have  remained  abreast  of  the  times.  It  will  help, 
too,  in  making  the  reader  realize  the  timeliness  of  the  problems 
treated  in  these  pages.  These  men  did  not  live  with  their  eyes 
turned  back  toward  the  Middle  Ages;  their  concerns  were  the  issues 
of  the  hour.  "May  an  invading  airplane  force  bomb  a  city?  May 
poison  gas  ever  be  used  as  an  instrument  of  warfare?  To  what 
degree  is  sabotage,  boycotting,  licit?  May  one  nation  apply  sanc- 
tions against  another  ?  Is  there  an  obligation  on  the  part  of  a  nation 
to  join  an  international  organization  such  as  the  League  of  Nations, 
should  such  an  organization  be  founded  at  the  end  of  the  present 
war  ?  What  are  the  obligations  of  a  victor  nation  in  occupying  con- 
quered territory?  Should  reparations  be  exacted  from  aggressor 
nations?"  These  are  but  a  few  of  the  many  perplexing  questions 
upon  which  the  popes  speak  out  in  this  volume. 

Thirdly,  the  popes  with  superhuman  vision  and  accuracy  recog- 
nized long  years  in  advance  the  conflicts  that  would  inevitably  arise 
if  dangerous  injustices,  inequalities,  points  of  friction  were  not  elim- 
inated. It  is  difficult  for  the  reader  not  to  pause  occasionally  to 
speculate  on  what  a  different  course  modern  history  would  have 
taken  if  the  nations  of  Europe  had  given  the  papal  suggestions  the 
attention  which  they  deserved.  If,  for  instance,  the  social  reforms 
suggested  by  Leo  XIII  had  been  achieved,  would  the  Socialism  of 
the  nineteenth  century  have  spawned  the  Communist  monster  of 
today  ?  If  the  peace  proposals  of  Benedict  XV  had  been  used  as  the 
basis  of  the  Peace  of  Paris  rather  than  the  selfish  nationalism  of  the 
men  of  Versailles,  would  the  world  have  gone  to  war  a  second  time? 
If  Pius  XFs  early  warnings  about  the  dangers  inherent  in  the  totali- 
tarian doctrines  of  Communism,  Fascism,  and  Nazism  had  been 
heeded  and  steps  had  been  taken  to  correct  the  evils  that  made  the 
growth  o£  these  menaces  almost  inevitable,  would  our  generation 



have  witnessed  such  outrages  to  human  dignity  as  blood  purges  and 
concentration  camps?  If  the  rulers  of  nations  had  cooperated  with 
the  valiant  diplomatic  efforts  of  Pius  XII  during  the  spring  and 
summer  of  1939  and  had  agreed  to  solve  their  problems  around  a 
conference  table  rather  than  out  on  a  battlefield,  would  not  the  crisis 
of  our  age  be  today  much  closer  to  a  solution  instead  of  having 
grown  more  acute  through  four  years  of  warfare? 

With  these  thoughts  in  mind,  one  cannot  but  pause  to  wonder 
how  the  statesmen  of  Europe  can  possibly  spurn  again  the  voice  of 
the  pope  as  he  outlines  a  structure  for  the  new  Christian  order  in 
Europe.  The  tragic  consequences  of  such  a  course  of  action  are  un- 

Fourthly,  there  runs  through  papal  teaching  on  peace  a  note  of 
optimism,  of  hope.  In  days  when  so  many  masters  in  Israel  are 
throwing  up  their  hands  in  despair  and  pronouncing  the  chaos 
utterly  hopeless,  it  is  indeed  consoling  to  find  someone  who  has  the 
grasp  of  the  situation  and  the  authority  that  belongs  only  to  the 
pope,  and  yet  who  is  confident  that  the  problems  are  capable  of 
solution  if  only  adequate  remedies  are  applied  without  stint  or  delay. 
•  Yes,  say  the  popes,  the  problems  are  staggering;  the  obstacles  are 
mountainous.  But,  they  say,  we  can  yet  save  the  day  if  only  we  are 
sufficiently  wise,  sufficiently  Christian,  sufficiently  courageous,  suffi- 
ciently trustful  in  Divine  Providence  to  apply  the  means  at  our  dis- 
posal toward  an  immediate  unraveling  of  the  problems  that  have 
created  our  modern  crisis. 

Along  with  clarifying  the  principles  for  peace  these  documents  tell 
an  inspiring  story  of  long  years  of  earnest  effort  on  the  part  of  the 
popes  to  stave  off  threatened  wars,  to  alleviate  the  suffering  of  the 
wounded  and  imprisoned  during  wartime,  to  locate  civilians  sep- 
arated from  their  families  in  the  confusion  of  battle.  The  popes 
are  not  mere  doctrinaires  whose  contributions  to  peace  never  pass 
beyond  the  realm  of  ideas;  they  search  for  opportunity  to  practice 
the  principles  of  justice  and  mercy  which  they  preach  to  others.  No 
one  can  read  the  history  of  papal  arbitration  and  mediation  that 
emerges  from  this  volume  without  realizing  the  hard-headed  wis- 
dom displayed  by  the  papacy  in  settling  international  disputes. 
Bismarck,  certainly  no  friend  of  the  Holy  See,  was  yet  shrewd 
enough  and  unprejudiced  enough  to  recognize  the  unique  qualifica- 
tions of  the  pope  as  arbiter,  and  asked  Leo  XIII  in  1885  to  arbitrate 



the  quarrel  between  Germany  and  Spain  over  the  Caroline  Islands 
in  the  Pacific.  The  willing  acceptance  of  the  pope's  decision  in  this 
and  in  similar  instances  stamps  the  papacy  as  an  ideal  instrument  of 
arbitration— an  historical  fact  which  the  statesmen  of  our  day  might 
well  bear  in  mind  for  the  future  when  problems  will  inevitably  arise 
and  clamor  for  a  solution  which  only  arbitration  or  mediation  can 

Besides  the  documents  of  which  the  popes  themselves  were  au- 
thor, the  editor  has  included  those  letters  which  were  issued  officially 
by  the  papal  secretary  of  state.  The  intimate  association  of  the 
cardinal  secretary  with  the  pope  seemed  adequate  warrant  for  con- 
sidering these  documents  truly  papal  and  an  integral  part  of  the 
papal  plan  although  originally  they  appeared  over  the  signature  of 
the  secretary  of  state. 

Although  no  effort  was  spared  to  collect  all  the  documents,  the 
collection  still  remains  somewhat  incomplete.  Throughout  the  com- 
pilation of  the  book  the  editor  felt  the  restrictions  imposed  by  war. 
He  was  limited  to  the  resources  of  American  libraries.  During  these 
last  months  it  has  grown  increasingly  difficult  to  obtain  issues  of 
the  Acta  Apostolicae  Sedis  and  the  Osservatore  Romano.  In  spite 
of  all  these  limitations,  however,  to  publish  whatever  was  available 
and  hence  to  make  the  papal  peace  plan  accessible  now  when  it  is 
needed  so  desperately  seemed  a  much  wiser  policy  than  to  wait  till  a 
later  day  when  possibly  the  collection  of  documents  might  have 
been  more  nearly  complete. 

In  an  endeavor  to  present  the  papal  doctrine  on  peace  in  all  its 
fullness,  the  editor  has  also  included  many  documents  in  which 
the  popes  take  up  problems  which  are  not  so  obviously  related  to 
peace,  such  as  the  nature  and  extent  of  human  rights,  the  problems 
of  social  and  economic  reform,  the  internal  constitution  of  states. 
At  first  glance  some  of  these  problems  might  seem  outside  the  scope 
of  a  volume  on  peace;  on  closer  analysis,  however,  the  irrelevance 
will  prove  only  superficial  The  papal  program,  we  have  said,  is  a 
radical  program;  and  the  popes  in  elucidating,  for  instance,  the  na- 
ture of  human  rights  were  aiming  directly  at  the  heart  of  modern 
disorder:  the  denial  of  man's  inherent  dignity  and  inviolable  rights 
as  son  of  God  and  brother  of  Christ.  This  error  was  the  source 
from  which  much  of  the  social  chaos  of  the  past  proceeded;  it  lies 
today  at  the  core  of  the  totalitarian  ideologies,  whether  of  the  Com- 



munist,  Nazi,  or  Fascist  variety.  A  clarification  of  the  rights  of  man 
is  an  integral  part  of  the  papal  peace  plan,  for  this  doctrine  is  the 
foundation  upon  which  any  rational,  Christian  plan  for  reconstruc- 
tion can  be  built. 

More  apparent,  probably,  will  be  the  reason  for  including  the 
popes'  program  for  social  and  economic  reform.  Pius  XII,  in  the 
motto  of  his  pontificate,  Pax  opus  justitiae,  emphasizes  the  necessary 
connection  between  the  attainment  of  justice  and  the  achievemenjt  of 
peace;  peace  demands  the  rooting  out  of  injustice  not  only  among 
nations  but  between  the  social  classes  within  the  nation  itself.  In  a 
radio  address  to  the  Catholics  of  Spain  on  April  16,  1939,  Pius  XII 
reaffirmed  a  conviction  many  times  expressed  by  his  predecessors 
when  he  said  that  social  reform  was  indispensable  to  enduring  peace. 
"We  especially  exhort  the  rulers  and  the  pastors  of  Catholic  Spain," 
he  said,  "to  illumine  the  minds  of  those  led  astray  .  .  .  putting  be- 
fore them  the  principles  of  individual  and  social  justice  contained 
in  the  Holy  Gospel  and  in  the  doctrine  of  the  Church,  without 
which  the  peace  and  prosperity  of  nations,  however  powerful,  cannot 

In  selecting  the  material  the  editor  tried  to  include  documents 
concerning  as  many  countries  as  possible,  to  emphasize  not  only  the 
world-wide  range  of  the  popes'  fatherly  solicitude,  but  also  their 
understanding  of  the  problems  that  face  modern  man  in  every 
quarter  of  the  globe.  Neither  the  pastoral  mission  of  the  popes  nor 
their  grasp  of  current  issues  tolerates  any  frontiers.  These  pages  re- 
veal a  mind  and  heart  in  touch  with  the  suffering  of  mankind  from 
Finland  in  the  Baltic  across  the  world  to  sub-equatorial  New 
Zealand,  from  the  Republic  of  Chile  in  the  Andes  of  South  America 
back  to  Poland  and  Russia.  We  cannot  too  often  stress  this  unique 
catholicity  of  outlook  on  the  part  of  the  papacy.  It  springs  from  a 
vision  as  universal  as  the  light  of  the  sun. 

The  book  is  composed  of  five  parts,  each  part  presenting  the 
pronouncements  of  one  of  the  five  popes.  The  five  pontificates  and 
the  messages  of  each  pope  are  arranged  in  chronological  order.  Each 
of  the  selections  is  headed  by  a  brief  phrase,  the  words  with  which 
the  complete  document  begins  in  the  original  text.  This  is  the  tradi- 
tional practice  used  to  designate  papal  writings,  and  has  been  fol- 
lowed throughout  the  volume,  the  only  exceptions  being  those 
instances,  particularly  among  the  more  recent  papal  statements, 



when  it  was  impossible  to  obtain  the  original  document.  Before  the 
actual  text  the  editor  has  given  a  brief  summary  of  its  contents  in 
English,  that  the  reader  might  learn  in  a  glance  the  matter  of  which 
the  pronouncement  treats. 

The  documents  are,  of  course,  not  given  in  full;  of  necessity  only 
the  pertinent  passages  of  each  could  be  included.  Omissions  have 
been  indicated  by  periods,  three  for  the  omission  of  less  than  a  para- 
graph, six  for  a  paragraph  or  more.  The  English  versions  have  been 
gathered  from  many  sources;  they  are  not  all  of  the  same  quality. 
Whenever  a  translation  was  borrowed  from  the  work  of  another 
author,  the  source  is  indicated.  Lack  of  reference  to  a  source  is  indi- 
cation that  the  translation  given  herein  is  original.  Much  more  time 
might  have  been  spent  in  polishing  the  language  of  the  translations, 
since  not  a  few  of  them  bear  traces  of  the  original  idiom;  however, 
the  urgency  of  getting  the  papal  doctrine  into  the  hands  of  men  now 
when  it  can  do  the  most  good  rendered  further  improvement  im- 
possible. The  editor  has  compared  the  various  translations  with  the 
original  and  presents  these  as  faithful  and,  in  his  opinion,  the  best 
available  at  the  moment.  It  is  the  hope  of  the  Bishops'  Committee 
to  publish  a  second  volume  in  which  the  original  documents  will  be 
placed  in  the  hands  of  scholars. 

The  heart  of  the  papal  plan,  the  sine  qua  non  for  its  success  is  a 
spirit  of  Christian  cooperation;  no  plan  for  peace,  no  matter  how 
wise  or  sublime,  can  ever  pass  into  the  realm  of  reality  unless  nations 
are  willing  to  cooperate  with  other  nations,  groups  with  other 
groups,  men  with  their  fellow  men.  If  the  cooperation  given  the 
editor  in  the  task  of  compiling  this  book  could  be  taken  as  a  gauge 
of  that  spirit  among  men  today,  the  days  of  enduring  peace  would 
not  be  far  off.  Of  necessity  he  called  on  the  kindness  of  many 
friends  in  collecting  and  translating  these  documents  and  in  pre- 
paring them  for  publication.  The  generosity  with  which  all  con- 
tributed their  services  has  been  most  heartening.  The  list  of  those 
to  whom  he  stands  in  debt  is  too  long  to  allow  personal  mention 
of  each  name;  there  are  some  names,  however,  that  must  be  singled 
out  for  special  acknowledgment. 

The  first  debt  of  gratitude  is  owed  to  His  Excellency,  Archbishop 
Stritch  of  Chicago,  Chairman  of  the  Bishops'  Committee  on  the 
Pope's  Peace  Points.  A  life-long  student  of  the  papal  encyclicals, 
Archbishop  Stritch  saw  the  need  for  this  book;  it  was  at  his  sugges- 



tion  that  the  editor  took  up  the  task  of  compiling  it.  Together  with 
the  Most  Reverend  James  Ryan,  Bishop  of  Omaha,  and  the  Most 
Reverend  Aloysius  Muench,  Bishop  of  Fargo,  his  colleagues  on  the 
Committee,  Archbishop  Stritch  is  responsible  for  the  publication  of 
Principles  for  Peace. 

•  A  special  word  of  thanks  is  due  to  the  Catholic  Association  for 
International  Peace,  particularly  to  the  Reverend  Raymond  Me- 
Gowan  and  to  Miss  Catherine  Schaefer  who  generously  made  all 
the  resources  of  the  Association's  files  available.  For  most  of  the 
original  English  translations  the  editor  is  indebted  to  Dr.  Martin 
R.  P.  McGuire  of  the  Catholic  University  of  America  and  to  his 
associates,  the  Reverend  John  Gavigan,  O.S.A.,  of  Villanova  College, 
the  Reverend  Hermengeld  Dressier,  O.F.M.,  of  Saint  Joseph's  Col- 
lege, Sister  M.  Dominic  Ramaccioti,  S.S.N.D.,  Dean  of  the  College 
of  Notre  Dame  of  Maryland,  Sister  Jerome  Keeler,  O.S.B.,  of  the 
College  of  Mount  Saint  Scholastica,  Dr.  Alessandro  S.  Crisafulli  of 
the  Catholic  University  of  America,  and  Dr.  Regina  Soria  of  the 
College  of  Notre  Dame  of  Maryland.  The  Right  Reverend  Mon- 
signor  Francis  J.  Haas  of  the  Catholic  University  of  America  kindly 
consented  to  the  use  of  his  translations  of  Rerum  Novarum  and 
Quadragesima  Anno. 

In  the  task  of  preparing  the  book  for  print  the  editor  received 
invaluable  help  from  the  Reverend  Joseph  B.  Lux,  D.D.,  and 
Miss  Eileen  O'Hayer  of  the  Extension  Magazine,  from  the  Right 
Right  Reverend  Monsignor  Thomas  J.  McDonnell,  National  Di- 
rector of  the  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Faith,  the  Reverend 
Austin  Schmidt,  S.J.,  of  the  Loyola  University  Press,  the  Reverend 
Michael  O'Connell,  C.M.,  of  De  Paul  University,  the  Reverend  John 
J.  Wright,  S.T.D.,  of  Saint  John's  Seminary,  Brighton,  Massachu- 
setts, and  Miss  Kathryn  Harrold  of  the  Catholic  Historical  Review. 
The  latest  1942  numbers  of  the  Acta  Apostolicae  Sedis  were  made 
available  through  the  kindness  of  the  Reverend  Jerome  D.  Hannan, 
J.C.D.,  of  the  Catholic  University  of  America.  In  the  work  of  re- 
search the  edition  was  helped  considerably  by  the  Reverend  Joseph 
Christ  and  the  Reverend  Cletus  O'Donnell 

Another  factor  that  lightened  the  work  of  the  editor  was  the 
kindness  and  interest  shown  by  his  fellow  librarians  throughout  the 
United  States,  particularly  at  the  Library  of  Congress,  the  Catholic 
University  of  America,  Harvard  University,  the  University  of  Notre 



Dame,  the  Boston  Public  Library,  and  Marygrove  College. 

Finally,  to  the  Rector,  the  Faculty,  and  the  students  of  Saint 
Mary  of  the  Lake  Seminary,  the  editor  expresses  his  heartfelt  grati- 
tude. Only  their  loyal  and  persevering  cooperation  made  the  publi- 
cation of  this  book  possible. 

Sincere  appreciation  is  expressed  to  the  following  publishers  for 
granting  permission  to  quote  from  their  publications.  Benziger 
Brothers:  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII;  The  Life 
and  Acts  of  Pope  Leo  XIII}  by  Joseph  E.  Keller.  Central  Bureau 
Press:  Directives  for  Catholic  Action,  by  James  D.  Loeffler.  John 
Figgord:  Benedict  XV,  the  Pope  of  Peace,  by  Henry  E.  G.  Rope. 
Franciscan  Herald  Press:  Rome  Hath  Spoken.  Harcourt,  Brace  & 
Co.:  The  Pope  Speaks.  B.  Herder  Co.:  The  Encyclicals  of  Pius  XL 
The  Macmillan  Co.:  The  Peace  Conference  at  the  Hague,  by  Fred- 
erick W.  Hoik  John  C.  Winston  Co.:  Pope  Leo  XIII,  by  Bernard 
O'Reilly.  The  America  Press,  the  Catholic  Association  for  Interna- 
tional Peace  and  the  Catholic  Truth  Society  of  England  have 
generously  cooperated  by  giving  authorization  to  use  their  many 
publications.  To  the  following  periodicals  and  newspapers  we  are 
also  indebted:  American  Ecclesiastical  Review;  Australasian  Catho- 
lic Record;  Catholic  Action;  Catholic  Herald  (London);  The 
Catholic  Messenger  (Davenport);  The  Catholic  University  Bulletin; 
Dublin  Review;  English  Catholic  Newsletter;  Irish  Ecclesiastical 
Record;  National  Catholic  Welfare  Conference  News  Service;  The 
New  World  (Chicago);  The  Sword  of  the  Spirit  Bulletin;  The 
Tablet  (London). 






A  TALL,  ascetic-looking  nobleman  of  profound  scholarship  and 
forty-odd  years'  experience  in  diplomacy  and  administration, 
a  penetrating  student  of  his  own  times,  at  home  in  the  field 
of  social  theory  as  well  as  in  philosophy  and  literature,  brilliant, 
vigorous,  sympathetic  yet  uncompromising  —  this  was  Gioacchino 
Vincenzo  Cardinal  Pecci,  who  in  1878  came  to  the  Chair  of  Peter 
after  the  stormy  pontificate  of  Pius  IX. 

Born  in  Carpineto  on  March  2,  1810,  the  future  Leo  XIII  had 
been  schooled  by  the  Jesuits  first  at  Viterbo,  later  at  the  Roman 
College.  On  the  completion  of  his  studies  at  the  Sapienza  and  the 
Pontificia  Accademia  dei  Nobili  Ecclesiastici,  he  was  ordained  in, 
1837  and  launched  on  a  diplomatic  career  that  took  him  to  Bene- 
vento  in  the  Kingdom  of  Naples  as  papal  governor  in  1838,  to 
Perugia  as  Apostolic  Delegate  in  1841,  to  Brussels  as  Nuncio  with 
the  dignity  of  archbishop  in  1843.  Recalled  from  Brussels  in  1846, 
he  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Perugia,  where  he  remained  for  thirty- 
one  years.  Created  cardinal  in  1853,  ne  came  to  Rome  as  Camerlengo 
in  1877,  and  was  elected  pope  on  February  20,  1878. 

At  Leo's  accession  the  voice  of  the  pope  carried  little  weight  in 
the  courts  and  universities  of  Europe,  caught  up  in  the  aftermath 

of  the  French  Revolution  and  nineteenth  century  liberalism. 
Resolutely,  Leo  set  out  to  effect  a  rapprochement,  pursuing  a  bold 
policy  of  energetic  initiative  to  bring  the  saving  force  of  Christianity 
to  bear  on  the  critical  problems  raised  by  a  century  of  revolution. 
In  diplomacy,  in  scholarship,  in  social  reform  his  success  was  brilliant. 

Diplomat  par  excellence,  Leo  happily  witnessed  the  end  of 
Bismarck's  Kultur^ampf  against  the  Church  in  Germany,  the  re- 
establishment  of  diplomatic -relations  with  the  Czar  of  Russia,  a 
growing  friendliness  with  England  and  the  United  States.  The 
fears  of  French  Catholics  in  supporting  a  republican  form  of  gov- 
ernment, he  ended  decisively  in  1891  by  advocating  openly  the 
Ralliement  policy,  a  rallying  of  French  Catholics  to  the  legitimate 
republican  government.  Twice  he  was  asked  to  arbitrate  inter- 
national disputes,  and  was  invited  by  Nicholas  II  of  Russia  to 
participate  in  the  First  Hague  Conference. 

In  1880  his  encyclical  Aeterni  Patris  restored  to  Catholic  schools 
the  philosophia  pcrcnnis  of  Thomas  Aquinas.  In  1881  he  opened 
the  doors  of  the  hitherto  secret  Vatican  archives  to  scholars  of  every 
creed  and  nation.  "Go  back  as  far  as  you  can,"  he  told  historians. 
"We  are  not  afraid  of  the  publication  of  documents."  Christian 
archaeology,  Scripture,  the  writings  of  Dante  won  countless  new 
devotees  through  Leo's  encouragement. 

A  life-long  interest  in  the  cause  of  the  exploited  workingman 
was  crowned  by  his  magnificent  defense  of  labor,  Rerum  Novarum, 
issued  in  1891,  a  document  proclaimed  as  the  Magna  Charta  of 
labor,  earning  for  its  author  the  title,  'Tope  of  the  Workingman." 

Leo's  death  on  July  20, 1903,  after  twenty-five  years  in  the  papacy, 
found  the  prestige  of  Peter  greater  than  it  had  been  in  generations. 



The  endless  sources  of  disagreement,  whence  arise  civil 
strife,  ruthless  war  and  bloodshed,  have  their  cause 
chiefly  in  the  fact  that  the  authority  of  the  Church  has 
been  despised  and  set  aside. 

April  21,  1878 

i For,  from  the  very  beginning  of  Our  Pontificate, 

the  sad  sight  has  presented  itself  to  Us  of  the  evils  by  which  the 
human  race  is  oppressed  on  every  side:  the  widespread  subversion  of 
the  primary  truths  on  which,  as  on  its  foundations,  human  society  is 
based;  the  obstinacy  of  mind  that  will  not  brook  any  authority  how- 
ever lawful;  the  endless  jiources  of  disagreement,  whence  arrive  civil 
strife,  and  ruthless  war  and  bloodshed;  the  contempt  of  law  which 
moulds  characters  and  is  the  shield  of  righteousness;  the  insatiable 
craving  for  things  perishable,  with  complete  forgetfulness  of  things 
eternal,  leading  up  to  the  desperate  madness  whereby  so  many 
wretched  beings,  in  all  directions,  scruple  not  to  lay  violent  hands 
upon  themselves;  the  reckless  mismanagement,  waste,  and  misap- 
propriation of  the  public  funds;  the  shamelessness  of  those  who, 
full  of  treachery,  make  semblance  of  being  champions  of  country, 
of  freedom,  and  every  kind  of  right;  in  fine,  the  deadly  kind  of 
plague  which  infects  society  in  its  inmost  recesses,  allowing  it  no 
respite  and  foreboding  ever  fresh  disturbances  and  final  disaster. 

2.  Now,  the  source  of  these  evils  lies  chiefly,  We  are  convinced, 
in  this,  that  the  holy  and  venerable  authority  of  the  Church,  which 
in  God's  name  rules  mankind,  upholding  and  defending  all  lawful 
authority,  has  been  despised  and  set  aside.  The  enemies  of  public 
order,  being  fully  aware  of  this,  have  thought  nothing  better  suited 
to  destroy  the  foundations  of  society  than  to  make  an  unflagging 
attack  upon  the  Church  of  God,  to  bring  her  into  discredit  and 
odium  by  spreading  infamous  calumnies,  and  accusing  her  of  being 

1  Translation  from  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.  9-16.    Original 
Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  10,  pp.  585-589  (1878). 

[3-4]  LEO  XI11 

opposed  to  genuine  progress.  They  labor  to  weaken  her  influence 
and  power  by  wounds  daily  inflicted,  and  to  overthrow  the  authority 
of  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  in  whom  the  abiding  and  unchangeable 
principles  of  right  and  good  find  their  earthly  guardian  and 
champion.  .  .  . 

3.  It  is  perfectly  clear  and  evident,  Venerable  Brothers,  that  the 
very  notion  of  civilization  is  a  fiction  of  the  brain  if  it  rest  not  on 
the  abiding  principles  of  truth  and  the  unchanging  laws  of  virtue 
and  justice,  and  if  unfeigned  love  knit  not  together  the  wills  of 
men,  and  gently  control  the  interchange  and  the  character  of  their 
mutual  service.    Now,  who  would  make  bold  to  deny  that  the 
Church,  by   spreading  the   Gospel   throughout   the   nations,  has 
brought   the  light   of  truth  amongst  people   utterly   savage   and 
steeped  in  foul  superstition,  and  has  quickened  them  alike  to  recog- 
nize the  Divine  Author  of  nature  and  duly  to  respect  themselves? 
Further,  who  will  deny  that  the  Church  has  done  away  with  the 
curse  of  slavery  and  restored  men  to  the  original  dignity  of  their 
noble  nature;  and — by  uplifting  the  standard  of  Redemption  in  all 
quarters  of  the  globe,  by  introducing,  or  shielding  under  her  pro- 
tection, the  sciences  and  arts,  by  founding  and  taking  into  her 
keeping  excellent  charitable  institutions  which  provide  relief  for 
ills  of  every  kind — has  throughout  the  world,  in  private  or  in 
public  life,  civilized  the  human  race,  freed  it  from  degradation, 
and  with  all  care  trained  it  to  a  way  of  living  such  as  befits  the 
dignity  and  the  hopes  of  man?    And  if  any  one  of  sound  mind 
compare  the  age  in  which  We  live,  so  hostile  to  religion  and  to  the 
Church  of  Christ,  with  those  happy  times  when  the  Church  was 
revered  as  a  mother  by  the  nations,  beyond  all  question  he  will 
see  that  Our  epoch  is  rushing  wildly  along  the  straight  road  to 
destruction;  while  in  those  times  which  most  abounded  in  excellent 
institutions,  peaceful  life,  wealth,  and  prosperity  the  people  showed 
themselves  most  obedient  to  the  Church's  rule  and  laws.  Therefore, 
if  the  many  blessings  We  have  mentioned,  due  to  the  agency  and 
saving  help  of  the  Church,  are  the  true  and  worthy  outcome  of 
civilization,  the   Church   of   Christ,  far  from   being  alien   to   or 
neglectful  of  progress,  has  a  just  claim  to  all  men's  praise  as  its 
nurse,  its  mistress  and  its  mother. 

4.  Furthermore,  that  kind  of  civilization  which  conflicts  with 
the  doctrines  and  laws  of  holy  Church  is  nothing  but  a  worthless 


imitation  and  a  meaningless  name.  Of  this,  those  peoples  on  whom 
the  Gospel  light  has  never  shone  afford  ample  proof,  since  in  their 
mode  of  life  a  shadowy  semblance  only  of  civilization  is  discover- 
able, while  its  true  and  solid  blessings  have  never  been  possessed. 
Undoubtedly  that  cannot  by  any  means  be  accounted  the  perfection 
of  civilized  life  which  sets  all  legitimate  authority  boldly  at  defiance; 
nor  can  that  be  regarded  as  liberty  which,  shamefully  and  by  the 
vilest  means,  spreading  false  principles,  and  freely  indulging  the 
sensual  gratification  of  lustful  desires,  claims  impunity  for  all  crime 
and  misdemeanor,  and  thwarts  the  goodly  influence  of  the  worthiest 
citizens  of  whatsoever  class.  Delusive,  perverse  and  misleading  as 
are  these  principles,  they  cannot  possibly  have  any  inherent  power 
to  perfect  the  human  race  and  fill  it  with  blessing,  for  sin  maJ(eth 
nations  miserable?1  Such  principles,  as  a  matter  of  course,  must 
hurry  nations,  corrupted  in  mind  and  heart,  into  every  kind  of 
infamy,  weaken  all  right  order,  and  thus,  sooner  or  later,  bring 
the  standing  and  peace  of  the  State  to  the  very  brink  of  ruin. 

5.  Again,  if  We  consider  the  achievements  of  the  See  of  Rome, 
what  can  be  more  wicked  than  to  deny  how  much  and  how  well 
the  Roman  Bishops  have  served  civilized  society  at  large  ?  For  Our 
Predecessors,  to  provide  for  the  peoples'  good,  encountered  struggles 
of  every  kind,  endured  to  the  utmost  burdensome  toils,  and  never 
hesitated  to  expose  themselves  to  most  dangerous  trials.  With  eyes 
fixed  on  heaven,  they  neither  bowed  down  their  head  before  the 
threats  of  the  wicked,  nor  allowed  themselves  to  be  led  by  flattery 
or  bribes  into  unworthy  compliance.  This  Apostolic  Chair  it  was 
that  gathered  and  held  together  the  crumbling  remains  of  the  old 
order  of  things;  this  was  the  kindly  light  by  whose  help  the  culture 
of  Christian  times  shone  far  and  wide;  this  was  an  anchor  of  safety 
in  the  fierce  storms  by  which  the  human  race  has  been  convulsed; 
this  was  the  sacred  bond  of  union  that  linked  together  nations 
distant  in  region  and  differing  in  character;  in  short,  this  was  a 
common  center  from  which  was  sought  instruction  in  faith  and 
religion,  no  less  than  guidance  and  advice  for  the  maintenance  of 
peace  and  the  functions  of  practical  life.  In  very  truth  it  is  the  glory 
of  the  Supreme  Pontiffs  that  they  steadfastly  set  themselves  up  as 
a  wall  and  a  bulwark  to  save  human  society  from  falling  back  into 
its  former  superstition  and  barbarism. 

*  Proverbs,  XLV,  34. 

[6-8]  LEO    X.III 

6.  Would  that  this  healing  authority  had  never  been  slighted 
or  set  aside!     Assuredly  neither  would  the  civil  power  have  lost 
that  venerable  and  sacred  glory,  the  lustrous  gift  of  religion,  which 
alone  renders  the  state  of  subjection  noble  and  worthy  of  man;  nor 
would  so  many  revolutions  and  wars  have  been  fomented  to  ravage 
the  world  with  desolation  and  bloodshed;  nor  would  kingdoms, 
once  so  flourishing,  but  now  fallen  from  the  height  of  prosperity, 
lie  crushed  beneath  the  weight  of  every  kind  of  calamity.  .  .  . 

7.  ...  At  the  same  time  We   address   Ourselves   to  princes 
and  chief  rulers  of  the  nations,  and  earnestly  beseech  them  in  the  au- 
gust name  of  the  most  high  God,  not  to  refuse  the  Church's  'aid, 
proffered  them  in  a  season  of  such  need,  but  with  united  and 
friendly  aims  to  join  themselves  to  her  as  the  source  of  authority 
and  salvation,  and  to  attach  themselves  to  her  more  and  more  in  the 
bonds  of  hearty  love  and  devotedness.  God  grant  that — seeing  the 
truth  of  Our  words  and  considering  within  themselves  that  the 
teaching  of  Christ  is,  as  Augustine  used  to  say,  "a  great  blessing  to 
the  State,  if  obeyed," 3  and  that  their  own  peace  and  safety,  as  well 
as  that  of  their  people,  is  bound  up  with  the  safety  of  the  Church 
and  the  reverence  due  to  her — they  may  give  their  whole  thought 
and  care  to  mitigating  the  evils  by  which  the  Church  and  its  visible 
Head  are  harassed,  and  so  it  may  at  last  come  to  pass  that  the  peo- 
ples whom  they  govern  may  enter  on  the  way  of  justice  and  peace, 
and  rejoice  in  a  happy  era  of  prosperity  and  glory 


In  the  darkest  periods  of  history  the  Church  was  the 
only  refuge  where  the  nations  found  peace  and  safety. 

August  27,  1878 

8 We  said  that  the  chief  reason  of  this  great  moral 

ruin  was  the  openly  proclaimed  separation  and  the  attempted  apos- 
tasy of  the  society  of  our  day  from  Christ  and  His  Church,  which 
alone  has  the  power  to  repair  all  the  evils  of  society.  In  the  noonday 
light  of  facts  We  then  showed  that  the  Church  founded  by  Christ  to 

3  Epistola  138  (or  5)  ad  Marcellinum  n.  15  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  33,  c.  532. 

4  Translation  from  O'Reilly,  Life  of  Leo  XIII,  pp.  337-338.    Original  Italian,  A,S.S.f 

v.  n,  pp.  274-276  (1878). 


DA    GRAVE     SVENTURA  [9"12] 

renovate  the  world,  from  her  first  appearance  in  it  began  to  give  it 
great  comfort  by  her  superhuman  virtue;  that  in  the  darkest  and 
most  destructive  periods  die  Church  was  the  only  beacon  light  which 
made  the  road  of  life  safe  to  the  nations,  the  only  refuge  where 
they  found  peace  and  safety. 

9.  From  this  it  was  easy  to  conclude  that  if  in  past  ages  the 
Church  was  able  to  bestow  upon  the  world  such  signal  benefits,  she 
can  also  do  it  most  certainly  at  present;  that  the  Church,  as  every 
Catholic  believes,  being  ever  animated  by  the  Spirit  of  Christ — Who 
promised  her  His  unfailing  assistance — was  by  Him  established 
teacher  of  truth  and  guardian  of  a  holy  and  faultless  law;  and  that, 
being  such,  she  possesses  at  this  day  all  the  force  necessary  to  resist 
the  intellectual  and  moral  decay  which  sickens  society,  and  to  re- 
store the  latter  to  health. 

10.  And  inasmuch  as  unprincipled  foes,  in  order  to  bring  her 
into  disrepute  and  to  draw  on  her  the  enmity  of  the  world,  continue 
to  propagate  against  her  the  gravest  calumnies,  We  endeavored 
from  the  beginning  to  dissipate  these  prejudices  and  to  expose  these 
falsehoods,  resting  assured  that  the  nations,  when  they  come  to 
know  the  Church  as  she  is  in  reality,  and  in  her  own  beneficent 
nature,  will  everywhere  willingly  return  to  her  bosom. 

1 1 .  Urged  by  this  purpose,  We  resolved  also  to  make  Our  voice 
heard  to  those  who  rule  the  nations,  inviting  them  earnestly  not  to 
reject,  in  these  times  of  pressing  need,  the  strong  support  which  the 
Church  offers  them.    And  under  the  impulse  of  Our  apostolic 
charity,  We  addressed  Ourselves  even  to  those  who  are  not  bound 
to  Us  by  the  tie  of  the  Catholic  religion,  desiring,  as  We  did,  that 
their  subjects  also  should  experience  the  kindly  influence  of  that 
divine  institution. 

12.  You  are  well  aware,  my  Lord  Cardinal,  that  in  following 
out  this  impulse  of  Our  heart  We  addressed  Ourselves  also  to  the 
mighty  emperor  of  the  illustrious  German  nation — a  nation  which 
demanded  Our  special  attention  on  account  of  the  hard  conditions 
there  imposed  on  Catholics.  Our  words,  inspired  solely  by  the  de- 
sire to  see  religious  peace  restored  to  Germany,  were  favorably 
received  by  the  emperor  and  had  the  good  effect  to  lead  to  friendly 
negotiations.  In  these  Our  purpose  was,  not  to  rest  satisfied  with  a 
simple  suspension  of  hostilities,  but,  removing  every  obstacle  in  the 
way,  to  come  to  a  true,  solid  and  lasting  peace. 

[13-15]  LEO    XIII 

13.  The  importance  of  this  aim  was  justly  appreciated  by  those 
who  hold  in  their  hands  the  destinies  of  that  empire,  and  this  will 
lead  them,  as  We  sincerely  trust,  to  join  hands  with  Us  in  attaining 
it.  The  Church  assuredly  would  rejoice  to  see  peace  brought  back 
to  that  great  nation;  but  the  empire  itself  would  not  rejoice  less 
that,  consciences  being  appeased,  the  sons  of  the  Catholic  Church 
would  be  found  still — what  they  had  at  other  times  proved  them- 
selves to  be — the  most  faithful  and  the  most  generous  of  sub- 


The  Pope  is  striving  to  obtain  the  blessings  and  the 
fruits  of  a  lasting  peace  for  the  German  people. 

December  24,  1878 

14 For  you  well  know,  Venerable  Brother,  that  We 

entertain  the  most  intimate  conviction — a  conviction  which  We  have 
often  expressed  and  publicly  declared — that  the  cause  of  the  dangers 
which  threaten  society  is  to  be  sought  principally  in  the  fact  that  the 
authority  of  the  Church  is  on  all  sides  intercepted,  and  prevented 
from  exercising  its  salutary  influence  for  the  public  good,  and  that 
its  liberty  is  so  fettered  that  it  is  scarcely  allowed  to  provide  for  the 
private  necessities  and  welfare  of  individuals.  And  this  persuasion 
is  generated  in  Our  mind  not  only  by  the  knowledge  which  We 
have  of  the  nature  and  powerful  influence  of  the  Church,  but  also 
by  unquestionable  historical  proofs  from  which  it  is  manifest  that 
the  condition  of  civil  society  is  then  most  prosperous  when  the 
Church  enjoys  full  liberty  of  action,  and  that  whenever  she  is 
shackled  by  restrictions,  those  principles  and  doctrines  which  tend 
to  the  fall  and  dissolution  of  all  human  society  begin  to  prevail. 

15.  Since,  then,  this  has  been  long  Our  settled  opinion,  it  was 
natural  that,  from  the  very  beginning  of  Our  Pontificate,  We 
should  strive  to  call  back  princes  and  people  to  peace  and  friendship 
with  the  Church.  And  to  you,  Venerable  Brother,  it  is  certainly 
well  known  that  We  have  for  some  time  directed  Our  efforts  to  the 
end  that  the  noble  nation  of  the^Germans  may  see  the  end  of  its 

5  Translation  from  Keller,  The  Life  and  Acts  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.  343-345.  Original 
Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  n,  pp.  321-323  (1878). 


dissensions  and  obtain  the  blessings  and  fruits  of  a  lasting  peace 
without  injury  to  the  rights  of  the  Church;  and  We  think  that 
you  also  know  that,  as  far  as  We  are  concerned,  We  have  neglected 
no  means  of  arriving  at  an  end  so  noble  and  so  worthy  of  Our 
solicitude.  But  whether  that  which  We  have  undertaken  and  are 
striving  to  effect  will  at  last  be  prosperously  accomplished  He 
knows  from  Whom  comes  everything  that  is  good,  and  Who  has 
implanted  in  Us  so  ardent  a  desire  and  longing  for  peace. 

1 6.  But  whatever  may  be  the  ultimate  issue,  resigning  Our- 
selves to  the  Divine  Will,  but  animated  by  the  same  desire,  We  will 
persevere  in  the  arduous  task  committed  to  Us,  so  long  as  life  shall 
endure.  For  so  great  a  duty  can  not  lawfully  be  postponed  or 
neglected,  while,  by  the  perverted  teaching  of  perfidious  men,  who 
have  thrown  off  all  restraint  of  law,  religious,  political  and  social 
order  is  threatened  with  destruction.  We  should  hold  Ourselves 
to  be  neglecting  the  duty  of  Our  apostolic  ministry  if  We  did  not 
offer  to  human  society,  in  this  most  dangerous  crisis  of  its  existence, 

the  efficacious  remedies  which  the  Church  provides And  that 

this  work  of  salvation  undertaken  by  Us  may  be  more  perfectly 
and  speedily  accomplished,  We  call  upon  you,  Venerable  Brother, 
and  the  illustrious  bishops  of  your  country,  to  strive  together  with 
Us,  with  united  desires  and  efforts,  that  the  faithful  committed  to 
your  charge  may  show  themselves  more  and  more  docile  to  the 
teachings  of  the  Church,  and  may  more  exactly  observe  the  pre- 
scriptions of  the  divine  law,  so  that  the  communication  of  their 
faith  may  be  more  manifest  in  the  acknowledgment  of  every  good 
wor\,  which  is  in  them  in  Christ  Jesus?  Thence  will  result  that 
moderation  and  that  obedience  to  laws  (not  repugnant  to  the  faith 
and  duty  of  a  Catholic)  by  which  they  will  show  themselves  worthy 
to  receive  the  blessings  of  peace  and  to  enjoy  its  happy  fruits.  But 
you  are  perfectly  aware,  Venerable  Brother,  that  Our  endeavors  in 
so  grave  a  matter  will  be  altogether  vain,  unless  We  have  the  bless- 
ing and  help  of  God.  .  .  .  Wherefore  we  must  pour  forth  before 
Him  fervent  supplications  and  prayers,  earnestly  beseeching  Him 
to  enlighten  His  Vicar  on  earth  and  the  bishops 

6  Philemon,  v.  6. 

[17-18]  LEO  xiii 

ENCYCLICAL  Quod  Apostolici  Muneris  ON  SOCIALISM,  COM- 

Neither  peace  nor  tranquillity  remains  in  private  or 
public  life  where  the  subversive  doctrines  of  Socialism, 
Communism  or  Nihilism  are  taught. 

December  28,  1878 

17 You  are  aware,  Venerable  Brethren,  that  the  war- 
fare raised  against  the  Church  by  the  reformers  in  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury still  continues  and  tends  to  this  end,  that  by  the  denial  of  all 
revelation  and  the  suppression  of  the  supernatural  order,  the  reason 
of  man  may  run  riot  in  its  own  conceits.  This  error,  which  unjustly 
derives  its  name  from  reason,  flatters  the  pride  of  man',  loosens  the 
reins  to  all  his  passions,  and  thus  it  has  deceived  many  minds,  whilst 
it  has  made  deep  ravages  on  civil  society.  Hence  it  comes  that,  by 
a  new  sort  of  impiety,  unknown  to  the  pagans,  States  constitute 
themselves  independently  of  God  or  of  the  order  which  He  has 
established.  Public  authority  is  declared  to  derive  neither  its  prin- 
ciple nor  its  power  from  God,  but  from  the  multitude,  which, 
believing  itself  free  from  all  divine  sanction,  obeys  no  laws  but 
such  as  its  own  caprice  has  dictated.  Supernatural  truth  being  re- 
jected as  contrary  to  reason,  the  Creator  and  Redeemer  of  the 
human  race  is  ignored  and  banished  from  the  universities,  the 
lyceums  and  schools,  as  also  from  the  whole  economy  of  human 
life.  The  rewards  and  punishments  of  a  future  and  eternal  life  are 
forgotten  in  the  pursuit  of  present  pleasure.  With  these  doctrines 
widely  spread,  and  this  extreme  license  of  thought  and  action  ex- 
tended everywhere,  it  is  not  surprising  that  men  of  the  lowest  order, 
weary  of  the  poverty  of  their  home  or  of  their  little  workshop, 
should  yearn  to  seize  upon  the  dwellings  and  possessions  of  the 
rich;  that  there  remains  neither  peace  nor  tranquillity  in  private  or 
public  life,  and  that  society  is  brought  to  the  brink  of  destruc- 

1 8.  ...  If,  however,  at  times  it  happens  that  public  power  is 
exercised  by  princes  rashly  and  beyond  bound,  the  Catholic  doctrine 
does  not  allow  subjects  to  rebel  against  a  ruler  by  private  authority, 
lest  the  peaceful  order  be  more  and  more  disturbed  and  society 

T  Translation  from  Keller,  The  Life  and  Acts  of  Pope  Leo  XU\f  pp.  348-352,  Original 
Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  11,  pp.  370-373  (1878). 



suffer  greater  detriment.  And  when  things  have  come  to  such  a 
pass  that  no  other  hope  of  safety  appears,  it  teaches  that  a  speedy 
remedy  is  to  be  sought  from  God  by  the  merit  of  Christian  for- 
bearance and  by  fervent  supplications.  But  if  the  ordinances  of 
legislators  and  princes  sanction  or  command  what  is  contrary  to 
the  divine  or  the  natural  law,  then  the  dignity  of  the  Christian 
name,  our  duty,  and  the  apostolic  precept  proclaim  that  we  must 
obey  God  rather  than  men.8 

LETTER  Ea  Prosperitatis  Omina  TO  EMPEROR  ALEXANDER  OF 

The  Catholic  religion  is  ever  striving  to  bring  peace 
and  harmony  between  subjects  and  rulers  in  all 

April  12,  1880 

19.  Sire:  All  the  prosperity  which,  through  Our  cardinal  pro- 
nuncio  in  Vienna,  We  wished  your  Imperial  Majesty  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  your  accession  to  the  throne, 
We  now  wish  anew  in  this  letter,  praying  from  Our  heart  that  the 
King  of  kings  and  Lord  of  lords  may  fulfill  Our  prayers. 

20.  We  cannot,  however,  forbear  to  profit  by  this  opportunity 
to  appeal  to  your  Majesty,  beseeching  you  to  bestow  your  thoughts 
and  attention  on  the  cruel  condition  of  the  Catholics  belonging  to 
your  vast  empire.    Their  state  fills  Us  with  unceasing  pain  and 
anxiety.  The  deep  zeal  which  moves  Us,  in  the  discharge  of  Our 
office  of  Supreme  Pastor  of  the  Church,  to  provide  for  the  spiritual 
needs  of  these  faithful  Catholics,  should,  it  seems  to  Us,  impel  your 
Majesty,  in  the  midst  of  so  many  political  revolutions,  of  so  many 
convulsions  produced  by  greedy  human  passions,  to  grant  to  the 
Catholic  Church  such  liberty  as  would  assuredly  create  peace,  beget 
fidelity  and  bind  to  your  person  the  trusting  hearts  of  your  subjects. 

21.  Your  Majesty's  sense  of  justice  and  right  moves  Us  to  hope 
that  We  can  both  bring  about  an  accord  entirely  to  Our  mutual 
satisfaction.  For  your  Majesty  cannot  be  ignorant  of  the  fact  that 

8  Acts,  V,  29. 

9  Translation  from  O'Reilly,  Life  of  Leo  XIII,  pp.  373-374-  Original  Latin,  Leonis  XIII 

Pontifids  Maxtmi  Ada,  v.  2,  pp.  61-62  (1882). 


[22-23]  LEO    XIII 

the  Catholic  religion  deems  it  her  duty  everywhere  to  spread  the 
spirit  of  peace  and  to  labor  to  preserve  the  tranquillity  of  kingdoms 
and  peoples.  .  .  . 



The  Church,  in  all  its  dealings  with  governments,  has 
only  one  purpose  in  mind,  to  preserve  Christianity, 

October  22,  1880 

22 It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  the  Catholic  Church 

either  blames  or  condemns  any  form  of  government,  and  the  insti- 
tutions established  by  the  Church  for  the  general  good  can  prosper, 
whether  the  administration  of  the  State  be  entrusted  to  the  power 
and  justice  of  an  individual  or  of  several  And  as,  amid  political 
vicissitudes  and  changes,  it  is  necessary  that  the  Apostolic  See  con- 
tinue to  treat  of  affairs  with  those  who  govern,  it  has  in  view  but 
a  single  thing,  namely,  to  safeguard  Christian  interests;  but  to  in- 
fringe on  the  rights  of  sovereignty,  no  matter  who  those  may  be 
who  exercise  it,  the  Holy  See  never  does  and  never  can  desire.  Nor 
is  it  to  be  doubted  that  people  ought  to  obey  governments  in  every- 
thing that  is  not  contrary  to  justice;  the  maintenance  of  order  that 
is  the  foundation  of  the  public  good  requires  this.  But  it  must  not 
therefore  be  concluded  that  this  obedience  implies  approval  of 
whatever  injustice  there  might  be  in  the  State's  constitution  and 


Leo  XIII  teaches  what  Catholic  doctrine  demands  of 
the  State  and  of  the  citizen  for  the  maintenance  of 
public  order  and  peace. 

June  29,  1881 

23 These  perils  to  commonwealths,  which  are  before 

Our  eyes,  fill  Us  with  grave  anxiety,  when  We  behold  the  .security 

10  Translation  from  Furey,  Life  of  Leo  XIII  and  History  of  His  Pontificate,  p.  199, 

Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  13,  p.  196  (1880). 

11  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  58,  pp.  109-111  (July  16,  1881).   Original  Latin, 

A.S.S.,  v.  14,  pp.  3-14  (1881). 



of  princes  and  the  tranquillity  of  empires,  together  with  the  safety 
of  nations,  put  in  peril  almost  from  hour  to  hour.  Nevertheless, 
the  Divine  power  of  the  Christian  religion  has  given  birth  to  ex- 
cellent principles  of  stability  and  order  for  the  State,  while  at  the 
same  time  it  has  penetrated  into  the  customs  and  institutions  of 
States.  And  of  this  power  not  the  least  nor  last  fruit  is  a  just  and 
wise  proportion  of  mutual  rights  and  duties  in  both  princes  and 
peoples.  For  in  the  precepts  and  examples  of  Christ  Our  Lord  there 
is  a  wonderful  force  for  restraining  in  their  duty  as  much  those  who 
obey  as  those  who  rule,  and  for  keeping  between  them  that  agree- 
ment which  is  most  according  to  nature,  and  that,  so  to  say,  concord 
of  wills,  from  which  arises  a  course  of  administration  which  is 
tranquil  and  free  from  all  disturbance.  Wherefore,  being,  by  the 
favor  of  God,  intrusted  with  the  government  of  the  Catholic 
Church,  and  made  the  Guardian  and  the  Interpreter  of  the  doc- 
trines of  Christ,  We  judge  that  it  belongs  to  Our  jurisdiction, 
Venerable  Brethren,  publicly  to  set  forth  that  which  Catholic  truth 
demands  of  every  one  in  this  sphere  of  duty;  from  which  also  it 
is  made  clear  by  what  way  and  by  what  means  measures  may  be 
taken  for  the  public  safety  in  so  critical  a  state  of  affairs 

24.  There  is  no  question  here  respecting  forms  of  government, 
for  there  is  no  reason  why  the  Church  should  not  approve  of  the 
chief  power  being  held  by  one  man  or  by  more,  provided  only  it  be 
just,  and  that  it  tend  to  the  common  advantage.  Wherefore,  so  long 
as  justice  be  respected}  the  people  are  not  hindered  from  choosing 
for  themselves  that  form  of  government  which  suits  best  either 
their  own  disposition,  or  the  institutions  and  customs  of  their 

25.  But  from  the  time  when  the  civil  society  of  men,  raised 
from  the  ruins  of  the  Roman  Empire,  gave  hope  of  its  future  Chris- 
tian greatness,  the  Roman  Pontiffs  by  the  institution  of  The  Holy 
Empire,  consecrated  the  political  power  in  a  wonderful  manner. 
Greatly,  indeed,  was  the  authority  of  rulers  ennobled;  and  it  is  not 
to  be  doubted  that  what  was  then  instituted  would  always  have 
been  a  very  great  gain,  both  to  ecclesiastical  and  civil  society,  if 
princes  and  peoples  had  ever  looked  to  the  same  object  as  the 
Church.  And,  indeed,  tranquillity  and  a  sufficient  prosperity  lasted 
so  long  as  there  was  a  friendly  agreement  between  these  two  powers. 
If  the  people  were  turbulent,  the  Church  was  at  once  the  mediator 

[26]  LEO    XIII 

for  peace;  and  recalling  all  to  their  duty,  she  subdued  the  more 
lawless  passions  partly  by  kindness  and  partly  by  authority.  So,  if, 
in  ruling,  princes  erred  in  their  government,  she  would  go  to  them 
and,  putting  before  them  the  rights,  needs  and  lawful  wants  of 
their  people,  would  urge  them  to  equity,  mercy  and  kindness. 
Whence  it  was  often  brought  about  that  the  dangers  of  civil  wars 

and  of  tumults  were  stayed 

26.  To  princes  and  other  rulers  of  the  State  We  have  offered 
the  protection  of  religion,  and  We  have  exhorted  the  people  to  make 
abundant  use  of  the  great  benefits  which  the  Church  supplies.  Our 
present  object  is  to  make  princes  understand  that  that  protection 
which  is  stronger  than  any  is  again  offered  to  them;  and  We  earnestly 
exhort  them  in  our  Lord  to  defend  religion,  and  to  consult  the 
interest  of  their  States  by  giving  that  liberty  to  the  Church  which 
cannot  be  taken  away  without  injury  and  ruin  to  the  common- 
wealth. The  Church  of  Christ  indeed  cannot  be  an  object  of 
suspicion  to  rulers,  nor  of  hatred  to  the  people;  for  it  urges  rulers 
to  follow  justice,  and  in  nothing  to  decline  from  their  duty;  while 
at  the  same  time  it  strengthens  and  in  many  ways  supports  their 
authority.  All  things  that  are  of  a  civil  nature  the  Church  acknowl- 
edges and  declares  to  be  under  the  power  and  authority  of  the  ruler: 
and  in  those  things  the  judgment  of  which  belongs,  for  different 
reasons,  both  to  the  sacred  and  to  the  civil  power,  the  Church  wishes 
that  there  should  be  harmony  between  the  two  so  that  injurious 
contests  may  be  avoided.  As  to  what  regards  the  people,  the  Church 
has  been  established  for  the  salvation  of  all  men  and  has  ever  loved 
them  as  a  mother.  For  the  Church  it  is  which  by  the  exercise  of 
its  charity  has  given  gentleness  to  the  minds  of  men,  kindness  to 
their  manners,  and  justice  to  their  laws;  and,  never  opposed  to 
honest  liberty,  she  has  always  detested  a  tyrant's  rule.  This  custom 
which  the  Church  has  ever  had  of  deserving  well  of  mankind  is 
notably  expressed  by  St.  Augustine  when  he  says:  "The  Church 
teaches  Kings  to  study  the  welfare  of  their  people  and  people  to 
submit  to  their  Kings,  showing  what  is  due  to  all:  and  that  to  all 
is  due  charity  and  to  no  one  injustice."12  For  these  reasons,  Venera- 
ble Brethren,  your  work  will  be  most  useful  and  salutary  if  you 
employ  with  Us  every  industry  and  effort  which  God  has  given  to 
you  in  averting  the  dangers  and  evils  of  human  society.  Strive  with 

3-  DC  moribus  Ecclesiae,  bk.  I,  ch.  3o  in  Mignc,  P.L.,  v.  32,  cc.  1336-1337. 


ETSI    NOS'  [27] 

all  possible  care  to  make  men  understand  and  show  forth  in  their 
lives  what  the  Catholic  Church  teaches  on  government  and  the 
duty  of  obedience.  Let  the  people  be  frequently  urged  by  your 
authority  and  teaching  to  fly  from  the  forbidden  sects,  to  abhor 
all  conspiracy,  to  have  nothing  to  do  with  sedition,  and  let  them 
understand  that  they  who,  for  God's  sake,  obey  their  rulers  render 
a  reasonable  service  and  a  generous  obedience.  And  as  it  is  God 
who  gives  safety  to  Kings13  grants  to  the  people  to  rest  in  the 
beauty  of  peace  and  in  the  tabernacles  of  confidence  and  in  wealthy 
repose^  it  is  to  Him  that  we  must  pray,  beseeching  Him  to  incline 
all  minds  to  uprightness  and  truth,  to  calm  angry  passions,  to  re- 
store the  long-wished-for  tranquillity  to  the  world 


Without  Christian  morality  liberty  becomes  license; 
and  turbulence  and  disorder  plague  the  State. 

February  15,  1882 

27 If  Christianity  has  been  to  all  nations  their  strong- 
est safeguard,  the  guardian  of  their  laws  and  the  protectress  of  all 
justice;  if  it  has  held  in  check  blind  and  rash  cupidity,  and  pro- 
moted all  that  is  right,  praiseworthy,  and  great;  if  it  has  bound 
together  in  complete  and  lasting  harmony  the  different  orders  of 
the  commonwealth  and  the  various  members  of  the  State;  if  it  has 
done  this  for  other  nations,  then  in  still  more  abundant  measure 
has  it  conferred  these  benefits  on  Italy.  There  are  many,  far  too 
many,  so  perverse  as  to  repeat  that  the  Church  is  an  obstacle  to 
the  welfare  and  the  development  of  the  State,  and  to  set  down  the 
Roman  Pontificate  as  inimical  to  the  prosperity  and  the  greatness 
of  Italy.  The  truth  is  that  Italy  owes  it  to  the  Roman  Pontiffs 
that  her  glory  has  gone  abroad  to  distant  peoples,  that  she  has 
sustained  the  repeated  attacks  of  barbarians,  that  she  has  repulsed 
the  dreaded  Turk,  that  she  has  so  long  preserved  in  so  many  things 
her  just  and  lawful  liberties,  and  enriched  her  cities  with  so  many 
immortal  works  of  art.  And  it  is  not  the  least  of  the  services  of 

18  Psalms,  CXLIII,  10. 
^Isaias,  XXXII,  18. 

15  Translation  from  The  Dublin  Review,  3rd  Series,  v.  7,  pp.  463-464  (April,  1882), 
Original  Latin,  A,S.S,,  v.  14,  pp.  338-340  (1882). 

[28-29]  *  LEO    XIII 

the  Popes  that  the  various  provinces  of  Italy,  differing  as  they  do 
in  character  and  in  customs,  have  been  kept  united  by  a  common 
faith  and  a  common  religion,  and  free  from  the  most  fatal  of  all 
sources  of  discord.  In  many  times  of  danger  and  calamity  Italy 
would  have  been  nigh  unto  perishing  had  it  not  been  for  the  Popes. 
And,  if  not  prevented  by  human  perversity,  the  Roman  Pontificate 
will  be  as  great  a  blessing  to  her  in  the  future  as  it  has  been  in  the 
past.  The  beneficent  power  of  Catholicism  is  immutable  and  per- 
petual because  it  is  inherent  and  essential  As  the  Catholic  religion 
knows  no  limits  of  space  or  time,  when  the  interests  of  souls  are 
concerned,  so  is  it  everywhere  and  at  every  moment  prepared  to 
further  the  well-being  of  States  and  peoples. 

28.  When  these  good  things  depart,  evil  things  take  their  place; 
for  those  who  reject  the  teachings  of  Christianity,  whatever  they 
may  say  themselves,  are  the  enemies  of  the  commonwealth.   Their 
doctrines  tend  directly  to  dangerous  popular  excitement  and   to 
unrestrained  license  and  cupidity.   In  matters  of  knowledge  and 
science,  they  repudiate  the  divine  light  of  faith;  and  without  faith 
men,  as  a  rule,  err  grievously,  and  are  blind  to  the  truth,  and  with 
difficulty  escape  the  degradations  of  materialism.    In  matters  of 
morality  they  reject  the  everlasting  and  unchangeable  rule  of  right, 
and  despise  God,  the  supreme  Giver  of  laws  and  Avenger  of  wrong; 
and  thus  morality  has  no  foundation  or  sanction,  and  each  man's 
will  becomes  his  law.  In  public  affairs,  their  boasted  liberty  quickly 
becomes  license,  and  where  there  is  license  there  are  turbulence 
and  disorder,  the  worst  plagues  of  the  State. 

29.  Never  have  cities  and  states  been  reduced  to  such  a  condition 
of  horror  and  of  misery  as  when  such  men  and  such  teachings  have 
for  a  time  prevailed.  Did  not  recent  experience  afford  us  examples, 
it  would  be  utterly  incredible  that  men  should  ever  go  to  such 
lengths  of  wickedness,  of  audacity,  and  of  fury  as  we  have  wit- 
nessed, and  should  rush  wildly  into  the  excesses  of  fire  and  blood 
whilst  insulting  the  name  of  liberty  with  their  lips.  If  Italy  has  not 
so  far  been  subjected  to  such  horrors,  it  is,  first  of  all,  the  effect  of 
the  singular  mercy  of  God,  and  it  is  owing,  secondly,  to  the  fact 
that  the  large  majority  of  Italians  are  still  earnest  Catholics,  and  so 
beyond  the  power  of  these  pernicious  teachings.  But  once  the  safe- 
guard of  religion  were  broken  down,  Italy  would  suffer  as  other 
great  peoples  have  suffered. 



LETTER  Benevolentiae  Caritas  TO  THE  BISHOPS  OF  IRELAND.16 

Men  have  a  right  to  claim  the  lawful  redress  of  their 
wrongs;  but  a  nations  welfare  cannot  be  procured  by 
dishonor  and  crime. 

August  i,  1882 

30.  The  kindly  affection  which  We  cherish  toward  Irishmen,  and 
which  seems  to  increase  with  their  present  sufferings,  forces  Us  to 
follow  the  course  of  events  in  your  island  with  the  deep  concern 
of  a  fatherly  heart.  From  their  consideration,  however,  We  derive 
more  of  anxiety  than  of  comfort,  seeing  that  the  condition  of  the 
people  is  not  what  We  wish  it  to  be,  one  of  peace  and  prosperity. 

31.  There  still  remain  many  sources  of  grievance;  conflicting 
party  passions  incite  many  persons  to  violent  courses;  some  even 
have  stained  themselves  with  fearful  murders,  as  if  a  nation's  welfare 
could  be  procured  by  dishonor  and  crime! 

32.  This  state  of  things  is  to  you  as  well  as  to  Us  a  cause  of  seri- 
ous alarm,  as  We  had  evidence  of  ere  now,  and  as  We  have  just 
noticed  by  the  resolutions  adopted  in  your  meeting  at  Dublin.  Fear- 
ful as  you  were  for  the  salvation  of  your  people,  you  have  clearly 
shown  them  what  they  have  to  refrain  from  in  the  present  critical 
conjuncture  and  in  the  very  midst  of  the  national  struggle. 

33.  In  this  you  have  discharged  the  duty  imposed  alike  by  your 
episcopal  office  and  your  love  of  country.  At  no  time  do  a  people 
more  need  the  advice  of  their  bishops  than  when,  carried  away  by 
some  powerful  passion,  they  see  before  them  deceptive  prospects 
of  bettering  their  condition.  It  is  when  impelled  to  commit  what 
is  criminal  and  disgraceful  that  the  multitude  need  the  voice  and 
the  hand  of  the  bishop  to  keep  them  back  from  doing  wrong, 
and  to  recall  them  by  timely  exhortation  to  moderation  and  self- 
control.    Most  timely,  therefore,  was  your  advice  to  your  people, 
reminding  them  of  the  Saviour's  injunction,  SeeJ^  ye  first  the  'king- 
dom of  God  and  His  justice?1  For  all  Christians  are  therein  com- 
manded to  keep  their  thoughts  fixed,  in  their  ordinary  conduct  as 
well  as  in  their  political  acts,  on  the  goal  of  their  eternal  salvation, 
and  to  hold  all  things  subordinate  to  their  duty  to  God. 

16  Translation  from  O'Reilly,  Life  of  Leo  XIII,  pp.  426-429.   Original  Latin,  A.S.S., 

v.  15,  PP-  97-99  (1882). 

17  Matthew,  VI,  33. 

[34-38]  LEO    XIII 

34.  If  Irishmen  will  only  keep  to  these  rules  of  conduct  they  will 
be  free  to  seek  to  rise  from  the  state  of  misery  into  which  they 
have  fallen.   They  surely  have  a  right  to  claim  the  lawful  redress 
of  their  wrongs.   For  no  one  can  maintain  that  Irishmen  cannot 
do  what  it  is  lawful  for  all  other  peoples  to  do. 

35.  Nevertheless  even  the  public  welfare  must  be  regulated  by 
the  principles  of  honesty  and  righteousness.  It  is  a  matter  for  serious 
thought  that  the  most  righteous  cause  is  dishonored  by  being  pro- 
moted by  iniquitous  means.  Justice  is  inconsistent  not  only  with 
all  violence,  but  especially  so  with  any  participation  in  the  deeds 
of  unlawful  societies,  which,  under  the  fair  pretext  of  righting 
wrong,  bring  all  communities  to  the  verge  of  ruin.   Just  as  Our 
Predecessors  have  taught  that  all  right-minded  men  should  carefully 
shun  these  dark  associations,  even  so  you  have  added  your  timely 
admonition  to  the  same  effect 

36.  ...  As  We  have  already  declared  to  you,  We  trust  still  that 
the  government  will  conclude  to  grant  satisfaction  to  the  just  claims 
of  Irishmen.  This  We  are  led  to  believe  from  their  acquaintance 
with  the  true  state  of  things  and  from  their  statesmanlike  wisdom; 
for  there  can  be  no  question  that  on  the  safety  of  Ireland  depends 
the  tranquillity  of  the  whole  empire. 

37.  Meanwhile,  sustained  by  this  hope,  We  shall  lose  no  oppor- 
tunity of  helping  the  Irish  people  by  Our  advice,  pouring  forth  to 
God  for  them  prayers  filled  with  the  warmest  zeal  and  love,  beseech- 
ing God  to  look  down  with  kindness  on  a  nation  made  illustrious  by 
the  practice  of  so  many  virtues,  to  appease  the  present  storm  of 
political  passion,  and  to  reward  them  at  length  with  peace  and 
prosperity.  .  .  . 


The  fundamental  principle  of  concord  in  the  State  as 
well  as  in  the  Church  is  obedience  to  lawful  authority. 

December  8,  1882 

38 It  is,  then,  right  to  look  on  religion,  and  whatever  is 

connected  by  any  particular  bond  with  it,  as  belonging  to  a  higher 

16 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  61,  pp.  9-10  (January  6,  1883).   Original  Latin, 
A.S.S.,  v,  15,  pp.  243-246  (1882). 

CUM    MULTA  [39-41] 

order.  Hence,  in  the  vicissitudes  of  human  affairs,  and  even  in  the 
very  revolutions  in  States,  religion,  which  is  the  supreme  good, 
should  remain  intact;  for  it  embraces  all  times  and  all  places.  Men 
of  opposite  parties,  though  differing  in  all  else,  should  be  agreed 
unanimously  in  this:  that  in  the  State  the  Catholic  religion  should 
be  preserved  in  all  its  integrity.  To  this  noble  and  indispensable 
aim,  all  who  love  the  Catholic  religion  ought,  as  if  bound  by  a 
compact,  to  direct  all  their  efforts;  they  should  be  somewhat  silent 
about  their  various  political  opinions,  which  they  are,  however,  at 
perfect  liberty  to  ventilate  in  their  proper  place:  for  the  Church 
is  far  from  condemning  such  matters,  when  they  are  not  opposed 
to  religion  or  justice;  apart  and  removed  from  all  the  turmoil  of 
strife,  she  carries  on  her  work  of  fostering  the  common  weal,  and 
of  cherishing  all  men  with  the  love  of  a  mother,  those  particularly 
whose  faith  and  piety  are  greatest. 

39.  The  fundamental  principle  of  this  concord  of  which  We 
speak  is  at  once  the  same  in  religion  and  in  every  rightly  constituted 
State;  it  is  obedience  to  the  lawful  authority  which  orders,  forbids, 
directs,  legislates,  and  thus  establishes  harmonious  union  amid  the 
diverse  minds  of  men.   We  shall  here  have  to  repeat  some  well- 
known  truths,  which,  however,  ought  not  to  be  the  subjects  of 
mere  speculative  knowledge,  but  should  become  rules  applicable 
to  the  practice  of  life. 

40.  Now,  even  as  the  Roman  Pontiff  is  the  Teacher  and  Prince 
of  the  Universal  Church,  so  likewise  are  bishops  the  rulers  and  chiefs 
of  the  churches  that  have  been  duly  intrusted  to  them.   Each  has 
within  his  own  jurisdiction  the  power  of  leading,  supporting,  or 
correcting,  and  generally  of  deciding  in  such  matters  as  may  seem 
to  affect  religion.  .  .  .  We  see,  therefore,  that  bishops  should  have 
paid  to  them  that  respect  which  the  eminence  of  their  charge  exacts, 
and  receive  in  all  matters  within  their  office  a  perfect  obedience. 

41.  In  face  of  the  passions  that  at  this  moment  are  troubling  the 
minds  of  so  many  in  Spain,  We  exhort,  nay,  We  conjure,  all 
Spaniards  to  recall  this  so  important  duty  and  to  fulfill  it  with  all 
zeal.  Let  those  especially  who  are  of  the  clergy,  and  whose  words 
and  example  exercise  such  potent  influence,  scrupulously  apply 
themselves  to  observe  moderation  and  obedience.  For  be  it  known 
to  them  that  their  toil  in  the  fulfillment  of  their  duties  will  be 
most  profitable  to  themselves  and  efficacious  to  their  neighbor. 

[42-43]  LEO 

when  they  follow  in  full  submission  the  guidance  of  him  who  is 
placed  over  them  as  head  of  the  diocese.  Assuredly  it  is  not  conduct 
consonant  with  the  duties  of  the  priesthood  to  give  oneself  up  so 
entirely  to  the  rivalries  of  parties  as  to  appear  more  busy  with  the 
things  of  men  than  with  those  of  God.  .  .  . 

42.  We  deem  those  associations  peculiarly  fitted  to  aid  them 
in  this  work  which  are,  so  to  speak,  the  auxiliary  forces  destined 
to  support  the  interests  of  the  Catholic  religion;  and  We  approve, 
therefore,  their  object  and  the  energy  they  display;  We  ardently 
desire  that  they  may  increase  in  number  and  in  zeal,  and  that  from 
day  to  day  their  fruits  may  be  more  abundant.  But  since  the  object 
of  such  societies  is  the  defense  and  encouragement  of  Catholic 
interests,  and  as  it  is  the  bishops  who,  each  in  their  proper  diocese, 
have  to  watch  over  those  interests,  it  naturally  follows  that  they 
should  be  controlled  by  their  bishops,  and  should  set  great  value 
on  their  authority  and  commands.   In  the  next  place  they  should 
with  equal  care  apply  themselves  to  preserving  union,  first,  because 
on  the  agreement  of  men's  wills  all  the  power  and  influence  of 
any  human  society  depends;  and  next,  because  in  the  societies  of 
which  We  speak  that  mutual  charity  should  especially  be  found 
which  necessarily  accompanies  good  works  and  is  the  characteristic 
trait  of  those  whom  Christian  discipline  has  moulded.  Now  as  it 
may  easily  happen  that  the  members  may  differ  on  politics,  they 
should  recall  to  themselves  the  aim  of  all  Catholic  associations,  and 
thereby  prevent  political  partisanship  from  disturbing  their  cordial 
unity.  .  .  . 

43.  Lastly,  it  is  most  important  that  those  who  defend  the  in- 
terests of  religion  in  the  Press,  and  particularly  in  the  daily  papers, 
should  take  up  the  same  attitude.  We  are  aware  of  the  objects  they 
strive  to  attain  and  the  intentions  with  which  they  have  entered 
the  arena,  and  We  cannot  but  concede  to  them  well-earned  praise 
for  their  good  service  to  the  Catholic  religion.    But  so  lofty,  so 
noble,  is  the  cause  to  which  they  have  devoted  themselves,  that  it 
exacts  from  the  defenders  of  truth  and  justice  a  rigorous  observance 
of  numerous  duties  which  they  must  not  fail  to  fulfill;  and  in 
seeking  to  accomplish  some  of  these,  the  others  must  not  be  neg- 
lected.   The   admonitions,   therefore,   which   We   have  given   to 
associations,  We  likewise  give  to  writers;  We  exhort  them  to  re- 
move all  dissensions  by  their  gentleness  and  moderation,  and  to 



preserve  concord  amongst  themselves  and  in  the  people,  for  the 
influence  of  writers  is  great  on  either  side.  But  nothing  can  be 
more  opposed  to  concord  than  biting  words,  rash  judgments,  or 
perfidious  insinuations,  and  everything  of  this  kind  should  be 
shunned  with  the  greatest  care  and  held  in  the  utmost  abhorrence. 
A  discussion  in  which  are  concerned  the  sacred  rights  of  the 
Church  and  the  doctrines  of  the  Catholic  religion  should  not  be 
acrimonious,  but  calm  and  temperate;  it  is  weight  of  reasoning, 
and  not  violence  and  bitterness  of  language,  which  must  win  vic- 
tory for  the  Catholic  writer. 

44.  These  rules  of  conduct  will  be,  in  Our  judgment,  of  great 
use  in  removing  the  causes  which  impede  perfect  concord.  It  will 
be  your  task,  Beloved  Sons,  Venerable  Brethren,  to  explain  Our 
thoughts  to  the  people  and  to  endeavor  to  the  utmost  of  your 
power  to  make  all  conform  their  lives  to  the  rules  We  have  here 
laid  down 

ENCYCLICAL  Nobilissima  Gallorum  Gens  TO  THE  BISHOPS  OF 


The  State  and  the  Church  are  two  perfect  societies  and, 
as  such,  can  and  should  wor\  together  in  perfect  har- 
mony and  peace. 

February  8,  1884 

45 As   there   are   on   earth   two   principal   societies, 

the  one  civil,  the  proximate  end  of  which  is  the  temporal  and 
worldly  good  of  the  human  race;  the  other  religious,  whose  office 
it  is  to  lead  mankind  to  that  true,  heavenly  and  everlasting  happi- 
ness for  which  we  are  created;  so  these  are  twin  powers,  both 
subordinate  to  the  eternal  law  of  nature,  and  each  working  for 
its  own  ends  in  matters  concerning  its  own  order  and  domain. 
But  when  anything  has  to  be  settled  which  for  different  reasons 
and  in  a  different  way  concerns  both  powers,  necessity  and  pub- 
lic utility  demand  that  an  agreement  shall  be  effected  between 
them,  without  which  an  uncertain  and  unstable  condition  of  things 
will  be  the  result,  totally  inconsistent  with  the  peace  either  of 

^Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  63,  p.  242  (February  16,  1884).   Original  Latin, 
A.S.S.,  v.  1 6,  pp.  244-245  (1906,  Reprint  ed.). 


[  46  ]  L  E  O     X  1 1 1 

Church  or  State.  When,  therefore,  a  solemn  public  compact  has 
been  made  between  the  sacred  and  the  civil  power,  then  it  is  as 
much  the  interest  of  the  State  as  it  is  just  that  the  compact  should 
remain  inviolate;  because,  as  each  power  has  services  to  render  to 
the  other,  a  certain  and  reciprocal  advantage  is  enjoyed  and  con- 
ferred by  each. 

46.  In  France,  at  the  beginning  of  this  century,  after  the 
previous  public  commotions  and  terrors  had  subsided,  the  rulers 
themselves  understood  that  they  could  not  more  effectually  relieve 
the  State,  wearied  with  so  many  ruins,  than  by  the  restoration  of 
the  Catholic  religion.  In  anticipation  of  future  advantages.  Our 
Predecessor,  Pius  VII,  spontaneously  acceded  to  the  desire  of  the 
First  Consul,  and  acted  as  indulgently  as  was  consistent  with  his 
duty.  And  when  an  agreement  was  reached  as  regarded  the  prin- 
cipal points,  the  bases  were  laid,  and  a  safe  course  marked  out  for 
the  restoration  and  gradual  establishment  of  religion.  Many  pru- 
dent regulations,  indeed,  were  made  at  that  and  at  subsequent  times 
for  the  safety  and  honor  of  the  Church.  And  great  were  the 
advantages  derived  therefrom,  which  were  all  the  more  to  be  val- 
ued in  consequence  of  the  state  of  prostration  and  oppression  into 
which  religion  had  been  brought  in  France.  With  the  restoration 
of  public  dignity  to  religion,  Christian  institutions  manifestly  re- 
vived; and  it  was  wonderful  what  an  increase  of  civil  prosperity 
was  the  result.  For  when  the  State  had  scarcely  emerged  from  the 
tempestuous  waves  and  was  anxiously  looking  for  firm  foundations 
on  which  to  base  tranquillity  and  public  order,  it  found  the  very 
thing  which  it  desired  opportunely  offered  to  it  by  the  Catholic 
Church,  so  that  it  was  apparent  that  the  idea  of  effecting  an  agree- 
ment with  the  latter  was  the  outcome  of  a  prudent  mind  and  a 
true  regard  for  the  people's  welfare.  Wherefore,  if  there  were  no 
other  reasons  for  it,  the  same  motive  which  led  to  the  work  of 
pacification  being  undertaken,  ought  now  to  operate  for  its  main- 
tenance. For — now  that  the  desire  of  innovation  has  been  enkindled 
everywhere,  and  in  the  existing  uncertainty  as  to  the  future — to  sow 
fresh  seeds  of  discord  between  the  two  powers,  and  by  the  interposi- 
tion of  obstacles  to  fetter  or  delay  the  beneficial  action  of  the  Church, 
would  be  a  course  void  of  wisdom  and  full  of  peril 


HUMANUM    GENUS  [47~$  ] 


Against  false  accusations,  the  Pope  teaches  that  the  State 
and  Church  together  can  promote  public  order  and 

April  20,  1884 

47 The  Church,  if  she  directs  men  to  render  obedience 

chiefly  and  above  all  to  God,  the  sovereign  Lord,  is  wrongly  and 
falsely  believed  either  to  be  envious  of  the  civil  power  or  to  arrogate 
to  herself  something  of  the  rights  of  sovereigns.  On  the  contrary, 
she  teaches  that  what  is  rightly  due  to  the  civil  power  must  be 
rendered  to  it  with  a  conviction  and  consciousness  of  duty.  In 
teaching  that  from  God  Himself  comes  the  right  of  ruling,  she  adds 
a  great  dignity  to  civil  authority,  and  no  small  help  towards  obtain- 
ing the  obedience  and  good-will  of  the  citizens.  The  friend  of 
peace  and  sustainer  of  concord,  she  embraces  all  with  maternal 
love;  and,  intent  only  upon  giving  help  to  moral  man,  she  teaches 
that  to  justice  must  be  joined  clemency,  equity  to  authority,  and 
moderation  to  law-giving;  that  no  one's  right  must  be  violated; 
that  order  and  public  tranquillity  are  to  be  maintained;  and  that 
the  poverty  of  those  who  are  in  need  is,  as  far  as  possible,  to  be 
relieved  by  public  and  private  charity 


Leo  XIII  presents  an  acceptable  solution  for  this  dispute. 
October  22,  1885 

48.  The  discovery  made  by  Spain,  in  the  sixteenth  century, 
of  the  islands  forming  the  archipelago  of  the  Carolines  and  the 
Palaos,  and  the  series  of  acts  accomplished  in  these  same  islands 
by  the  Spanish  Government  for  the  benefit  of  the  natives,  have 
created,  in  the  conviction  of  the  said  government  and  of  the  nation, 
a  title  of  sovereignty,  founded  upon  the  principles  of  international 
law  which  are  quoted  and  obeyed  in  our  days  in  similar  cases. 

20  Translation  from  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.   100-101. 

Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  16,  p.  429  (1906,  reprint  ed.). 

21  Translation  from  Talbot,  Pope  Leo  Xlll;  His  Life  and  Letters,  pp.  362-363.  Original 

French,  Miiller,  Das  Friedenswer\  der  Kirche,  pp.  325-326. 


[49-51]  LEO   xni 

49.  And,  in  fact,  when  we  consider  the  sum  of  the  above-men- 
tioned acts,  the  authenticity  of  which  is  confirmed  by  various  docu- 
ments  in   the   archives   of  Propaganda,   we   cannot   mistake   the 
beneficent  course  of  Spain  in  regard  to  these  islanders.   It  is,  more- 
Jover,  to  be  observed  that  no  other  government  has  exercised  a  like 
action  towards  them.   This  explains  what  must  be  kept  in  mind, 
—  the  constant  tradition  and  conviction  of  the  Spanish  people  in 
respect  to  that  sovereignty,  —  a  tradition  and  a  conviction  which 
were  manifested  two  months  ago,  with  an  ardor  and  an  animosity 
capable  of  compromising  for  an  instant  the  internal  peace  of  two 
friendly  governments  and  their  mutual  relations. 

50.  On  the  other  hand,  Germany,  as  well  as  England,  declared 
expressly  in  1875  to  the  Spanish  Government,  that  she  did  not 
recognize  the  sovereignty  of  Spain  over  these  islands.  The  Imperial 
Government  holds  that  it  is  the  effectual  occupation  of  a  territory 
which  constitutes  the  origin  of  the  right  of  sovereignty  over  it,  and 
that  such  occupation  has  never  been  realized  by  Spain  in  the  case 
of  the  Carolines.  It  has  acted  in  conformity  with  that  principle  in 
the  Island  of  Yap;  and  in  this  the  Mediator  is  happy  to  recognize,  as 
the  Spanish  Government  has  also  done,  the  loyalty  of  the  Imperial 

51.  In  consequence,  and  in  order  that  this  divergence  of  views 
between  the  two  States  may  be  no  obstacle  to  an  honorable  ar- 
rangement, the  Mediator,  having  weighed  all  things,  proposes  that 
the  new  arrangement  should  adopt  the  formulas  of  the  protocol 
relating  to  the  Archipelago  of  Jolo,  signed  at  Madrid  on  the  7th 
of  March  last,  by  the  representatives  of  Great  Britain,  of  Germany 
and  of  Spain;  and  that  the  following  points  be  observed: 

(1)  Affirmation  of  the  sovereignty  of  Spain  over  the  Carolines 
and  the  Palaos. 

(2)  The  Spanish  Government,  in  order  to  render  this  sovereignty 
effectual,  undertakes  to  establish  as  quickly  as  possible,  in  the  archi- 
pelago .in  question,  a  regular  administration,  with  a  sufficient  force 
to  guarantee  order  and  the  rights  acquired. 

(3)  Spain  offers  to  Germany  full  and  entire  liberty  of  com- 
merce, of  navigation,  and  of  fishery  within  the  islands,  as  also  the 
right  of  establishing  a  naval  and  a  coaling  station. 

(4)  Spain  also  assures  to  Germany  the  liberty  of  plantation 
within  the  islands,  and  of  the  foundation  of  agricultural  establish- 


IMMORTALE    DEI  [52'53] 

ments  upon  the  same  footing  as  that  of  undertakings  by  Spanish 



All  public  power  proceeds  from  God  and,  therefore,  a 
State  from  which  religion  is  banished  can  never  be  well 

November  i,  1885 

52 It  is  not  difficult  to  determine  what  would  be  the 

form  and  character  of  the  State  were  it  governed  according  to 
the  principles  of  Christian  philosophy.  Man's  natural  instinct 
moves  him  to  live  in  civil  society,  for  he  cannot,  if  dwelling  apart, 
provide  himself  with  the  necessary  requirements  of  life,  nor  procure 
the  means  of  developing  his  mental  and  moral  faculties.  Hence,  it 
is  divinely  ordained  that  he  should  lead  his  life  —  be  it  family, 
social,  or  civil  —  with  his  fellowmen,  amongst  whom  alone  his 
several  wants  can  be  adequately  supplied.  But  as  no  society  can 
hpld  together  unless  some  one  be  over  all,  directing  all  to  strive 
earnestly  for  the  common  good,  every  civilized  community  must 
have  a  ruling  authority,  and  this  authority,  no  less  than  society  it- 
self, has  its  source  in  nature,  and  has,  consequently,  God  for  its 
Author.  Hence,  it  follows  that  all  public  power  must  proceed 
from  God:  for  God  alone  is  the  true  and  supreme  Lord  of  the 
world.  Everything,  without  exception,  must  be  subject  to  Him, 
and  must  serve  Him,  so  that  whosoever  holds  the  right  to  govern, 
holds  it  from  one  sole  and  single  Source,  namely  God,  the  Sovereign 
Ruler  of  all.  There  is  no  power  but  from  God.23 

53.  The  right  to  rule  is  not  necessarily,  however,  bound  up 
with  any  special  mode  of  government.  It  may  take  this  or  that 
form,  provided  only  that  it  be  of  a  nature  to  insure  the  general 
welfare.  But  whatever  be  the  nature  of  the  government,  rulers 
must  ever  bear  in  mind  that  God  is  the  paramount  Ruler  of  the 
world,  and  must  set  Him  before  themselves  as  their  exemplar  and 
law  in  the  administration  of  the  State.  For,  in  things  visible,  God 

22  Translation  from  The  Catholic  Mind,  v,  34,  n.  21,  pp.  426-448  (November  8,  1936). 
Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  18,  pp.  162-179  (1885). 
/,  XIII,  i. 

[54-55]  LEO  XIH 

has  fashioned  secondary  causes  in  which  His  divine  action  can  in 
some  wise  be  discerned,  leading  up  to  the  end  to  which  the  course 
of  the  world  is  ever  tending.  In  like  manner  in  civil  society,  God 
has  always  willed  that  there  should  be  a  ruling  authority,  and  that 
they  who  are  invested  with  it  should  reflect  the  divine  power  and 
providence  in  some  measure  over  the  human  race. 

54.  They,  therefore,  who  rule  should  rule  with  even-handed 
justice,  not  as  masters,  but  rather  as  fathers,  for  the  rule  of  God 
over  man  is  most  just,  and  is  tempered  always  with  a  father's 
kindness.  Government  should  moreover  be  administered  for  the 
well-being  of  the  citizens,  because  they  who  govern  others  possess 
authority  solely  for  the  welfare  of  the  State.  Furthermore,  the  civil 
power  must  not  be  subservient  to  the  advantage  of  any  one  indi- 
vidual, or  of  some  few  persons;  inasmuch  as  it  was  established  for 
the  common  good  of  all.  But  if  those  who  are  in  authority  rule 
unjustly,  if  they  govern  overbearingly  or  arrogantly,  and  if  their 
measures  prove  hurtful  to  the  people,  they  must  remember  that  the 
Almighty  will  one  day  bring  them  to  account,  the  more  strictly  in 
proportion  to  the  sacredness  of  their  office  and  pre-eminence  of 
their  dignity.  The  mighty  shall  be  mightily  tormented?4"  Then 
truly  will  the  majesty  of  the  law  meet  with  the  dutiful  and  willing 
homage  of  the  people,  when  they  are  convinced  that  their  rulers 
hold  authority  from  God,  and  feel  that  it  is  a  matter  of  justice  and 
duty  to  obey  them,  and  to  show  them  reverence  and  fealty,  united 
to  a  love  not  unlike  that  which  children  show  their  parents.  Let 
every  soul  be  subject  to  higher  powers.25  To  despise  legitimate 
authority,  in  whomsoever  vested,  is  unlawful,  as  a  rebellion  against 
the  Divine  Will;  and  whoever  resists  that  rushes  wilfully  to  de- 
struction. He  that  resisteth  the  power  resisteth  the  ordinance  of 
God,  and  they  that  resist,  purchase  to  themselves  damnation?^  To 
cast  aside  obedience  and  by  popular  violence  to  incite  to  revolt,  is, 
therefore,  treason,  not  against  man  only,  but  against  God 

55.  It  is  a  public  crime  to  act  as  though  there  were  no  God. 
So,  too,  is  it  a  sin  in  the  State  not  to  have  care  for  religion,  as  a 
something  beyond  its  scope,  or  as  of  no  practical  benefit;  or  out  of 
many  forms  of  religion  to  adopt  that  one  which  chimes  in  with  the 

24  Wisdom,  VT,  7. 
~5  Romans,  XIII,  i. 
26  Romans,  XIII,  2. 


IMMORTALE     DEI  [  5^-57  ] 

fancy;  for  we  are  bound  absolutely  to  worship  God  in  that  way 
which  He  has  shown  to  be  His  will.  All  who  rule,  therefore, 
should  hold  in  honor  the  holy  Name  of  God,  and  one  o£  their  chief 
duties  must  be  to  favor  religion,  to  protect  it,  to  shield  it  under 
the  credit  and  sanction  of  the  laws,  and  neither  to  organize  nor 
enact  any  measures  that  may  compromise  its  safety.  This  is  the 
bouncjen  duty  of  rulers  to  the  people  over  whom  they  rule :  for  one 
and  ajl  we  are  destined,  by  our  birth  and  adoption,  to  enjoy,  when 
this  frail  and  fleeting  life  is  ended,  a  supreme  and  final  good  in 
heaven,  and  to  the  attainment  of  this  every  endeavor  should  be 
directed.  Since,  then,  upon  this  depends  the  full  and  perfect  happi- 
ness of  mankind,  the  securing  of  this  end  should  be,  of  all  imagin- 
able interests,  the  most  urgent.  Hence,  civil  society,  established  for 
the  common  welfare,  should  not  only  safeguard  the  well-being  of 
the  community,  but  have  also  at  heart  the  interests  of  its  individual 
members,  in  such  mode  as  not  in  any  way  to  hinder,  but  in  every 
manner  to  render  as  easy  as  may  be,  the  possession  of  that  highest 
and  unchangeable  good  for  which  all  should  seek.  Wherefore,  for 
this  purpose,  care  must  especially  be  taken  to  preserve  unharmed 
and  unimpeded  the  religion  whereof  the  practice  is  the  link  con- 
necting man  with  his  God 

56.  The  Almighty,  therefore,  has  appointed  the  charge  of  the 
human  race  between  two  powers,  the  ecclesiastical  and  the  divine, 
the  one  being  set  over  divine,  and  the  other  over  human  things. 
Each  in  its  kind  is  supreme,  each  has  fixed  limits  within  which  it 
is  contained,  limits  which  are  defined  by  the  nature  and  special 
object  of  the  province  of  each,  so  that  there  is,  we  may  say,  an  orbit 
traced  out  within  which  the  action  of  each  is  brought  into  play  by 
its  own  native  right. 

57.  ...  There  must,  accordingly,  exist,  between  these  two  pow- 
ers, a  certain  orderly  connection,  which  may  be  compared  to  the 
union  of  the  soul  and  body  in  man.  The  nature  and  scope  of  that 
connection  can  be  determined  only,  as  We  have  laid  down,  by 
having  regard  to  the  nature  of  each  power,  and  by  taking  account 
of  the  relative  excellence  and  nobleness  of  their  purpose.    One  of 
the  two  fias  for  its  proximate  and  chief  object  the  well-being  of 
this  mortal  life;  the  other  the  everlasting  joys  of  heaven.  Whatever, 
therefore,  in  things  human  is  of  a  sacred  character,  whatever  be- 
longs either  of  its  own  nature  or  by  reason  of  the  end  to  which  it 


[58-61]  LEO    XIII 

is  referred,  to  the  salvation  of  souls,  or  to  the  worship  of  God,  is 
subject  to  the  power  and  judgment  of  the  Church.  Whatever  is  to 
be  ranged  under  the  civil  and  political  order  is  rightly  subject  to 
the  civil  authority.  Jesus  Christ  has  Himself  given  command  that 
what  is  Cesar's  is  to  be  rendered  to  Caesar,  and  that  what  belongs 
to  God  is  to  be  rendered  to  God. 

58.  There  are,  nevertheless,  occasions  when  another  method 
of  concord  is  available,  for  the  sake  of  peace  and  liberty:  We  mean 
when  rulers  of  the  State  and  the  Roman  Pontiff  come  to  an  under- 
standing touching  some  special  matter.  At  such  times  the  Church 
gives  signal  proof  of  her  motherly  love  by  showing  the  greatest 
possible  kindliness-  and  indulgence 

59.  ...  To  exclude  the  Church,  founded  by  God  Himself,  from 
the  business  of  life,  from  the  power  of  making  laws,  from  the 
training  of  youth,  from  domestic  society,  is  a  grave  and  fatal  error. 
A  State  from  which  religion  is  banished  can  never  be  well  regu- 
lated; and  already  perhaps  more  than  is  desirable  is  known  of  the 
nature  and  tendency  of  the  so-called  civil  philosophy  of  life  and 
morals.  The  Church  of  Christ  is  the  true  and  sole  teacher  of  virtue 
and  guardian  of  morals.  She  it  is  who  preserves  in  their  purity  the 
principles  from  which  duties  flow,  and  by  setting  forth  most  urgent 
reasons  for  virtuous  life,  bids  us  not  only  to  turn  away  from  wicked 
deeds,  but  even  to  curb  all  movements  of  the  mind  that  are  op- 
posed to  reason;  even  though  they  be  not  carried  out  in  action. 

60.  To  wish  the  Church  to  be  subject  to  the  civil  power  in  the 
exercise  of  her  duty  is  a  great  folly  and  a  sheer  injustice.  Whenever 
this  is  the  case,  order  is  disturbed,  for  things  natural  are  put  above 
things  supernatural;  the  many  benefits  which  the  Church,  if  free 
to  act,  would  confer  on  society  are  either  prevented  or  at  least 
lessened  in  number;   and  a  way  is  prepared  for  enmities  and 
contentions  between  the  two  powers;  with  how  evil  result  to  both 
the  issue  of  events  has  taught  us  only  too  frequently 

61.  In  the  same  way  the  Church  cannot  approve  of  that  liberty 
which  begets  a  contempt  of  the  most  sacred  laws  of  God,  and  casts 
off  the  obedience  due  to  lawful  authority,  for  this  is  not  liberty  so 
much  as  license,  and  is  most  correctly  styled  by  St.  Augustine  the 
"liberty  of  self-ruin,"27  and  by  the  Apostle,  St.  Peter,  the  doa\  for 

CV  ad  Donatistas,  c.  II,  n.  9  in  Migne  P.L.,  v.  33,  c.  899. 

IMMORTALE    DEI  [62-63] 

malice?*  Indeed,  since  it  is  opposed  to  reason,  it  is  a  true  slavery, 
for  whosoever  committeth  sin  is  the  servant  of  sin.2Q  On  the  other 
hand,  that  liberty  is  truly  genuine,  and  to  be  sought  after,  which  in 
regard  to  the  individual  does  not  allow  men  to  be  the  slaves  of 
error  and  of  passion,  the  worst  of  all  masters;  which,  too,  in  public 
administration  guides  the  citizens  in  wisdom  and  provides  for 
them  increased  means  of  well-being;  and  which,  further,  protects 
the  State  from  foreign  interference. 

62.  This  honorable  liberty,  alone  worthy  of  human  beings,  the 
Church  approves  most  highly  and  has  never  slackened  her  endeavor 
to  preserve,  strong  and  unchanged,  among  nations.   And  in  truth 
whatever  in  the  State  is  of  chief  avail  for  the  common  welfare; 
whatever  has  been  usefully  established  to  curb  the  license  of  rulers 
who  are  opposed  to  the  true  interests  of  the  people,  or  to  prevent 
governments  from  unwarrantably  interfering  in  municipal  or  fam- 
ily affairs; — whatever  tends  to  uphold  the  honor,  manhood  and 
equal  rights  of  individual  citizens;  —  of  all  these  things,  as  the 
monuments  of  past  ages  bear  witness,  the  Catholic  Church  has 
always  been  the  originator,  the  promoter,  or  the  guardian.   Ever, 
therefore,  consistent  with  herself,  while  on  the  one  hand  she  rejects 
that  exorbitant  liberty  which  in  individuals  and  in  nations  ends 
in  license  or  in  thraldom,  on  the  other  hand,  she  willingly  and  most 
gladly  welcomes  whatever  improvements  the  age  brings  forth,  if 
these  really  secure  the  prosperity  of  life  here  below,  which  is  as  it 
were  a  stage  in  the  journey  to  the  life  that  will  know  no  end- 

63.  All  this,  though  so  reasonable  and  full  of  counsel,  finds 
little  favor  nowadays,  when  States  not  only  refuse  to  conform  to 
the  rules  of  Christian  wisdom,  but  seem  even  anxious  to  recede 
from  them  further  and  further  on  each  successive  day.  Nevertheless, 
since  truth  when  brought  to  light  is  wont,  of  its  own  nature,  to 
spread  itself  far  and  wide,  and  gradually  take  possession  of  the 
minds  of  men,  We,  moved  by  the  great  and  holy  duty  of  Our 
Apostolic  mission  to  all  nations,  speak,  as  We  are  bound  to  do,  with 
freedom.   Our  eyes  are  not  closed  to  the  spirit  of  the  times.   We 
repudiate  not  the  assured  and  useful  improvements  of  our  age,  but 
devoutly  wish  affairs  of  .State  to  take  a  safer  course  than  they  are 

28IP<f/<?r,II,  1 6. 

29  John,  VIII,  34. 

[64-67]  LEO     XIII 

now  taking,  and  to  rest  on  a  more  firm  foundation  without  injury 
to  the  true  freedom  of  the  people.  For  the  best  parent  and  guardian 
of  liberty  amongst  men  is  truth.  The  truth  shall  maf^e  you 

64.  But  in  matters  merely  political,  as  for  instance  the  best  form 
of  government,  and  this  or  that  system  of  administration,  a  differ- 
ence of  opinion  is  lawful.  Those,  therefore,  whose  piety  is  in  other 
respects  known,  and  whose  minds  are  ready  to  accept  in  all  obedi- 
ence the  decrees  of  the  Apostolic  See,  cannot  in  justice  be  accounted 
as  bad  men  because  they  disagree  as  to  subjects  We  have  men- 
tioned; and  still  graver  wrong  will  be  done  them,  if  —  as  We  have 
more  than  once  perceived  with  regret  —  they  are  accused  of  violat- 
ing, or  of  wavering  in,  the  Catholic  Faith. 

65.  Let  this  be  well  borne  in  mind  by  all  who  are  in  the  habit 
of  publishing  their  opinions,  and  above  all  by  journalists.   In  the 
endeavor  to  secure  interests  of  the  highest  order  there  is  no  room 
for  intestine  strife  or  party  rivalries,  since  all  should  aim  with  one 
mind  and  purpose  to  make  safe  that  which  is  the  common  object 
of  all  —  the  maintenance  of  Religion  and  of  the  State. 

66.  If,  therefore,  there  have  hitherto  been  dissensions,  let  them 
henceforth  be  gladly  buried  in  oblivion.   If  rash  or  injurious  acts 
have  been  committed,  whoever  may  have  been  at  fault,  let  mutual 
charity  make  amends,  and  let  the  past  be  redeemed  by  a  special  sub- 
mission of  all  to  the  Apostolic  See. 

67.  '  In  this  way  Catholics  will  attain  two  most  excellent  results: 
they  will  become  helpers  to  the  Church  in  preserving  and  propagat- 
ing Christian  wisdom;  and  they  will  confer  the  greatest  benefit  on 
civil  society,  the  safety  of  which  is  exceedingly  imperiled  by  evil 
teachings  and  bad  passions.  This,  Venerable  Brethren,  is  what  We 
have  thought  it  Our  duty  to  expound  to  all  nations  of  the  Catholic 
world  touching  the  Christian  constitution  of  States  and  the  duties 
of  individual  citizens. 

80  John,  VIII,  32. 


CUM     DE     CAROLINIS     INSULIS  [68] 

LETTER   Cum  de  Carolinis  Insulis  TO  PRINCE   BISMARCK   OF 


The  dispute  concerning  the  Caroline  Islands  has  been 
settled  according  to  the  solution  proposed  by  Leo  XIII. 

December  31,  1885 

68.  The  dispute  arising  in  regard  to  the  Caroline  Islands  hav- 
ing been  happily  ended  on  the  conditions  laid  down  by  Us,  We 
have  expressed  Our  joy  thereat  to  His  Majesty,  the  German  Em- 
peror, and  We  wish  now  to  renew  to  Your  Highness  Our  expres- 
sion of  the  same  sentiment;  for  it  was  you  who  proposed  that  the 
solution  of  this  conflict  be  submitted  to  Us.  We  are  pleased  to 
acknowledge,  in  conformity  with  the  truth,  that  it  was  in  a  large 
part  due  to  your  constant  zeal  that  the  difficulties  met  with  in  the 
settlement  of  this  affair  could  have  been  overcome;  for,  from  be- 
ginning to  end,  you  never  ceased  to  second  Our  efforts  by  entering 
into  Our  views.  So  We  now  hasten  to  show  you  Our  gratitude 
for  having  so  effectively  contributed  to  furnishing  Us  with  a  most 
favorable  opportunity  for  exercising  so  exalted  a  ministry  in  the 
interest  of  harmony.  History,  it  is  true,  tells  us  that  this  task  is  not 
new  to  the  Holy  See,  but  it  is  a  long  time  since  such  a  proposal  was 
made  to  it,  though  there  is  scarcely  any  function  more  in  harmony 
with  the  spirit  and  nature  of  the  Roman  Papacy.  Free  from  all 
prejudices,  you  have  looked  at  the  situation  rather  from  the  stand- 
point of  truth  than  from  that  of  the  opinions  and  inclinations  of 
others,  and  you  have  not  hesitated  to  place  your  confidence  in  Our 
impartiality.  By  acting  thus  you  have  obtained  the  approval  of  all 
men  whose  thoughts  are  not  dominated  by  their  prejudices — espe- 
cially that  of  Catholics  throughout  the  whole  world,  who  ought  to 
be  deeply  touched  by  the  honor  done  to  their  Father,  their  chief 
Pastor.  Your  political  sagacity,  as  the  whole  world  acknowledged, 
has  contributed  vastly  to  the  formation  of  the  great  and  powerful 
German  empire,  and  it  is  natural  that  that  empire's  solidity  and 
prosperity,  based  on  strength  and  durable  well-being,  be  the  first 
object  of  your  efforts;  but  it  cannot  by  any  means  have  escaped  your 
clear-sightedness  how  many  means  are  at  the  disposal  of  the  power 
with  which  We  are  vested,  for  the  maintenance  of  political  and 

81  Translation  from  Furey,  Life  of  Leo  Xlll  and  History  of  His  Pontificate,  pp.  220-222. 
Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v,  18,  p,  417  (1885). 


[69-7°]  LEO    XIII 

social  order,  especially  if  this  power  enjoys  unshackled  its  full  liberty 
of  action.  Permit  Us,  then,  to  anticipate  events  in  spirit,  and  to 
regard  what  has  been  done  as  a  pledge  of  what  the  future  will 
bring.  So  that  you  may  have  from  now  a  testimony  of  Our  esteem, 
We  name  you  a  knight  of  the  Order  of  Christ,  the  insignia  of  which 
order  will  be  sent  to  you  along  with  this  letter. 


The  Pope  is  willing  to  co-operate  with  secular  rulers 
but  he  must  insist  upon  the  recognition  of  the  rights  of 
the  Church. 

January  6,  1886 

69 The  desire  which  We  have  had  and  still  have  to 

re-establish  concord  and  peace  on  a  solid  basis  is  so  great  that  We 
have  not  failed  to  inform  rulers  that  We  are  ready  to  comply  with 
their  will  in  so  far  as  the  divine  laws  and  the  duty  of  conscience 
permit.  And  what  is  more,  We  have  not  hesitated  to  give  clear 
proof  of  this  intention;  and  it  is  Our  firm  purpose  not  to  neglect 
to  do  anything  in  the  future  which  may  contribute  to  the  re-estab- 
lishing and  strengthening  of  concord. 

70.  However,  in  order  that  Our  desire  and  hope  may  be  real- 
ized, special  care  must  be  taken  that  the  public  laws  be  purged  of 
all  that  is  contrary  to  Catholic  discipline  in  whatever  pertains 
chiefly  and  more  closely  to  the  piety  of  the  faithful.  There  must 
likewise  be  a  repeal  of  whatever  hampers  the  proper  freedom  of 
bishops  in  governing  their  churches  according  to  the  divinely  estab- 
lished ordinances  and  in  training  the  youth  in  seminaries  according 
to  the  prescriptions  of  canon  law.  For  though  We  are  animated 
by  a  sincere  desire  for  peace,  still  We  may  not  dare  do  anything 
that  is  contrary  to  what  has  been  divinely  established  and  ordained, 
for  the  defense  of  which,  if  need  be,  We  are  ready,  after  the  ex- 
ample of  Our  Predecessors,  to  endure  the  greatest  hardships. 

32  Original  Latin,  A.S,S,t  v.  18,  pp.  388-389  (1886). 




Leo  XIII  explains  his  decision  in  the  controversy  be- 
tween  Spain  and  Germany-over  possession  of  the  Caro- 
line Islands. 

January  15,  1886 

71.  Even  though  the  affair  which  We  have  decided  to  treat  is 
now  a  matter  of  public  knowledge,  nevertheless,  since  it  is  con- 
nected with  the  public  good  of  nations  and  has  renewed  a  custom 
that  is  very  honorable  to  the  Apostolic  See,  and  one  which  for  a 
long  time  has  been  interrupted,  We  judge  it  proper  to  make  refer- 
ence about  it  to  you  here  and  in  Our  own  person. 

72.  Last  September,  when  the  Emperor  of  Germany  and  the 
King  of  Spain  together  had  asked  Us  to  be  the  arbitrator  in  the 
dispute  over  the  Caroline  Islands,  We  gladly  accepted  the  office 
thus  entrusted  to  Us  because  We  hoped  thereby  to  serve  the  cause 
of  peace  and  humanity.  We,  therefore,  examined  and  weighed  in 
the  balance  of  an  impartial  and  equitable  judgment  the  arguments 
o£  both  litigants,  and  then  We  submitted  to  them  certain  proposi- 
tions as  a  basis  of  mutual  agreement,  which  We  hoped  would 
prove  acceptable  to  them. 

73.  Spain  brought  forward  many  reasons  in  support  of  her 
right  to  that  distant  portion  of  Micronesia.  She  was  the  first  nation 
whose  ships  had  reached  those  shores — a  fact  acknowledged  by  the 
most   distinguished   geographers.    The   very   name   of   Carolines 
attested  the  Spanish  title.   Besides,  the  kings  of  Spain  had  more 
than  once  sent  thither  apostolic  men  as  missionaries,  and  of  this 
the  records  of  the  Roman  Pontificate  afford  confirmatory  proof; 
for  there  exists  a  letter  of  Our  Predecessor,  Clement  XI,  to  Philip  V, 
written  in  1706,  praising  this  prince  for  having  equipped  and  fur- 
nished a  vessel  to  convey  missionaries  to  the  Carolines.   In  it  the 
Pontiff  also  exhorts  the  king  to  continue  to  help  propagate  the 
Christian  name  and  procure  the  salvation  of  multitudes  of  human 

74.  The  same  Pontiff  also  wrote  to  Louis  XIV,  beseeching  him 
not  to  hinder  in  any  way  the  carrying  out  of  an  enterprise  so  hap- 
pily begun  by  his  grandson.    Again,  Philip  V  fixed  an  annual 

88  Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  18,  pp.  309-311  (1886). 


[7578]  LEO    XIII 

sum  of  two  thousand  crowns  to  be  set  apart  for  the  support  of  these 
missions.  Furthermore,  no  nation  but  the  Spanish  ever  did  any- 
thing to  bring  the  light  of  the  Gospel  to  these  islands.  And,  finally, 
whatever  information  we  possess  of  the  manner  of  living  and 
customs  of  the  natives  has  been  furnished  by  the  missionaries. 

75.  From  this  series  of  facts,  viewed  especially  in  the  light  of 
the  international  jurisprudence  then  in  vigor,  it  is  evident  that  the 
right  of  Spain  to  the  Caroline  Islands  is  fairly  established.  For  if 
any  claim  to  sovereignty  can  be  derived  from  the  labor  of  civilizing 
a  barbarous  country,  this  claim  must  be  highest  in  favor  of  such  as 
endeavor  to  reclaim  barbarians   from  pagan  superstition   to   the 
Gospel  morality,  inasmuch  as  in  true  religion  are  to  be  found  all 
the  most  powerful  civilizing  forces.   On  this  principle  were  often 
founded  the  rights  of  sovereignty;  and  this  was  the  case,  for  in- 
stance, of  several  islands  in  the  ocean,  of  which  not  a  few  bear 
names  given  them  by  the  Christian  religion. 

76.  Seeing,  therefore,  that  a  constant  and  well-founded  public 
opinion  conceded  to  Spain  the  sovereignty  over  the  Carolines,  it  is 
not  surprising  that  when  the  late  dispute  began  about  thfeir  posses- 
sion the  whole  Spanish  nation  was  stirred  with  such  excitement  as 
to  threaten  not  only  the  internal  peace  of  the  kingdom,  but  to 
imperil  its  relations  with  a  friendly  power. 

77.  To  the  arguments  brought  forward  by  Spain,  Germany  on 
her  side  opposed  others  also  based  on  the  law  of  nations — that 
residence  on  land  is  necessary  to  possession:  that,  taking  into  ac- 
count the  facts  of  recent  history,  the  law  of  nations  sanctions  as 
legitimate  the  claim  to  ownership  of  territory  when  the  claimant 
occupies  and  uses  it;  that  where  the  territory  is  not  so  occupied  and 
used  the  land  is  accounted  as  having  no  owner.   Wherefore,  con- 
sidering the  fact  that  the  Carolines  had  not  during  a  century  and  a 
half  been  occupied  by  Spain,  these  islands  should  have  been  ad- 
judged the  property  of  the  first  person  taking  possession  of  them. 
In  addition  to  these  reasons  it  was  alleged  that  some  such  dispute 
as  the  present  having  arisen  in  the  year  1875,  both  Gerrnany  and 
Great  Britain  affirmed  they  did  not  at  all  acknowledge  the  sover- 
eignty of  Spain  over  the  Carolines. 

78.  In  this  divergence  of  opinions  We  took  into  account  the 
respective  rights  and  interests  of  the  two  contending  nations,  and 
confidently  submitted  a  plan  which  We  thought  well  fitted  for 


QUOD    MULTUM  [79-gl] 

bringing  about  a  peaceful  settlement  of  the  difficulty.  We  were 
guided  solely  in  this  by  Our  own  sense  of  equity,  and,  as  you  are 
aware,  both  parties  willingly  accepted  Our  proposal. 

79.  .Thus  was  accomplished  an  event  which  the  present  cur- 
rents of  public  opinion  forbade  Us  to  look  forward  to.  Providence 
willed  that  two  illustrious  nations  should  do  homage  to  the  supreme 
authority  in  the  Church  by  asking  it  to  fulfill  an  office  so  much  in 
keeping  with  its  nature,  to  preserve  by  its  action  the  threatened 
peace  and  harmony  between  them.  This  is  the  fruit  of  that  salutary 
and  beneficent  influence  which  God  has  attached  to  the  power  of 
the   Supreme   Pontiffs.    Superior   to   the   envious  jealousy   of   its 
enemies,  and  more  mighty  than  the  prevailing  iniquity  of  the  age, 
it  is  subject  neither  to  destruction  nor  to  change. 

80.  From  all  this,  too,  it  becomes  manifest  how  grievous  an  evil 
are  the  wars  waged  against  the  Apostolic  See  and  the  lessening  of 
its  rightful  liberty.  For  thereby  it  is  not  merely  justice  and  religion 
that  are  made  to  suffer,  but  the  public  good  itself,  since  in  the 
present  critical  and  changeful  condition  of  public  affairs  the  Roman 
Pontificate  would  confer  far  greater  benefits  on  the  world  if,  with 
perfec^  freedom  and  rights  unimpaired,  it  could  devote  all  its  ener- 
gies to  promoting,  without  hindrance,  the  salvation  of  the  human 
race.  .  .  . 



The  firmest  foundation  for  peace  in  any  nation  is  the 
Catholic  religion. 

AugUSt  22,   l886 

8 1 Certainly  it  has  never  been  more  necessary  than  at 

present  to  understand  and  to  be  convinced  thoroughly  not  only  of 
the  great  opportunity  but  of  the  absolute  necessity  of  the  Catholic 
religion  for  peace  and  public  welfare.  Daily  experience  reveals  to 
Us  to  what  an  extremity  those  who  are  accustomed  to  respect  no 
authority  and  who  tolerate  no  limits  to  their  own  desires  would 
reduce  the  State.  No  one  is  unaware,  in  these  days,  of  what  they 
intend,  and  by  what  means  and  with  what  determination  they 

34  Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  IQ,  pp.  99-100  (1886). 


[82]  LEO     XIII 

strive  to  accomplish  these  things.  The  greatest  empires  and  the 
most  flourishing  republics  are  at  the  present  time  assailed  by  these 
groups  of  men  united  by  a  common  purpose  and  by  similar  meth- 
ods of  action  so  that  the  public  tranquillity  is  constantly  menaced 
by  some  kind  of  peril.  In  order  to  combat  such  an  onslaught  of 
evil,  the  salutary  counsel  of  strengthening  the  authority  of  the  mag- 
istrates and  of  increasing  the  rigor  of  the  laws  has  been  given  in 
some  countries.  And  yet  to  avoid  the  terrors  of  Socialism,  a  very 
excellent  and  truly  efficacious  means,  without  which  the  fear  of 
punishment  will  have  little  effect,  is  to  inspire  in  the  citizens  a  deep 
religious  spirit  and  to  inculcate  in  them  a  respect  for  and  a  love  of 
the  Church.  The  Church  is  the  sacred  guardian  of  religion,  the 
parent  and  the  teacher  of  the  purity  of  customs  and  of  all  the  vir- 
tues which  spring  from  religion  as  their  source.  Whoever  reli- 
giously and  wholeheartedly  follows  the  precepts  of  the  Gospel  shall 
by  that  very  fact  remain  far  from  the  shadow  of  Socialism.  Even  as 
religion  commands  men  to  worship  and  to  fear  God,  so  also  it 
orders  them  to  submit  to  and  to  obey  lawful  authority;  it  forbids 
anyone  to  take  part  in  sedition;  it  prescribes  respect  for  the  goods 
and  the  rights  of  others;  it  commands  those  who  are  rich  to  come 
to  the  aid  of  the  multitudes.  It  surrounds  the  poor  with  the  re- 
sources of  charity;  it  brings  sweet  consolations  to  the  unfortunate 
by  inspiring  in  them  a  hope  for  immeasurable  and  immortal  goods 
which  will  be  greater  than  those  from  the  deprivation  of  which  they 
have  suffered  so  harshly  and  for  such  a  long  time.- 



Mere  -private  -practice  of  religion  is  not  enough  to  estab- 
lish a  lasting  peace. 

June  15,  1887 

82 But  without  the  Church  the  common  good  will 

simply  never  be  realized;  without  her  salutary  influence,  which  can 
safely  guide  minds  to  truth  and  strengthen  souls  to  virtue  and  to 
bearing  every  difficulty,  neither  the  severity  of  laws,  nor  punish- 
ments meted  out  by  human  justice,  nor  armed  force  itself  will  be 

35  Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  20,  pp.  7-19  (1887). 


QUAMVIS    ANIMI  [83-86] 

sufficient  to  avert  the  present  crisis,  much  less  to  rebuild  society 
upon  its  natural  and  solid  foundations. 

83.  Firmly  convinced  of  this  We  consider  it  Our  duty  to  carry 
out  this  work  of  the  common  good  already  begun  by  spreading 
the  precepts  of  the  holy  Gospel,  by  winning  over  once  more  to  the 
Church  and  her  hierarchy  the  minds  of  all,  and  finally  by  acquir- 
ing for  both  a  fuller  freedom,  that  they  may  be  able  to  carry  out 
in  the  world  with  abundant  success  a  most  useful  mission  which 
they  have  received  from  God 

84.  But  to  come  to  the  point  of  really  establishing  lasting  peace, 
it  is  not  enough,  as  in  other  matters,  to  make  provision  for  some 
private  need  of  religion,  to  mitigate  or  abolish  hostile  laws,  to 
impede,  to  avert  some  measures  enacted  contrary  to  Our  interests 
which  they  may  perchance  enforce,  but  it  is  necessary  besides,  nay 
even  of  first  and  foremost  importance,  that  the  position  of  the 
Supreme  Head  of  the  Church,  which  many  years  ago  through  vio- 
lence   and    injustice   became   positively    unworthy    of   him    and 
incompatible  with  the  Apostolic  office,  be  established  as  is  fitting 
and  becoming.  Wherefore,  in  a  previous  allocution,  We  were  careful 
to  set  up  the  rights  and  dignity  of  the  Apostolic  See  as  the  very 
first  foundation  stone  of  this  reconciliation  and  to  demand  for 
Ourselves  that  condition  in  whiclv  the  Roman  Pontiff  would  be 
subject  to  no  one  and  would  enjoy  complete  freedom,  not  merely 
a  mocking  semblance  of  it 

85.  In  very  truth,  if  it  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  war  waged 
against  the  sovereignty  of  the  Roman  Pontiffs  has  always  had  the 
enemies  of  the  Church  as  its  instigators,  and  in  these  latter  times 
bands  of  conspirators  and  public  enemies,  whose  purpose  in  over- 
throwing the  temporal  dominion  has  been  to  open  a  way  for 
attacking  and  destroying  the  spiritual  power  itself  of  the  Popes, 
this  very  fact  clearly  proves  that  the  royal  sovereignty  of  the  Popes 
is  still,  in  the  plans  of  Divine  Providence,  a  means  for  the  peaceful 
exercise  of  their  Apostolic  authority  since  it  effectively  safeguards 
their  autonomy  and  liberty 

86.  Here  where  the  Roman  Pontiff  usually  lives,  and  rules, 
teaches,  and  commands,  it  is  particularly  necessary  that  he  be 
established  in  such  a  position  of  autonomy  that  his  freedom  be 
not  in  the  least  hindered  by  anyone,  and  that  it  be  clear  to  all  that 
he  is  positively  free,  so  that  the  faithful  who  are  scattered  through- 


[87-88]  LEO  xiii 

out  the  world  may  with  confidence  and  security  manifest  the  faith 
and  obedience  they  ow;  him  on  account  of  his  sacred  office.  Let 
this  be  brought  about  not  by  that  kind  of  agreement  which  changes 
and  is  altered  under  every  circumstance,  but  by  one  which  is  of  its 
very  nature  firm  and  lasting.  Without  any  fear  of  hindrances 
which  may  perchance  be  put  in  the  way,  here  more  than  anywhere 
else  the  full  development  of  Catholic  life,  the  solemnity  of  divine 
worship,  regard  for  the  laws  of  the  Church  and  their  public  observ- 
ance must  be  possible,  and  likewise  the  peaceful  and  legal  existence 
and  life  of  all  pious  works  which  have  been  established  by  the 

Catholic  Church 

87.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  not  difficult  to  foresee  possible 
events,  as  a  result  of  which  the  status  of  the  Roman  Pontiff  may 
become  worse,  whether  indeed  through  the  successful  attempts  of 
rebels  and  those  men  who  make  no  pretense  whatever  of  hiding 
their  feelings  against  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  or  on  account  of  the 
varying  fortunes  and  countless  complications  which  may  turn  out 
to  his  detriment 


The  Bishops  of  Brazil  are  commended  for  helping  to 
rid  their  country  of  slavery.  The  newly  freed  slaves  are 
exhorted  to  maintain  peaceful  relations  with  their 
former  masters. 

May  5,  1888 

88 And  now,  Venerable  Brethren,  Our  thoughts  and 

letters  desire  to  turn  to  you  that  We  may  again  announce  to  you 
and  again  share  with  you  the  exceeding  joy  which  We  feel  on 
account  of  the  determinations  which  have  been  publicly  entered 
into  in  that  empire  with  regard  to  slavery.  If  indeed  it  seemed  to 
Us  a  good,  happy,  and  propitious  event,  that  it  was  provided  and 
insisted  upon  by  law  that  whoever  were  still  in  the  condition  of 
slaves  ought  to  be  admitted  to  the  status  and  rights  of  free  men,  so 
also  it  confirms  and  increases  Our  hope  of  future  acts  which  will 
be  the  cause  of  joy,  both  in  civil  and  religious  matters.  Thus  the 

3G Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  71,  pp,  876-877  (June  2,  1888),   Original  Latin, 
A.S.S.,  v.  20,  pp.  557-558  (1888), 


IN    PLURIMIS  [88] 

name  of  the  Empire  of  Brazil  will  be  justly  held  in  honor  and 
praise  among  the  most  civilized  nations,  and  the  name  of  its  august 
Emperor  will  likewise  be  esteemed  whose  excellent  speech  is  on 
record,  that  he  desired  nothing  more  ardently  than  that  every 
vestige  of  slavery  should  be  speedily  obliterated  from  his  territories. 
But  truly,  until  those  precepts  of  the  laws  are  carried  into  effect, 
earnestly  endeavor,  We  beseech  you,  by  all  means,  and  press  on 
as  much  as  possible  the  accomplishment  of  this  affair,  which  no 
light  difficulties  hinder.  Through  your  means  let  it  be  brought 
to  pass  that  masters  and  slaves  may  mutually  agree  with  the  highest 
goodwill  and  best  good  faith,  nor  let  there  be  any  transgression  of 
clemency  or  justice,  but  whatever  things  have  to  be  carried  out  let 
all  be  done  lawfully,  temperately,  and  in  a  Christian  manner; 
it  is,  however,  chiefly  to  be  wished  that  this  may  be  prosperously 
accomplished,  which  all  desire,  that  slavery  may  be  banished  and 
blotted  out  without  any  injury  to  divine  or  human  rights,  with 
no  agitation  of  the  State,  and  so  with  the  solid  benefit  of  the  slaves 
themselves,  for  whose  sake  it  is  undertaken.  To  each  one  of  these, 
whether  they  have  already  been  made  free  or  are  about  to  become 
so,  We  address  with  a  pastoral  intention  and  fatherly  mind  a  few 
salutary  cautions  culled  from  the  words  of  the  great  Apostle  of  the 
Gentiles.  Let  them,  then,  endeavor  piously  and  constantly  to 
retain  a  grateful  memory  and  feeling  towards  those  by  whose 
counsel  and  exertion  they  were  set  at  liberty.  Let  them  never  show 
themselves  unworthy  of  so  great  a  gift  nor  ever  confound  liberty 
with  license;  but  let  them  use  it  as  becomes  well-ordered  citizens 
for  the  industry  of  an  active  life,  for  the  benefit  and  advantage  both 
of  their  family  and  of  the  State.  To  respect  and  increase  the  dignity 
of  their  princes,  to  obey  the  magistrates,  to  be  obedient  to  the  laws, 
these  and  similar  duties  let  them  diligently  fulfill,  under  the  influ- 
ence, not  so  much  of  fear  as  of  religion;  let  them  also  restrain  and 
keep  in  subjection  envy  of  another's  wealth  or  position,  which 
unfortunately  daily  distresses  so  many  of  those  in  inferior  positions, 
and  presents  so  many  incitements  of  rebellion  against  security  of 
order  and  peace.  Content  with  their  state  and  lot,  let  them  think 
nothing  dearer,  let  them  desire  nothing  more  ardently  than  the  good 
things  of  the  heavenly  kingdom  by  whose  grace  they  have  been 
brought  to  the  light  and  redeemed  by  Christ 


[89]  LEO     XIII 

ENCYCLICAL  Libertas  Praestantissimum  ON  HUMAN  LIBERTY;{T 

The  Pope  writes  on  the  true  nature  of  human  liberty 
and  explains  how  this  concept  has  been  corrupted  in 
modern  times.  Now  the  peace  of  the  world  is  threat- 
ened by  false  notions  of  human  liberty. 

June  20,  1888 

89 What  has  been  said  of  the  liberty  o£  individuals  is 

no  less  applicable  to  them  when  considered  as  bound  together  in 
civil  society.  For,  what  reason  and  the  natural  law  do  for  individ- 
uals, that  human  law,  promulgated  for  their  good,  does  for  the 
citizens  of  States.  Of  the  laws  enacted  by  men,  some  are  concerned 
with  what  is  good  or  bad  by  its  very  nature;  and  they  command 
men  to  follow  after  what  is  right  and  to  shun  what  is  wrong, 
adding  at  the  same  time  a  suitable  sanction.  But  such  laws  by  no 
means  derive  their  origin  from  civil  society;  because  just  as  civil 
society  did  not  create  human  nature,  so  neither  can  it  be  said  to 
be  the  author  of  the  good  which  befits  human  nature,  or  of  the 
evil  which  is  contrary  to  it.  Laws  come  before  men  live  together 
in  society,  and  have  their  origin  in  the  natural,  and  consequently 
in  the  eternal,  law.  The  precepts,  therefore,  of  the  natural  law, 
contained  bodily  in  the  laws  of  men,  have  not  merely  the  force  of 
human  law,  but  they  possess  that  higher  and  more  august  sanction 
which  belongs  to  the  law  of  nature  and  the  eternal  law.  And  within 
the  sphere  of  this  kind  of  laws,  the  duty  of  the  civil  legislator  is, 
mainly,  to  keep  the  community  in  obedience  by  the  adoption  of  a 
common  discipline  and  by  putting  restraint  upon  refractory  and 
viciously  inclined  men,  so  that,  deterred  from  evil,  they  may  turn 
to  what  is  good,  or  at  any  rate  may  avoid  causing  trouble  and  dis- 
turbance to  the  State.  Now  there  are  other  enactments  of  the  civil 
authority,  which  do  not  follow  directly,  but  somewhat  remotely, 
from  the  natural  law,  and  decide  many  points  which  the  law  of 
nature  treats  only  in  a  general  and  indefinite  way.  For  instance, 
though  nature  commands  all  to  contribute  to  the  public  peace  and 
prosperity,  still  whatever  belongs  to  the  manner  and  circumstances, 
and  conditions  under  which  such  service  is  to  be  rendered  must 
be  determined  by  the  wisdom  of  men  and  not  by  nature  herself. 

87  Translation  from  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XUI,  pp.   141-162. 
Original  Latin,  A,S.S,,  v.  20,  pp.  597-613  (1888). 



It  is  in  the  constitution  of  these  particular  rules  o£  life,  suggested 
by  reason  and  prudence,  and  put  forth  by  competent  authority,  that 
human  law,  properly  so  called,  consists,  binding  all  citizens  to  work 
together  for  the  attainment  of  the  common  end  proposed  to  the 
community,  and  forbidding  them  to  depart  from  this  end;  and  in 
so  far  as  human  law  is  in  conformity  with  the  dictates  of  nature, 
leading  to  what  is  good,  and  deterring  from  evil 

90.  From  this  it  is  manifest  that  the  eternal  law  of  God  is  the 
sole  standard  and  rule  of  human  liberty,  not  only  in  each  individual 
man,  but  also  in  the  community  and  civil  society  which  men  con- 
stitute when  united.   Therefore,  the  true  liberty  of  human  society 
does  not  consist  in  every  man  doing  what  he  pleases,  for  this  would 
simply  end  in  turmoil  and  confusion,  and  bring  on  the  overthrow 
of  the  State;  but  rather  in  this,  that  through  the  injunctions  of  the 
civil  law  all  may  more  easily  conform  to  the  prescriptions  of  the 
eternal  law.   Likewise,  the  liberty  of  those  who  are  in  authority 
does  not  consist  in  the  power  to  lay  unreasonable  and  capricious 
commands  upon  their  subjects,  which  would  equally  be  criminal 
and  would  lead  to  the  ruin  of  the  commonwealth;  but  the  binding 
force  of  human  laws  is  in  this,  that  they  are  to  be  regarded  as 
applications  of  the  eternal  law,  and  incapable  of  sanctioning  any- 
thing which  is  not  contained  in  the  eternal  law,  as  in  the  principle 
of  all  law 

91.  Therefore,  the  nature  of  human  liberty,  however  it  be  con- 
sidered, whether  in  individuals  or  in  society,  whether  in  those  who 
command  or  in  those  who  obey,  supposes  the  necessity  of  obedience 
to  some  supreme  and  eternal  law,  which  is  no  other  than  the 
authority  of  God,  commanding  good  and  forbidding  evil.  And  so 
far  from  this  most  just  authority  of  God  over  men  diminishing, 
or  even  destroying,  their  liberty,  it  protects  and  perfects  it,  for  the 
real  perfection  of  all  creatures  is  found  in  the  prosecution  and 
attainment  of  their  respective  ends;  but  the  supreme  end  to  which 
human  liberty  must  aspire  is  God. 

92.  These  precepts  of  the  truest  and  highest  teaching,  made 
known  to  us  by  the  light  of  reason  itself,  the  Church,  instructed 
by   the  example  and  doctrine  of  her  divine  Author,  has   ever 
propagated  and  asserted;  for  she  has  ever  made  them  the  measure 
of  her  office  and  of  her  teaching  to  the  Christian  nations.   As  to 
morals,  the  laws  of  the  Gospel  not  only  immeasurably  surpass  the 

[93]  LEO  XIU 

wisdom  of  the  heathen,  but  are  an  invitation  and  an  introduction 
to  a  state  of  holiness  unknown  to  the  ancients;  and.,  bringing  man 
nearer  to  God,  they  make  him  at  once  the  possessor  of  a  more 
perfect  liberty.  Thus  the  powerful  influence  of  the  Church  has  ever 
been  manifested  in  the  custody  and  protection  of  the  civil  and 
political  liberty  of  the  people.  The  enumeration  of  its  merits  in 
this  respect  does  not  belong  to  our  present  purpose.  It  is  sufficient 
to  recall  the  fact  that  slavery,  that  old  reproach  of  the  heathen 
nations,  was  mainly  abolished  by  the  beneficent  efforts  of  the 
Church.  The  impartiality  of  law  and  the  true  brotherhood  of  man 
were  first  asserted  by  Jesus  Christ;  and  His  Apostles  re-echoed  His 
voice  when  they  declared  that  in  future  there  was  to  be  neither 
Jew,  nor  Gentile,  nor  Barbarian,  nor  Scythian,  but  all  were  brothers 
in  Christ.  So  powerful,  so  conspicuous  in  this  respect,  is  the  influ- 
ence of  the  Church,  that  experience  abundantly  testifies  how  savage 
customs  are  no  longer  possible  in  any  land  where  she  has  once  set 
her  foot;  but  that  gentleness  speedily  takes  the  place  of  cruelty, 
and  the  light  of  truth  quickly  dispels  the  darkness  of  barbarism. 
Nor  has  the  Church  been  less  lavish  in  the  benefits  she  has  conferred 
on  civilized  nations  in  every  age,  either  by  resisting  the  tyranny  of 
the  wicked,  or  by  protecting  the  innocent  and  helpless  from  injury; 
or  finally  by  using  her  influence  in  the  support  of  any  form  of 
government  which  commended  itself  to  the  citizens  at  home,  be- 
cause of  its  justice,  or  was  feared  by  their  enemies  without,  because 
of  its  power. 

93.  Moreover,  the  highest  duty  is  to  respect  authority,  and  obedi- 
ently to  submit  to  just  law;  and  by  this  the  members  of  a  com- 
munity are  effectually  protected  from  the  wrongdoing  of  evil  men. 
Lawful  power  is  from  God,  and  whosoever  resisteth  authority  re- 
sisteth  the  ordinance  of  God;38  wherefore  obedience  is  greatly  en- 
nobled when  subjected  to  an  authority  which  is  the  most  just  and 
supreme  of  all.  But  where  the  power  to  command  is  wanting,  or 
where  a  law  is  enacted  contrary  to  reason,  or  to  the  eternal  law, 
or  to  some  ordinance  of  God,  obedience  is  unlawful,  lest,  while 
obeying  man,  we  become  disobedient  to  God.  Thus,  an  effectual 
barrier  being  opposed  to  tyranny,  the  authority  in  the  State  will 
not  have  all  its  own  way,  but  the  interests  and  rights  of  all  will  be 
safeguarded — the  rights  of  individuals,  of  domestic  society,  and 

38  Romans,  XIII,  2. 



of  all  the  members  of  the  commonwealth;  all  being  free  to  live 
according  to  law  and  right  reason;  and  in  this,  as  We  have  shown, 
true  liberty  really  consists. 

94 For,  once  ascribe  to  human  reason  the  only  au- 
thority to  decide  what  is  true  and  what  is  good,  and  the  real  distinc- 
tion between  good  and  evil  is  destroyed;  honor  and  dishonor  differ 
not  in  their  nature,  but  in  the  opinion  and  judgment  of  each  one; 
pleasure  is  the  measure  of  what  is  lawful;  and,  given  a  code  of 
morality  which  can  have  little  or  no  power  to'  re-strain  or  quiet  the 
unruly  propensities  of  man,  a  way  is  naturally  opened  to  universal 
corruption.  With  reference  also  to  public  affairs:  authority  is 
severed  from  the  true  and  natural  principle  whence  it  derives  all 
its  efficacy  for  the  common  good;  and  the  law  determining  what 
it  is  right  to  do  and  avoid  doing  is  at  the  mercy  of  a  majority. 
Now  this  is  simply  a  road  leading  straight  to  tyranny.  The  empire 
of  God  over  man  and  civil- society  once  repudiated,  it  follows  that 
religion,  as  a  public  institution,  can  have  no  claim  to  exist,  and  that 
everything  that  belongs  to  religion  will  be  treated  with  complete 
indifference.  Furthermore,  with  ambitious  designs  on  sovereignty, 
tumult  and  sedition  will  be  common  amongst  the  people;  and  when 
duty  and  conscience  cease  to  appeal  to  them,  there  will  be  nothing 
to  hold  them  back  but  force,  which  of  itself  alone  is  powerless  to 
keep  their  covetousness  in  check.  Of  this  we  have  almost  daily 
evidence  in  the  conflict  with  Socialists  and  members  of  other 
seditious  societies,  who  labor  unceasingly  to  bring  about  revolution. 
It  is  for  those,  then,  who  are  capable  of  forming  a  just  estimate 
of  things  to  decide  whether  such  doctrines  promote  that  true  liberty 
which  alone  is  worthy  of  man,  or  rather  pervert  and  destroy  it. 

95 Religion,  of  its  essence,  is  wonderfully  helpful 

to  the  State.  For,  since  it  derives  the  prime  origin  of  all  power 
directly  from  God  Himself,  with  grave  authority  it  charges  rulers 
to  be  mindful  of  their  duty,  to  govern  without  injustice  or  severity, 
to  rule  their  people  kindly  and  with  almost  paternal  charity;  it 
admonishes  subjects  to  be  obedient  to  lawful  authority,  as  to  the 
ministers  of  God;  and  it  binds  them  to  their  rulers,  not  merely  by 
obedience,  but  by  reverence  and  affection,  forbidding  all  seditions 
and  venturesome  enterprises  calculated  to  disturb  public  order  and 
tranquillity,  and  cause  greater  restrictions  to  be  put  upon  the  liberty 
of  the  people.  We  need  not  mention  how  greatly  religion  conduces 


[96-97]  LEO 

to  pure  morals,  and  pure  morals  to  liberty.  Reason  shows,  and  his- 
tory confirms  the  fact,  that  the  higher  the  morality  of  States,  the 
greater  are  the  liberty  and  wealth  and  power  which  they  enjoy. 

96.  We  must  now  consider  briefly  liberty  of  speech,  and  liberty 
of  the  Press.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  there  can  be  no  such 
right  as  this,  if  it  be  not  used  in  moderation,  and  if  it  pass  beyond 
the  bounds  and  end  of  all  true  liberty.  For  right  is  a  moral  power 
which — as  We  have  before  said  and  must  again  and  again  repeat — 
it  is  absurd  to  suppose  that  nature  has  accorded  indifferently  to 
truth  and  falsehood,  to  justice  and  injustice.    Men  have  a  right 
freely  and  prudently  to  propagate  throughout  the  State  what  things 
soever  are  true  and  honorable,  so  that  as  many  as  possible  may 
possess  them;  but  lying  opinions,  than  which  no  mental  plague  is 
greater,  and  vices  which  corrupt  the  heart  and  moral  life,  should 
be  diligently  repressed  by  public  authority,  lest  they  insidiously  work 
the  ruin  of  the  State.  The  excesses  of  an  unbridled  intellect,  which 
unfailingly  end  in  the  oppression  of  the  untutored  multitude,  are 
no  less  rightly  controlled  by  the  authority  of  the  law  than  are  the 
injuries  inflicted  by  violence  upon  the  weak.  And  this  all  the  more 
surely,  because  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  community  is  either 
absolutely  unable,  or  able  only  with  great  difficulty,  to  escape  from 
illusions  and  deceitful  subtleties,  especially  such  as  flatter  the  pas- 
sions.  If  unbridled  license  of  speech  and  of  writing  be  granted  to 
all,  nothing  will  remain  sacred  and  inviolate;   even  the  highest 
and  truest  mandates  of  nature,  justly  held  to  be  the  common  and 
noblest  heritage  of  the  human  race,  will  not  be  spared.  Thus,  truth 
being  gradually  obscured  by  darkness,  pernicious  and  manifold 
error,  as  too  of  ten -happens,  will  easily  prevail.   Thus,  too,  license 
will  gain  what  liberty  loses;  for  liberty  will  ever  be  more  free  and 
secure,  in  proportion  as  license  is  kept  in  fuller  restraint.  In  regard, 
however,  to  all  matters  of  opinion  which  God  leaves  to  man's  free 
discussion,  full  liberty  of  thought  and  of  speech  is  naturally  within 
the  right  of  every  one;  for  such  liberty  never  leads  men  to  suppress 
the  truth,  but  often  to  discover  it  and  make  it  known. 

97.  A  like  judgment  must  be  passed  upon  what  is  called  liberty 
of  teaching.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  truth  alone  should  imbue 
the  minds  of  men;  for  in  it  are  found  the  well-being,  the  end,  and 
the  perfection  of  every  intelligent  nature;  and,  therefore,  nothing 
but  truth  should  be  taught  both  to  the  ignorant  and  to  the  edu- 


SAEPE    NOS  [98-100] 

cated,  so  as  to  bring  knowledge  .to  those  who  have  it  not,  and  to 
preserve  it  in  those  who  possess  it.  For  this  reason  it  is  plainly 
the  duty  of  all  who  teach  to  banish  error  from  the  mind,  and  by 
sure  safeguards  to  close  the  entry  to  all  false  convictions.  From  this 
it  follows,  as  is  evident,  that  the  liberty  of  which  We  have  been 
speaking,  is  greatly  opposed  to  reason,  and  tends  absolutely  to  per- 
vert men's  minds,  inasmuch  as  it  claims  for  itself  the  right  of 
teaching  whatever  it  pleases— a  liberty  which  the  State  cannot  grant 
without  failing  in  its  duty.  And  the  more  so,  because  the  authority 
of  teachers  has  great  weight  with  their  hearers,  who  can  rarely 
decide  for  themselves  as  to  the  truth  or  falsehood  of  the  instruction 
given  to  them. 

98 Unless  it  be  otherwise  determined,  by  reason  of 

some  exceptional  condition  of  things,  it  is  expedient  to  take  part 
in  the  administration  of  public  affairs.  And  the  Church  approves 
of  every  one  devoting  his  services  to  the  common  good,  and  doing 
all  that  he  can  for  the  defense,  preservation  and  prosperity  of  his 

99.  Neither  does  the  Church  condemn  those  who,  if  it  can  be 
done  without  violation  of  justice,  wish  to  make  their  country  inde- 
pendent of  any  foreign  or  despotic  power.  Nor  does  she  blame 
those  who  wish  to  assign  to  the  State  the  power  of  self-government, 
and  to  its  citizens  the  greatest  possible  measure  of  prosperity.  The 
Church  has  always  most  faithfully  fostered  civil  liberty,  and  this 
was  seen  especially  in  Italy,  in  the  municipal  prosperity,  and  wealth, 
and  glory,  which  were  obtained  at  a  time  when  the  salutary  power 
of  the  Church  had  spread,  without  opposition,  to  all  parts  of  the 


The  Pope  desires  to  see  Ireland  free  again  but  he  de- 
plores the  use  of  violence  to  obtain  this  freedom. 

June  24,  1888 

100 The  condition  of  Ireland  affects  Us  more  than 

anyone,  and  We  desire  nothing  more  anxiously  than  to  see  the  Irish 

39  Translation  from  Furey,  Life  of  Leo  XIII  and  History  of  His  Pontificate,  pp.  168-169. 
Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  21,  pp.  4-5  (1888). 


[IOI-I02]  LEO    XIII 

at  last,  after  having  secured  the  peace  and  just  prosperity  they  have 
merited,  breathe  freedom  once  again.  We  have  never  disputed 
their  right  to  seek  to  better  their  condition;  but  can  anyone  be 
permitted  to  have  recourse  to  crime  as  a  means?  Far  from  it;  for, 
with  the  irruption  of  the  passions  and  party  political  interests,  good 
and  evil  are  mingled  in  the  same  cause.  We  are  constantly  called 
upon  to  distinguish  what  is  honorable  from  what  is  not  so,  and 
to  turn  Catholics  away  from  everything  that  the  rule  of. Christian 
morality  does  not  approve.  .  .  . 

101.  ...  Our  office  forbade  Us  to  tolerate  that  so  many  Cath- 
olics, whose  salvation  is  especially  entrusted  to  Us,  should  follow 
a  dangerous  and  slippery  path,  better  calculated  to  destroy  every- 
thing than  to  assuage  misfortune.  The  question  must  be  looked 
at,  then,  in  accordance  with  truth;  and  Ireland  should  recognize 
in  that  very  decree  Our  love  for  her  and  Our  desire  that  she  pros- 
per, because  nothing  is  more  fatal  to  a  cause,  no  matter  how  just  it 
may  be,  than  that  it  be  defended  by  violence  and  injustice 



The  Pope  frays  for  real  peace,  the  peace  of  order. 
December  25,  1888 

102 You  see,  O  Lord,  how  the  winds  blow  from 

every  quarter  and  how  the  sea  swells  in  its  violently  throbbing 
waves.  Command  the  winds  and  the  waves,  We  beseech  You  Who 
alone  can  do  it.  Give  to  mankind  the  real  peace  which  the  world 
cannot  give,  the  peace  of  order.  Let  men,  through  Your  grace  and 
acting  on  Your  impulse,  return  to  the  order  wished  for,  by  making 
live  again  as  they  ought  piety  towards  God,  justice  and  charity 
towards  our  neighbor,  temperance  in  regard  to  themselves,  subduing 
the  passions  by  reason.  May  Thy  Kingdom  come,  and  may  those 
also  who  by  vain  toil  seek  far  from  You  truth  and  salvation  under- 
stand that  they  must  submit  to  and  obey  You.  Your  laws  are 
permeated  with  equity  and  paternal  kindness,  and  You  Yourself 
give  us  the  power  to  live  up  to  them  with  ease.  Man's  life  on  earth 

40  Translation  from  Furey,  Life  of  Leo  XIII  and  History  of  His  Pontificate,  p.  276. 
Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  21,  p.  334  (1888). 


NOSTIS    ERR ORE M  [103-104] 

is  a  struggle,  but  "You  take  that  struggle  into  account  and  help 
man  to  triumph;  You  raise  him  up  when  he  falls,  and  You  crown 
him  in  his  victory."41 


Peace  has  its  foundation  in  justice  and  charity  and  the 
Church  has  always  promoted  the  practice  of  these  two 

February  11,  1889 

103 And  there  is  yet  another  consideration  why  the 

present  is  a  most  fitting  opportunity.  If  ever  there  was  a  time  when 
peace  was  unanimously  desired  by  the  world  it  is  surely  to-day, 
when  words  of  peace,  rest,  and  repose  are  on  all  lips.  The  sovereign 
princes  and  all  those  who  in  Europe  guide  public  affairs  declare 
that  all  they  desire,  that  the  one  object  of  their  aims,  is  to  make 
sure  of  peace,  and  herein  they  speak  with  the  full  consent  of  all 
classes  of  society,  for  the  hatred  the  nations  have  of  war  is  daily 
more  clearly  shown.  This  hatred  is  a  most  proper  one,  for  if  war 
is  sometimes  necessary,  it  always  brings  in  its  train  very  many 
miseries.  But  how  much  more  calamitous  would  it  not  be  to-day, 
when  the  number  of  soldiers  is  so  great,  the  progress  of  the  military 
art  so  highly  developed,  and  the  number  of  instruments  of  destruc- 
tion so  multiplied?  Whenever  We  let  Our  thoughts  rest  on  this, 
We  feel  Ourself  filled  more  and  more  with  charity  for  the  Christian 
peoples,  and  We  cannot  keep  from  trembling  for  the  dangers  which 
threaten  them.  There  is,  therefore,  nothing  of  more  importance 
than  to  remove  from  Europe  the  danger  of  war,  and  all  that  is 
done  with  that  object  deserves  to  be  considered  as  a  contribution 
to  the  public  safety. 

104.  But  the  wish  does  not  do  much  to  render  peace  assured, 
and  the  mere  desire  for  peace  is  not  a  sufficient  guarantee.  Again, 
the  vast  number  of  soldiers  and  the  stupendous  armaments  may 
for  a  while  prevent  an  enemy  attacking,  but  they  can  never  secure 
a  sure  and  lasting  peace.  Moreover,  armaments  which  are  a  menace 
are  fitter  rather  to  hasten  than  retard  a  conflict;  they  fill  the  mind 

41  Cf.  St.  Augustine,  In  psalmum  32,  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  36,  c.  279. 
*2  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  73,  pp.  281-282  (February  23,  1889).   Original 
Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  21,  pp.  386-388  (1889). 


[105-108]  LEO    XIII 

with  disquietude  for  the  future,  and  among  other  drawbacks  they 
have  this,  that  they  impose  such  burdens  upon  the  nations  that  it 
is  doubtful  if  war  would  not  be  more  bearable. 

105.  Wherefore  We  must  seek  for  peace  some  basis  more  sound 
and  more  in  accordance  with  nature;  for  if  nature  does  not  forbid 
one  to  defend  one's  rights  by  force,  she  does  not  permit  that  force 
should  become  the  efficient  cause  of  right.    Since  peace  is  based 
upon  good  order,  it  follows  that,  for  empires  as  well  as  for  individ- 
uals, concord  should  have  her  principal  foundation  in  justice  and 

1 06.  To   commit   no   wrong   against   another,   to   respect   the 
sanctity  of  another's  rights,  to  practice  mutual  trust  and  good  will, 
these  are  indeed  the  unchanging  and  most  lasting  bonds  of  peace, 
whose  virtue  is  such  that  she  stifles  even  the  germs  of  hatred  and 

107.  But  God  has  made  His  Church  guardian  and  mother  of 
the  two  virtues  of  which  We  speak,  on  which  account  she  has  had 
and  will  have  nothing  closer  to  her  heart  than  to  uphold,  to  spread 
and  to  protect  the  laws  of  justice  and  charity.  For  this  purpose  she 
has  overrun  all  parts  of  the  earth;  and  all  the  world  knows  that, 
having  tamed  the  barbarian  races  by  inspiring  them  with  love  of 
justice,  she  has  led  them  from  the  ferocity  of  their  warlike  habits  to 
the  practice  of  the  arts  of  peace  and  civilization.  To  the  little  and  to 
the  great,  to  those  who  obey  and  to  those  who  command,  she  alike 
imposes  the  duty  of  observing  justice  and  of  attacking  no  one  wrong- 
fully. It  is  the  Church  who,  in  spite  of  distance,  in  spite  of  the  differ- 
ences of  races,  has  joined  together  all  peoples  by  friendship  and 
brotherly  charity.  Mindful  ever  of  the  laws  and  the  example  of  her 
Divine  Founder,  Who  desired  to  be  called  the  King  of  Peace,  and 
Whose  birth  was  even  announced  in  heavenly  canticles  of  peace,  she 
wishes  men  to  rest  in  the  beauty  of  peace,  and  she  ceases  not  from 
praying  to  obtain  of  God  that  He  will  preserve  the  lives  and  the 
fortunes  of  the  nations  from  the  risks  of  war.  As  often  as  it  was  nec- 
essary, and  as  the  circumstances  permitted,  she  has  labored  with  all 
her  heart,  by  interposing  her  authority,  to  re-establish  concord  and 
the  peace  of  States. 

1 08.  These  considerations  and  motives,  most  great  and  most 
holy,  inspire  Our  actions,  Venerable  Brethren,  and  We  obey  them. 
Whatever  events  the  future  may  bring  forth,  whatever  may  be  the 


judgments  or  the  actions  of  men,  We  shall  always  act  in  accordance 
with  this  rule,  and  from  it  We  are  convinced  We  shall  never  depart. 
In  any  case,  if  We  cannot  otherwise  contribute  to  the  preservation 
of  peace,  We  shall  still  have  this  resource,  which  no  one  can  take 
from  Us,  that  We  shall  continue  to  have  recourse  to  Him  Who 
can  recall  the  mind  of  man  whence,  and  send  it  whither,  He  wills; 
and  We  shall  earnestly  beseech  Him  that,  all  fear  of  war  being 
removed,  and  the  regular  order  of  things  being,  by  His  mercy, 
restored,  He  may  grant  Europe  to  rest  upon  true  and  firm  foun- 

ENCYCLICAL  Sapientiae  Christianae  ON  THE  CHIEF  DUTIES  OF 

The  citizen  owes  obedience  both  to  God  and  to  his 
country  but  in  cases  of  conflict  between  these  two  pow- 
ers he  must  obey  God  rather  than  men. 

January  10,  1890 

109 But  the  man  who  has  embraced  the  Christian 

faith,  as  in  duty  bound,  is  by  that  very  fact  a  subject  of  the  Church 
as  one  of  the  children  born  of  her,  and  becomes  a  member  of  that 
greatest  and  holiest  body,  which  it  is  the  special  charge  of  the 
Roman  Pontiff  to  rule  with  supreme  power,  under  its  Invisible 
Head,  Jesus  Christ. 

1 10.  Now,  if  the  natural  law  enjoins  us  to  love  devotedly  and 
to  defend  the  country  in  which  we  had  birth,  and  in  which  we 
were  brought  up,  so  that  every  good  citizen  hesitates  not  to  face 
death  for  his  native  land,  very  much  more  is  it  the  urgent  duty  of 
Christians  to  be  ever  quickened  by  like  feelings  toward  the  Church. 
For  the  Church  is  the  holy  city  of  the  living  God,  born  of  God 
Himself,  and  by  Him  built  up  and  established.  Upon  this  earth 
indeed  she  accomplishes  her  pilgrimage,  but  by  instructing  and 
guiding  men,  she  summons  them  to  eternal  happiness.  We  are 
bound,  then,  to  love  dearly  the  country  whence  we  have  received 
the  means  of  enjoyment  this  mortal  life  affords,  but  we  have  a  much 
more  urgent  obligation  to  love,  with  ardent  love,  the  Church  to 

43  Translation  from  The  Great  'Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.   183-186. 
Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  22,  pp.  387-389  (1889-1890). 


which  we  owe  the  life  of  the  soul,  a  life  that  will  endure  forever. 
For  fitting  it  is  to  prefer  the  good  of  the  soul  to  the  well-being 
of  the  body,  inasmuch  as  duties  toward  God  are  of  a  far  more 
hallowed  character  than  those  toward  men. 

in.  Moreover,  if  we  would  judge  aright,  the  supernatural  love 
for  the  Church  and  the  natural  love  of  our  own  country  proceed 
from  the  same  eternal  principle,  since  God  Himself  is  their  Author 
and  originating  Cause.  Consequently,  it  follows  that  between  the 
duties  they  respectively  enjoin,  neither  can  come  into  collision  with 
the  other.  We  can,  certainly,  and  should  love  ourselves,  bear  our- 
selves kindly  towards  our  fellow  men,  nourish  affection  for  the 
State  and  the  governing  powers;  but  at  the  same  time  we  can  and 
must  cherish  towards  the  Church  a  feeling  of  filial  piety,  and  love 
God  with  the  deepest  love  of  which  we  are  capable.  The  order  of 
precedence  of  these  duties  is,  however,  at  times,  either  under  stress 
of  public  calamities,  or  through  the  perverse  will  of  men,  inverted. 
For  instances  occur  where  the  State  seems  to  require  from  men  as 
subjects  one  thing,  and  religion,  from  men  as  Christians,  quite 
another;  and  this  in  reality  without  any  other  ground,  than  that 
the  rulers  of  the  State  either  hold  the  sacred  power  of  the  Church 
of  no  account,  or  endeavor  to  subject  it  to  their  own  will.  Hence 
arises  a  conflict,  and  an  occasion,  through  such  conflict,  of  virtue 
being  put  to  the  proof.  The  two  powers  are  confronted  and  urge 
their  behests  in  a  contrary  sense;  to  obey  both  is  wholly  impossible. 
No  man  can  serve  two  masters?*  for  to  please  the  one  amounts 
to  contemning  the  other, 

112.  As  to  which  should  be  preferred  no  one  ought  to  hesitate 
for  an  instant.  It  is  a  high  crime  indeed  to  withdraw  allegiance 
from  God  in  order  to  please  men;  an  act  of  consummate  wicked- 
ness to  break  the  laws  of  Jesus  Christ,  in  order  to  yield  obedience 
to  earthly  rulers,  or,  under  pretext  of  keeping  the  civil  law,  to  ignore 
the  rights  of  the  Church;  we  ought  to  obey  God  rather  than  men^ 
This  answer,  which  of  old  Peter  and  the  other  Apostles  were  used 
to  give  the  civil  authorities  who  enjoined  unrighteous  things,  we 
must,  in  like  circumstances,  give  always  and  without  hesitation. 
No  better  citizen  is  there,  whether  in  time  of  peace  or  war,  than 
the  Christian  who  is  mindful  of  his  duty;  but  such  a  one  should 

44 'Matthew,  VT,  24. 
45  Acts,  V,  29. 


QUUM    GRATA  [113-117] 

be  ready  to  suffer  all  things,  even  death  itself,  rather  than  abandon 
the  cause  of  God  or  of  the  Church. 

113.  Hence  they  who  blame,  and  call  by  die  name  of  sedition, 
this  steadfastness  of  attitude  in  the  choice  of  duty,  have  not  rightly 
apprehended  the  force  and  nature  of  true  law.  .  .  . 

114.  Hallowed,  therefore,  in  the  minds  of  Christians  is  the  very 
idea  of  public  authority,  in  which  they  recognize  some  likeness 
and  symbol  as  it  were  of  the  divine  Majesty,  even  when  it  is  exer- 
cised by  one  unworthy.  A  just  and  due  reverence  to  the  laws  abides 
in  them,  not  from  force  and  threats,  but  from  a  consciousness  of 
duty;  for  God  hath  not  given  us  the  spirit  of  fear.46 

115.  But  if  the  laws  of  the  State  are  manifestly  at  variance  with 
the  divine  law,  containing  enactments  hurtful  to  the  Church,  or 
conveying  injunctions  adverse  -to  the  duties  imposed  by  religion, 
or  if  they  violate  in  the  person  of  the  Supreme  Pontiff,  the  authority 
of  Jesus  Christ,  then  truly,  to  resist  becomes  a  positive  duty,  to  obey, 
a  crime;  a  crime,  moreover,  combined  with  misdemeanor  against 
the  State  itself,  inasmuch  as  every  offense  leveled  against  religion 
is  also  a  sin  against  the  State.  .  .  . 

116.  Wherefore,  to  love  both  countries,  that  of  earth  below  and 
that  of  heaven  above,  yet  in  such  mode  that  the  love  of  our  heavenly 
surpass  the  love  of  our  earthly  home,  and  that  human  laws  be  never 
set  above  the  divine  law,  is  the  essential  duty  of  Christians,  and  the 
fountain-head,  so  to  say,  from  which  all  other  duties  spring 


The  Pope  exhorts  the  Assembly  to  execute  its  resolu- 
tions in  peace  and  concord. 

June  14,  1890 

117 It  is  now  needful  that  the  unanimity  and  wisdom 

which  are  displayed  in  your  resolutions  should  be  equalled  by  the 
energy  and  the  concord  which  you  should  show  in  their  perform- 
ance. We  have  every  reason  to  expect  it,  for  all  that  you  have 
hitherto  done  fills  Us  with  glad  hopes  for  the  future.  You  have 

46 II  Timothy,  I,  7. 

47  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  76,  p.  52  (July  12,  1890).   Original  Latin,  Acta 
Leonis  XIII,  v.  10,  p.  153. 


[118-119]  LEO    XIII 

increased  Our  hope  by  your  protest  that  your  love  for  the  common 
Mother  of  the  faithful,  the  Holy  Church,  is  not  lessened  by  your 
love  of  country.  You  need  have  no  fear  that  your  duties  to  your 
country  are  likely  to  be  lessened  by  your  devotion  to  the  Church. 
The  Founder  and  Master  of  both,  Who  is  God,  has  sweetly  dis- 
posed all  things  that  the  good  which  you  do  to  safeguard  the  honor 
of  the  Church  may  bring  forth  on  the  country  of  which  you  are  a 
citizen  the  most  abundant  fruits  of  salvation. 


Leo  XIII  enunciates  the  principles  that  must  govern 
peaceful  relations  between  capital  and  labor. 

May  15,  1891 

1 1 8.  Once  the  passion  for  revolutionary  change  was  aroused— 
a  passion  long  disturbing  governments — it  was  bound  to  follow 
sooner  or  later  that  eagerness  for  change  would  pass  from  the 
political  sphere  over  into  the  related  field  of  economics.  In  fact,  new 
developments  in  industry,  new  techniques  striking  out  on  new  paths, 
changed  relations  of  employer  and  employee,  abounding  wealth 
among  a  very  small  number  and  destitution  among  the  masses, 
increased  self-reliance  on  the  part  of  workers  as  well  as  a  closer  bond 
of  union  with  one  another,  and,  in  addition  to  all  this,  a  decline  in 
morals  have  caused  conflict  to  break  forth.  The  momentous  nature 
of  the  questions  involved  in  this  conflict  is  evident  from  the  fact 
that  it  keeps  men's  minds  in  anxious  expectation,  occupying  the 
talents  of  the  learned,  the  discussions  of  the  wise  and  experienced, 
the  assemblies  of  the  people,  the  judgment  of  lawmakers,  and  the 
deliberations  of  rulers,  so  that  now  no  topic  more  strongly  holds 
men's  interests. 

119.  Therefore,  Venerable  Brethren,  with   the   cause  of   the 
Church  and  the  common  welfare  before  Us,  We  have  thought  it 
advisable,  following  Our  custom  on  other  occasions  when  We  issued 
to  you  the  Encyclicals  On  Political  Power,  On  Human  Liberty,  On 
the  Christian  Constitution  of  States,  and  others  of  similar  nature, 
which  seemed  opportune  to  refute  erroneous  opinions,  that  We 

48  Translation  from  Two  Basic  Social  Encyclicals.  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  23,  pp. 
641-670  (1891). 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [  120-122] 

ought  to  do  the  same  now,  and  for  the  same  reasons,  On  the  Con- 
dition  of  Workers.  We  have  on  occasion  touched  more  than  once 
upon  this  subject.  In  this  Encyclical,  however,  consciousness  of  Our 
Apostolic  office  admonishes  Us  to  treat  the  entire  question  thor- 
oughly, in  order  that  the  principles  may  stand  out  in  clear  light, 
and  the  conflict  may  thereby  be  brought  to  an  end  as  required  by 
truth  and  equity. 

120.  The  problem  is  difficult  to  resolve  and  is  not  free  from 
dangers.    It  is  hard  indeed  to  fix  the  boundaries  of  the  rights  and 
duties  within  which  the  rich  and  the  proletariat— those  who  furnish 
material  things  and  those  who  furnish  work— ought  to  be  restricted 
in  relation  to  each  other.  The  controversy  is  truly  dangerous,  for 
in  various  places  it  is  being  twisted  by  turbulent  and  crafty  men  to 
pervert  judgment  as  to  truth  and  seditiously  to  incite  the  masses. 

121.  In  any  event,  We  see  clearly,  and  all  are  agreed  that  the 
poor  must  be  speedily  and  fittingly  cared  for,  since  the  great  majority 
of  them  live  undeservedly  in  miserable  and  wretched  conditions. 
After  the  old  trade  guilds  had  been  destroyed  in  the  last  century, 
and  no  protection  was  substituted  in  their  place,  and  when  public 
institutions  and  legislation  had  cast  off  traditional  religious  teaching, 
it  gradually  came  about  that  the  present  age  handed  over  the 
workers,  each  alone  and  defenseless,  to  the  inhumanity  of  employers 
and  the  unbridled  greed  of  competitors.  A  devouring  usury,  although 
often  condemned  by  the  Church,  but  practiced  nevertheless  under 
another  form  by  avaricious  and  grasping  men,  has  increased  the 
evil;  and  in  addition  the  whole  process  of  production  as  well  as  trade 
in  every  kind  of  goods  has  been  brought  almost  entirely  under  the 
power  of  a  few,  so  that  a  very  few  rich  and  exceedingly  rich  men 
have  laid  a  yoke  almost  of  slavery  on  the  unnumbered  masses  of 
non-owning  workers. 

122.  To  cure  this  evil,  the  Socialists,  exciting  the  envy  of  the 
poor  toward  the  rich,  contend  that  it  is  necessary  to  do  away  with 
private  possession  of  goods  and  in  its  place  to  make  the  goods  of 
individuals  common  to  all,  and  that  the  men  who  preside  over  a 
municipality  or  wko  direct  the  entire  State  should  act  as  adminis- 
trators of  these  goods.  They  hold  that,  by  such  a  transfer  of  private 
goods  from  private  individuals  to  the  community,  they  can  cure  the 
present  evil  through  dividing  wealth  and  benefits  equally  among  the 
citizens.  But  their  program  is  so  unsuited  for  terminating  the  con- 


[123-125]  LEO    XIII 

flict  that  it  actually  injures  the  workers  themselves.  Moreover,  it  is 
highly  unjust,  because  it  violates  the  rights  of  lawful  owners,  per- 
verts the  functions  of  the  State,  and  throws  governments  into  utter 

123.  Clearly  the  essential  reason  why  those  who  engage  in  any 
gainful  occupation  undertake  labor,  and  at  the  same  time  the  end 
to  which  workers  immediately  look,  is  to  procure  property  for  them- 
selves and  to  retain  it  by  individual  right  as  theirs  and  as  their  very 
own.  When  the  worker  places  his  energy  and  his  labor  at  the  dis- 
posal of  another,  he  does  so  for  the  purpose  of  getting  the  means 
necessary  for  livelihood.    He  seeks  in  return  for  the  work  done, 
accordingly,  a  true  and  full  right  not  only  to  demand  his  wage  but 
to  dispose  of  it  as  he  sees  fit.  Therefore,  if  he  saves  something  by 
restricting  expenditures  and  invests  his  savings  in  a  piece  of  land 
in  order  to  keep  the  fruit  of  his  thrift  more  safe,  a  holding  of  this 
kind  is  certainly  nothing  else  than  his  wage  under  a  different  form; 
and  on  this  account  land  which  the  worker  thus  buys  is  necessarily 
under  his  full  control  as  much  as  the  wage  which  he  earned  by  his 
labor.  But,  as  is  obvious,  it  is  clearly  in  this  that  the  ownership  of 
movable  and  immovable  goods  consists.    Therefore,  inasmuch  as 
the  Socialists  seek  to  transfer  the  goods  of  private  persons  to  the 
community  at  large,  they  make  the  lot  of  all  wage  earners  worse, 
because  in  abolishing  the  freedom  to  dispose  of  wages  they  take 
away  from  them  by  this  very  act  the  hope  and  the  opportunity  of 
increasing  their  property  and  of  securing  advantages  for  themselves. 

124.  But,  what  is  of  more  vital  concern,  they  propose  a  remedy 
openly  in  conflict  with  justice,  inasmuch  as  nature  confers  on  man 
the  right  to  possess  things  privately  as  his  own 

125.  Rightly,  therefore,  the  human  race  as  a  whole,  moved  in 
no  wise  by  the  dissenting  opinions  of  a  few,  and  observing  nature 
carefully,  has  found  in  the  law  of  nature  itself  the  basis  of  the  dis- 
tribution of  goods,  and,  by  the  practice  of  all  ages,  has  consecrated 
private  possession  as  something  best  adapted  to  man's  nature  and 
to  peaceful  and  tranquil  living  together.    Now  civil  laws,  which, 
when  just,  derive  their  power  from  the  natural*  law  itself,  confirm 
and,  even  by  the  use  of  force,  protect  this  right  of  which  We  speak. 
And  this  same  right  has  been  sanctioned  by  the  authority  of  the 
divine  law,  which  forbids  us  most  strictly  even  to  desire  what 
belongs  to  another.    Thou  shalt  not  covet  thy  neighbor's  wije,  nor 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [126-128] 

his  house,  nor  his  field,  nor  his  maid-servant,  nor  his  ox,  nor  his  ass, 
nor  anything  that  is  his^ 

126.  Rights  of  this  kind  which  reside  in  individuals  are  seen 
to  have  much  greater  validity  when  viewed  as  fitted  into  and  con- 
nected with  the  obligations  of  human  beings  in  family  life. 

127.  There  is  no  question  that  in  choosing  a  state  of  life  it  is 
within  the  power  and  discretion  of  individuals  to  prefer  the  one  or 
the  other  state,  either  to  follow  the  counsel  of  Jesus  Christ  regarding 
virginity  or  to  bind  oneself  in  marriage.  No  law  of  man  can  abolish 
the  natural  and  primeval  right  of  marriage,  or  in  any  way  set  aside 
the  chief  purpose  of  matrimony  established  in  the  beginning  by  the 
authority  of  God:  Increase  and  multiply?®   Behold,  therefore,  the 
family,  or  rather  the  society  of  the  household,  a  very  small  society 
indeed,  but  a  true  one,  and  older  than  any  polity!    For  that  reason 
it  must  have  certain  rights  and  duties  of  its  own  entirely  inde- 
pendent of  the  State.   Thus,  right  of  ownership,  which  We  have 
shown  to  be  bestowed  on  individual  persons  by  nature,  must  be 
assigned  to  man  in  his  capacity  as  head  of  a  family.  Nay  rather, 
this  right  is  all  the  stronger,  since  the  human  person  in  family  life 
embraces  much  more. 

128.  It  is  a  most  sacred  law  of  nature  that  the  father  of  a  family 
see  that  his  offspring  are  provided  with  all  the  necessities  of  life, 
and  nature  even  prompts  him  to  desire  to  provide  and  to  furnish 
his  children,  who,  in  fact  reflect  and  in  a  sense  continue  his  person, 
with  the  means  of  decently  protecting  themselves  against  harsh 
fortune  in  the  uncertainties  of  life.   He  can  do  this  surely  in  no 
other  way  than  by  owning  fruitful  goods  to  transmit  by  inheritance 
to  his  children.  As  already  noted,  the  family,  like  the  State,  is  by 
the  same  token  a  society  in  the  strictest  sense  of  the  term,  and  it  is 
governed  by  its  own  proper  authority,  namely,  by  that  of  the  father. 
Wherefore,  assuming,  of  course,  that  those  limits  be  observed  which 
are  fixed  by  its  immediate  purpose,  the  family  assuredly  possesses 
rights,  at  least  equal  with  those  of  civil  society,  in  respect  to  choosing 
and  employing  the  things  necessary  for  its  protection  and  its  just 
liberty.  We  say  "at  least  equal"  because,  inasmuch  as  domestic  living 
together  is  prior  both  ia  thought  and  in  fact  to  uniting  into  a  P°li&> 
it  follows  that  its  rights  and  duties  are  also  prior  and  more  in  con- 

49  Deuteronomy,  V,  21. 

50  Genesis,  I,  28. 


[129-131]  LEO  XIXI 

formity  with  nature.  But  if  citizens,  if  families,  after  becoming 
participants  in  common  life  and  society,  were  to  experience  injury 
in  a  commonwealth  instead  of  help,  impairment  of  their  rights 
instead  of  protection,  society  would  be  something  to  be  repudiated 
rather  than  to  be  sought  for. 

129.  To  desire,  therefore,  that  the  civil  power  should  enter 
arbitrarily  into  the  privacy  of  homes  is  a  great  and  pernicious  error. 
If  a  family  perchance  is  in  such  extreme  difficulty  and  is  so  com- 
pletely without  plans  that  it  is  entirely  unable  to  help  itself,  it  is 
right  that  the  distress  be  remedied  by  public  aid,  for  each  individual 
family  is  a  part  of  the  community.    Similarly,  if  anywhere  there 
is  a  grave  violation  of  mutual  rights  within  the  family  walls,  public 
authority  shall  restore  to  each  his  right:  for  this  is  not  usurping  the 
rights  of  citizens,  but  protecting  and  confirming  them  with  just 
and  due  care.  Those  in  charge  of  public  affairs,  however,  must  stop 
here:  nature  does  not  permit  them  to  go  beyond  these  limits. 
Paternal  authority  is  such  that  it  can  be  neither  abolished  nor 
absorbed  by  the  State,  because  it  has  the  same  origin  in  common 
with  that  of  man's  own  life.  "Children  are  a  part  of  their  father," 
and,  as  it  were,  a  kind  of  extension  of  the  father's  person;  and, 
strictly  speaking,  not  through  themselves,  but  through  the  medium 
of  the  family  society  in  which  they  are  begotten,  they  enter  into  and 
participate  in  civil  society.  And  for  the  very  reason  that  children 
"are  by  nature  part  of  their  father  .  .  .  before  they  have  the  use  of 
free  will,  they  are  kept  under  the  care  of  their  parents."  51  Inasmuch 
as  the  Socialists,  therefore,  disregard  care  by  parents  and  in  its  place 
introduce  care  by  the  State,  they  act  against  natural  justice  and  dis- 
solve the  structure  of  the  home. 

130.  And  apart  from  the  injustice  involved,  it  is  also  only  too 
evident  what  turmoil  and  disorder  would  obtain  among  all  classes; 
and  what  a  harsh  and  odious  enslavement  of  citizens  would  result! 
The  door  would  be  open  to  mutual  envy,  detraction  and  dissension. 
If  incentives  to  ingenuity  and  skill  in  individual  persons  were  to  be 
abolished,  the  very  fountains  of  wealth  would  necessarily  dry  up; 
and  the  equality  conjured  up  by  the  Socialist  imagination  would,  in 
reality,  be  nothing  but  uniform  wretchedness  and  meanness  for  one 
and  all,  without  distinction. 

131.  From  all  these  considerations,  it  is  perceived  that  the  fun- 

51  St.  Thomas,  Summa  Theologica,  2a  aae,  Q.x,  art.  12. 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [132-134] 

damental  principle  of  Socialism  which  would  make  all  possessions 
public  property  is  to  be  utterly  rejected  because  it  injures  the  very 
ones  whom  it  seeks  to  help,  contravenes  the  .natural  rights  of  indi- 
vidual persons,  and  throws  the  functions  of  the  State  and  public 
peace  into  confusion.  Let  it  be  regarded,  therefore,  as  established 
that  in  seeking  help  for  the  masses  this  principle  before  all  is  to  be 
considered  as  basic,  namely,  that  private  ownership  must  be  pre- 
served inviolate.  With  this  understood,  We  shall  explain  whence 
the  desired  remedy  is  to  be  sought. 

132.  We  approach  the  subject  with  confidence  and  surely  by 
Our  right,  for  the  question  under  consideration  is  certainly  one  for 
which  no  satisfactory  solution  will  be  found  unless  religion  and  the 
Church  have  been  called  upon  to  aid.    Moreover,  since  the  safe- 
guarding of  religion  and  all  things  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Church  is  especially  Our  stewardship,  silence  on  Our  part  might 
be  regarded  as  failure  in  Our  duty. 

133.  Assuredly,  a  question  as  formidable  as  this  requires  the 
attention  and  effort  of  others  as  well,  namely,  the  heads  of  the 
State,  employers  and  the  rich,  and,  finally,  those  in  whose  behalf 
efforts  are  being  made,  the  workers  themselves.  Yet  without  hesi- 
tation We  affirm  that  if  the  Church  is  disregarded,  human  striving 
will  be  in  vain.  Manifestly,  it  is  the  Church  which  draws  from  the 
Gospel  the  teachings  through  which  the  struggle  can  be  composed 
entirely  or,  after  its  bitterness  is  removed,  can  certainly  become 
more  tempered.   It  is  the  Church,  again,  that  strives  not  only  to 
instruct  the  mind  but  to  regulate  by  her  precepts  the  life  and 
morals  of  individuals,  that  ameliorates  the  condition  of  the  work- 
ers through  her  numerous  and  beneficent  institutions,  and  that 
wishes  and  aims  to  have  the  thought  and  energy  of  all  classes  of 
society  united  to  this  end,  that  the  interests  of  the  workers  be 
protected  as  fully  as  possible.  And  to  accomplish  this  purpose  she 
holds  that  the  laws  and  the  authority  of  the  State,  within  reason- 
able limits,  ought  to  be  employed. 

134.  Therefore,  let  it  be  laid  down  in  the  first  place  that  a 
condition  of  human  existence  must  be  borne  with,  namely,  that 
in  civil  society  the  lowest  cannot  be  made  equal  with  the  highest. 
Socialists,  of  course,  agitate  the  contrary,  but  all  struggling  against 
nature  is  vain.  There  are  truly  very  great  and  very  many  natural 
differences  among  men.  Neither  the  talents,  nor  the  skill,  nor  the 


[135]  LEO   xiii 

health,  nor  the  capacities  of  all  are  the  same,  and  unequal  fortune 
follows  of  itself  upon  necessary  inequality  in  respect  to  these  en- 
dowments. And  clearly  this  condition  of  things  is  adapted  to  benefit 
both  individuals  and  the  community;  for  to  carry  on  its  affairs 
community  life  requires  varied  aptitudes  and  diverse  services,  and 
to  perform  these  diverse  services  men  are  impelled  most  by  differ- 
ences in  individual  property  holdings.  So  far  as  bodily  labor  is 
concerned,  man  even  before  the  Fall  was  not  destined  to  be  wholly 
idle;  but  certainly  what  his  will  at  that  time  would  have  freely 
embraced  to  his  soul's  delight,  necessity  afterwards  forced  him  to 
accept,  with  a  feeling  of  irksomeness  for  the  expiation  of  his  guilt. 
Cursed  be  the  earth  in  thy  wor\:  in  thy  labor  thou  shalt  eat  of  it 
all  the  days  of  thy  life?*  Likewise,  there  is  to  be  no  end  on  earth 
of  other  hardships,  for  the  evil  consequences  of  sin  are  hard,  trying, 
and  bitter  to  bear,  and  will  necessarily  accompany  men  even  to 
the  end  of  life.  Therefore,  to  suffer  and  endure  is  human,  and 
although  men  may  strive  in  all  possible  ways,  they  will  never  be 
able  by  any  power  or  art  wholly  to  banish  such  tribulations  from 
human  life.  If  any  claim  they  can  do  this,  if  they  promise  the  poor 
in  their  misery  a  life  free  from  all  sorrow  and  vexation  and  filled 
with  repose  and  perpetual  pleasures,  they  actually  impose  upon 
these  people  and  perpetrate  a  fraud  which  will  ultimately  lead  to 
evils  greater  than  the  present.  The  best  course  is  to  view  human 
affairs  as  they  are  and,  as  We  have  stated,  at  the  same  time  to  seek 
appropriate  relief  for  these  troubles  elsewhere. 

135.  It  is  a  capital  evil  with  respect  to  the  question  We  are 
discussing  to  take  for  granted  that  the  one  class  of  society  is  of  itself 
hostile  to  the  others,  as  if  nature  had  set  rich  and  poor  against  each 
other  to  fight  fiercely  in  implacable  war.  This  is  so  abhorrent  to 
reason  and  truth  that  the  exaqt  opposite  is  true;  for  just  as  in  the 
human  body  the  different  members  harmonize  with  one  another, 
whence  arises  that  disposition  ojfr  parts  and  proportion  in  the  hu- 
man figure  rightly  called  symmetry,  so  likewise  nature  has  com- 
manded in  the  case  of  the  State  that  the  two  classes  mentioned 
should  agree  harmoniously  and  should  properly  form  equally  bal- 
anced counterparts  to  each  other.  Each  needs  the  other  completely : 
neither  capital  can  do  without  labor,  nor  labor  without  capital. 
Concord  begets  beauty  and  order  in  things.  Conversely,  from  per- 

62  Genesis,  III,  17, 



petual  strife  there  must  arise  disorder  accompanied  by  bestial 
cruelty.  But  for  putting  an  end  to  conflict  and  for  cutting  away 
its  very  roots,  there  is  wondrous  and  multiple  power  in  Christian 
institutions.  And  first  and  foremost,  the  entire  body  of  religious 
teaching  and  practice,  of  which  the  Church  is  the  interpreter  and 
guardian,  can  pre-eminently  bring  together  and  unite  the  rich  and 
the  poor  by  recalling  these  two  classes  of  society  to  their  mutual 
duties,  and  in  particular  to  those  duties  which  derive  from  justice. 
Among  these  duties  the  following  concern  the  poor  and  the  work- 
ers: To  perform  entirely  and  conscientiously  whatever  work  has 
been  voluntarily  and  equitably  agreed  upon;  not  in  any  way  to 
injure  the  property  or  to  harm  the  person  of  employers;  in  protect- 
ing their  own  interests,  to  refrain  from  violence  and  never  to 
engage  in  rioting;  not  to  associate  with  vicious  men  who  craftily 
hold  out  exaggerated  hopes  and  make  huge  promises,  a  course 
usually  ending  in  vain  regrets  and  in  the  destruction  of  wealth. 
The  following  duties,  on  the  other  hand,  concern  rich  men  and 
employers:  workers  are  not  to  be  treated  as  slaves;  justice  demands 
that  the  dignity  of  human  personality  be  respected  in  them,  en- 
nobled as  it  has  been  through  what  we  call  the  Christian  character. 
If  we  hearken  to  natural  reason  and  to  Christian  philosophy,  gain- 
ful occupations  are  not  a  mark  of  shame  to  man,  but  rather  of 
respect,  as  they  provide  him  with  an  honorable  means  of  supporting 
life.  It  is  shameful  and  inhuman,  however,  to  use  men  as  things 
for  gain  and  to  put  no  more  value  on  them  than  what  they  are 
worth  in  muscle  and  energy.  Likewise,  it  is  enjoined  that  the 
religious  interests  and  the  spiritual  well-being  of  the  workers  re- 
ceive proper  consideration.  Wherefore,  it  is  the  duty  of  employers 
to  see  that  the  worker  is  free  for  adequate  periods  to  attend  to  his 
religious  obligations;  not  to  expose  anyone  to  corrupting  influences 
or  the  enticements  of  sin;  and  in  no  way  to  alienate  him  from  care 
for  his  family  and  the  practice  of  thrift.  Likewise,  more  work  is 
not  to  be  imposed  than  strength  can  endure,  nor  that  kind  of  work 
which  is  unsuited  to  a  worker's  age  or  sex.  Among  the  most  im- 
portant duties  of  employers  the  principal  one  is  to  give  every 
worker  what  is  justly  due  him.  Assuredly,  to  establish  a  rule  of 
pay  in  accord  with  justice,  many  factors  must  be  taken  into  ac- 
count. But,  in  general,  the  rich  and  employers  should  remember 
that  no  laws,  either  human  or  divine,  permit  them  for  their  own 


[136]  LEO    XIII 

profit  to  oppress  the  needy  and  the  wretched  or  to  seek  gain  from 
another's  want.  To  defraud  anyone  of  the  wage  due  him  is  a  great 
crime  that  calls  down  avenging  wrath  from  heaven.  Be  hold  f  the 
wages  of  the  laborers  .  .  .  which  have  been  \ept  bac\  by  you  un- 
justly }  cry  out:  and  their  cry  has  entered  into  the  ears  of  the  Lord 
of  Hosts?*  Finally,  the  rich  must  religiously  avoid  harming  in  any 
way  the  savings  of  the  workers  either  by  coercion,  or  by  fraud,  or 
by  the  arts  of  usury;  and  the  more  for  this  reason,  that  the  workers 
are  not  sufficiently  protected  against  injustices  and  violence,  and 
their  property,  being  so  meagre,  ought  to  be  regarded  as  all  the 
more  sacred*  Could  not  the  observance  alone  of  the  foregoing  laws 
remove  the  bitterness  and  the  causes  of  conflict? 

136.  But  the  Church,  with  Jesus  Christ  as  her  Teacher  and 
Leader,  seeks  greater  things  than  this;  namely,  by  commanding 
something  more  perfect,  she  aims  at  joining  the  two  social  classes 
to  each  other  in  closest  neighborliness  and  friendship.  We  cannot 
understand  and  evaluate  mortal  things  rightly  unless  the  mind 
reflects  upon  the  other  life,  the  life  which  is  immortal.  If  this 
other  life  indeed  were  taken  away,  the  form  and  true  notion  of 
the  right  would  immediately  perish;  nay,  this  entire  world  would 
become  an  enigma  insoluble  to  man.  Therefore,  what  we  learn 
from  nature  itself  as  our  teacher  is  also  a  Christian  dogma  and  on  it 
the  whole  system  and  structure  of  religion  rests,  as  it  were,  on 
its  main  foundation;  namely,  that,  when  we  have  left  this  life, 
only  then  shall  we  truly  begin  to  live.  God  has  not  created  man 
for  the  fragile  and  transitory  things  of  this  world,  but  for  heaven 
and  eternity,  and  He  has  ordained  the  earth  as  a  place  of  exile, 
not  as  our  permanent  home.  Whether  you  abound  in,  or  whether 
you  lack,  riches  and  all  the  other  things  which  are  called  good,  is 
of  no  importance  in  relation  to  eternal  happiness.  But  how  you 
use  them,  that  is  truly  of  utmost  importance.  Jesus  Christ  by  His 
"plentiful  redemption"  has  by  no  means  taken  away  the  various 
tribulations  with  which  mortal  life  is  interwoven,  but  has  so  clearly 
transformed  them  into  incentives  to  virtue  and  sources  of  merit 
that  no  mortal  can  attain  eternal  reward  unless  he  follow  the 
blood-stained  footsteps  of  Jesus  Christ.  //  we  endure,  we  shall  also 
reign  with  Him?*  By  the  labors  and  sufferings  which  He  volun- 

Timothy,  U,  12. 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [137] 

tarily  accepted.  He  has  wondrously  lightened  the  burden  of  suffer- 
ing and  labor,  and  not  only  by  His  example  but  also  by  His  grace 
and  by  holding  before  us  the  hope  of  eternal  reward,  He  has  made 
endurance  of  sorrows  easier:  for  our  present  light  affliction,  which 
is  for  the  moment,  prepares  for  us  an  eternal  weight  of  glory  that 
is  beyond  all  measured 

137.  Therefore,  the  well-to-do  are  admonished  that  wealth  does 
not  give  surcease  of  sorrow,  and  that  wealth  is  of  no  avail  unto 
the  happiness  of  eternal  life  but  is  rather  a  hindrance;56  that  the 
threats57  pronounced  by  Jesus  Christ,  so  unusual  coming  from  Him, 
ought  to  cause  the  rich  to  fear;  and  that  on  one  day  the  strictest 
account  for  the  use  of  wealth  must  be  rendered  to  God  as  Judge. 
On  the  use  of  wealth  we  have  the  excellent  and  extremely  weighty 
teaching,  which,  although  found  in  a  rudimentary  stage  in  pagan 
philosophy,  the  Church  has  handed  down  in  a  completely  devel- 
oped form  and  causes  to  be  observed  not  only  in  theory  but  in 
every-day  life.  The  foundation  of  this  teaching  rests  on  this,  that 
the  just  ownership  of  money  is  distinct  from  the  just  use  of  money. 
To  own  goods  privately,  as  We  saw  above,  is  a  right  natural  to 
man,  and  to  exercise  this  right,  especially  in  life  in  society,  is  not 
only  lawful,  but  clearly  necessary.  "It  is  lawful  for  man  to  own  his 
own  things.  It  is  even  necessary  for  human  life." 58  But  if  the 
question  be  asked:  How  ought  man  use  his  possessions?  the  Church 
replies  without  hesitation:  "As  to  this  point,  man  ought  not  re- 
gard external  goods  as  his  own,  but  as  common  so  that,  in  fact,  a 
person  should  readily  share  them  when  he  sees  others  in  need. 
Wherefore  the  Apostle  says:  Charge  the  rich  of  this  world  .  .  .  to 
give  readily,  to  share  with  others.'' 59  No  one,  certainly,  is  obliged 
to  assist  others  out  of  what  is  required  for  his  own  necessary  use 
or  for  that  of  his  family,  or  even  to  give  to  others  what  he  himself 
needs  to  maintain  his  station  in  life  becomingly  and  decently :  "No 
one  is  obliged  to  live  unbecomingly." co  But  when  the  demands  of 
necessity  and  propriety  have  been  sufficiently  met,  it  is  a  duty  to 
give  to  the  poor  out  of  that  which  remains.  Give  that  which  re- 

55 II  Corinthians,  IV,  17. 
**  Matthew,  XIX,  23-24. 

57  Luke,  VI,  24-25. 

58  St.  Thomas,  Summa  Theologica,  2a  2ae,  Q.  Ixvi,  art.  2. 

59  Ibid.,  2a  2ae,  Q.  Ixv,  art.  2. 

60  Ibid.,  2a  2ae,  Q.  xxxii,  art.  6. 


[138]  LEO     XIII 

mains  as  alms.61  These  are  duties  not  of  justice,  except  in  cases  of 
extreme  need,  but  of  Christian  charity,  which  obviously  cannot 
be  enforced  by  legal  action.  But  the  laws  and  judgments  of  men 
yield  precedence  to  the  law  and  judgment  of  Christ  the  Lord,  Who 
in  many  ways  urges  the  practice  of  alms-giving:  It  is  more  blessed 
to  give  than  to  receive?*  and  Who  will  judge  a  kindness  done  or 
denied  to  the  poor  as  done  or  denied  to  Himself.  As  long  as  you 
did  it  for  one  of  these,  the  least  of  My  brethren  you  did  it  for  MeS^ 
The  substance  of  all  this  is  the  following:  whoever  has  received 
from  the  bounty  of  God  a  greater  share  of  goods,  whether  corporeal 
and  external,  or  of  the  soul,  has  received  them  for  this  purpose, 
namely,  that  he  employ  them  for  his  own  perfection  and,  likewise, 
as  a  servant  of  Divine  Providence,  for  the  benefit  of  others.  "There- 
fore, he  that  hath  talent,  let  him  constantly  see  to  it  that  he  be  not 
silent;  he  that  hath  an  abundance  of  goods,  let  him  be  on  the 
watch  that  he  grow  not  slothful  in  the  generosity  of  mercy;  he 
that  hath  a  trade  whereby  he  supports  himself,  let  him  be  especially 
eager  to  share  with  his  neighbor  the  use  and  benefit  thereof."64 

138.  Those  who  lack  fortune's  goods  are  taught  by  the  Church 
that,  before  God  as  Judge,  poverty  is  no  disgrace,  and  that  no  one 
should  be  ashamed  because  he  makes  his  living  by  toil.  And  Jesus 
Christ  has  confirmed  this  by  fact  and  by  deed,  Who  for  the  salva- 
tion of  men,  being  rich,  became  poor;Q*  and  although  He  was  the 
Son  of  God  and  God  Himself,  yet  He  willed  to  seem  and  to  be 
thought  the  son  of  a  carpenter;  nay,  He  even  did  not  disdain  to 
spend  a  great  part  of  His  life  at  the  work  of  a  carpenter.  If  not 
this  the  carpenter  f  the  Son  of  Mary?QQ  Those  who  contemplate 
this  Divine  example  will  more  easily  understand  these  truths: 
true  dignity  and  excellence  in  men  resides  in  moral  living,  that  is, 
in  virtue;  virtue  is  the  common  inheritance  of  man,  attainable 
equally  by  the  humblest  and  the  mightiest,  by  the  rich  and  the 
poor;  and  the  reward  of  eternal  happiness  will  follow  upon  virtue 
and  merit  alone,  regardless  of  the  person  in  whom  they  may  be 
found.  Nay,  rather  the  favor  of  God  Himself  seems  to  incline  more 

61  Lttfa  XI,  41. 
**  Acts,  XX,  35. 
QZ  Matthew,  XXV,  40. 

64  St.  Gregory  the  Great,  In  Evavgelmm,  HomiUa  IX,  n.  7. 

65  II  Corinthians,  VIII,  9. 

k,  VI,  3. 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [139-140] 

toward  the  unfortunate  as  a  class;  for  Jesus  Christ  calls  the  poor67 
blessed,  and  He  invites  most  lovingly  all  who  are  in  labor  or  sor- 
row68 to  come  to  Him  for  solace,  embracing  with  special  love  the 
lowly  and  those  harassed  by  injustice.  At  the  realization  of  these 
things  the  proud  spirit  of  the  rich  is  easily  brought  down,  and  the 
downcast  heart  of  the  afflicted  is  lifted  up;  the  former  are  moved 
toward  kindness,  the  latter,  toward  reasonableness  in  their  de- 
mands. Thus  the  distance  between  the  classes  which  pride  seeks  is 
reduced,  and  it  will  easily  be  brought  to  pass  that  the  two  classes, 
with  hands  clasped  in  friendship,  will  be  united  in  heart. 

139.  Yet,  if  they  obey  Christian  teachings,  not  merely  friend- 
ship but  brotherly  love  also  will  bind  them  to  each  other.  They 
will  feel  and  understand  that  all  men  indeed  have  been  created 
by  God,  their  Common  Father;  that  all  strive  for  the  same  object  of 
good,  which  is  God  Himself,  Who  alone  can  communicate  to  both 
men  and  angels  perfect  and  absolute  happiness;  that  all  equally 
have  been  redeemed  by  the  grace  of  Jesus  Christ  and  restored  to 
the  dignity  of  the  sons  of  God,  so  that  they  are  clearly  united  by 
the  bonds  of  brotherhood  not  only  with  one  another  but  also  with 
Christ  the  Lord,  the  firstborn  among  many  brethren;  and  further, 
that  the  goods  of  nature  and  the  gifts  of  divine  grace  belong  in 
common  and  without  distinction  to  all  human  kind,  and  that  no 
one,  unless  he  is  unworthy,  will  be  deprived  of  the  inheritance 
of  heaven.   But  if  we  are  sons,  we  are  also  heirs:  heirs  indeed  of 
God  and  joint  heirs  with  Christ?®   Such  is  the  economy  of  duties 
and  rights  according  to  Christian  philosophy.   Would  it  not  seem 
that  all  conflict  would  soon  cease  wherever  this  economy  were  to 
prevail  in  civil  society? 

140.  Wherefore,  if  human  society  is  to  be  healed,  only  a  return 
to  Christian  life  and  institutions  will  heal  it.  In  the  case  of  decaying 
societies,  they  are  most  correctly  advised  that,  if  they  wish  to  be 
regenerated,  they  .must  be  recalled  to  their  origins.  For  the  perfec- 
tion of  all  associations  is  this,  namely,  to  work  for  and  to  attain 
the  purpose  for  which  they  were  formed,  so  that  all  social  actions 
should  be  inspired  by  the  same  principle  which  brought  the  society 
itself  into  being.  Wherefore,  turning  away  from  the  original  pur- 

**  Matthew,  V,  3. 
69  Romans,  VIII,  17. 


pose  is  corruption,  while  going  back  to  this  purpose  is  recovery. 
And  just  as  we  affirm  this  as  unquestionably  true  of  the  entire 
body  of  the  commonwealth,  in  like  manner  we  affirm  it  of  that 
order  of  citizens  who  sustain  life  by  labor  and  who  constitute  the 
vast  majority  of  society. 

141.  But  it  must  not  be  supposed  that  the  Church  so  concen- 
trates her  energies  on  caring  for  souls  as  to  overlook  things  which 
pertain  to  mortal  and  earthly  life.    As  regards  the  non-owning 
workers  specifically,  she  desires  and  strives  that  they  rise  from  their 
most  wretched  state  and  enjoy  better  conditions.    And  to  achieve 
this  result  she  makes  no  small  contribution  by  the  very  fact  that 
she  calls  men  to  and  trains  them  in  virtue.   For  when  Christian 
morals  are  completely  observed,  they  yield  of  themselves  a  certain 
measure  of  prosperity  to  material  existence,  because  they  win  the 
favor  of  God,  the  Source  and  Fountain  of  all  goods;  because  they 
restrain  the  twin  plagues  of  life — excessive  desire  for  wealth  and 
thirst70  for  pleasure — which  too  often  make  man  wretched  amidst 
the  very  abundance  of  riches;  and  because  finally,  Christian  morals 
make  men  content  with  a  moderate  livelihood  and  make  them 
supplement  income  by  thrift,  removing  them  far  from  the  vices 
which  swallow  up  both  modest  sums  and  huge  fortunes,  and  dissi- 
pate splendid  inheritances. 

142.  But,  in  addition,  the  Church  provides  directly  for  the  well- 
being  of  the  non-owning  workers  by  instituting  and  promoting 
activities  which  she  knows  to  be  suitable  to  relieve  their  distress. 
Nay,  even  in  the  field  of  works  of  mercy,  she  has  always  so  excelled 
that  she  is  highly  praised  by  her  very  enemies.  The  force  of  mutual 
charity  among  the  first  Christians  was  such  that  the  wealthier  very 
often  divested  themselves  of  their  riches  to  aid  others;  wherefore: 
Nor  was  there  anyone  among  them  in  wantJ^  To  the  deacons,  an 
order  founded  expressly  for  this  purpose,  the  Apostles  assigned  the 
duty  of  dispensing  alms  claily;  and  the  Apostle,  Paul,  although 
burdened  with  the  care  of  all  the  churches,  did  not  hesitate  to 
spend  himself  on  toilsome  journeys  in  order  to  bring  alms  person- 
ally to  the  poorer  Christians.    Monies  of  this  kind,  contributed 
voluntarily  by  the  Christians  in  every  assembly,  Tertullian  calls 
"piety's  deposit  fund,"  because  they  were  expended  "to  support 

T0 1  Timothy,  VI,  10. 
n  Acts,  IV,  34- 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [I43-J45] 

and  bury  poor  people,  to  supply  the  wants  of  orphan  boys  and 
girls  without  means  of  support,  of  aged  household  servants,  and  of 
such,  too,  as  had  suffered  shipwreck."72 

143.  Thence,  gradually  there  came  into  existence  that  patri- 
mony which  the  Church  has  guarded  with  religious  care  as  the 
property  of  the  poor.  Nay,  even  disregarding  the  feeling  of  shame 
associated  with  begging,  she  provided  aid  for  the  wretched  poor. 
For,  as  the  Common  Parent  of  rich  and  poor,  with  charity  every- 
where stimulated  to  the  highest  degree,  she  founded  religious  soci- 
eties and  numerous  other  useful  bodies,  so  that,  with  the  aid  which 
these  furnished,  there  was  scarcely  any  form  of  human  misery  that 
went  uncared  for.   And  yet  many  today  go  so  far  as  to  condemn 
the  Church,  as  the  ancient  pagans  once  did,  for  such  outstanding 
charity,  and  would  substitution  lieu  thereof  a  system  of  benevolence 
established  by  the  laws  of  the  State.   But  no  human  devices  can 
ever  be  found  to  supplant  Christian  charity,  which  gives  itself  en- 
tirely for  the  benefit  of  others.  This  virtue  belongs  to  the  Church 
alone,  for,  unless  it  is  derived  from  the  Most  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus, 
it  is  in  no  wise  a  virtue;  and  whosoever  departs  from  the  Church 
wanders  far  from  Christ. 

144.  But  there  can  be  no  question  that,  to  attain  Our  purpose, 
those  helps  also  which  are  within  the  power  of  men  are  necessary. 
Absolutely  all  who  are  concerned  with  the  matter  must,  according 
to  their  capacity,  bend  their  efforts  to  this  same  end  and  work  for 
it.   And  this  activity  has  a  certain  likeness  to  Divine  Providence 
governing  the  world;  for  generally  we  see  effects  flow  from  the 
concert  of  all  the  elements  upon  which  as  causes  these  effects  de- 
pend. But  it  is  now  in  order  to  inquire  what  portion  of  the  remedy 
should  be  expected  from  the  State.   By  State  here  We  understand 
not  the  form  of  government  which  this  or  that  people  has,  but 
rather  that  form  which  right  reason  in  accordance  with  nature 
requires  and  the  teachings  of  Divine  Wisdom  approve,  matters 
that  We  have  explained  specifically  in  Our  Encyclical  On  the  Chris- 
tian Constitution  of  States. 

145.  Therefore,  those  governing  the  State  ought  primarily  to 
devote  themselves  to  the  service  of  individual  groups  and  of  the 
whole  commonwealth,  and  through  the  entire  scheme  of  laws  and 
institutions  to  cause  both  public  and  individual  well-being  to  de- 

72  Apologia  Secunda,  XXXIX. 


[146]  LEO    XIII 

velop  spontaneously  out  of  the  very  structure  and  administration 
of  the  State.  For  this  is  the  duty  of  wise  statesmanship  and  the 
essential  office  of  those  in  charge  of  the  State.  Now,  States  are  made 
prosperous  especially  by  wholesome  morality,  properly  ordered 
family  life,  protection  of  religion  and  justice,  moderate  imposition 
and  equitable  distribution  of  public  burdens,  progressive  develop- 
ment of  industry  and  trade,  thriving  agriculture,  and  by  all  other 
things  of  this  nature,  which,  the  more  actively  they  are  promoted, 
the  better  and  happier  the  life  of  the  citizens  is  destined  to  be. 
Therefore,  by  virtue  of  these  things,  it  is  within  the  competence  of 
the  rulers  of  the  State  that,  as  they  benefit  other  groups,  they  also 
improve  in  particular  the  condition  of  the  workers.  Furthermore, 
they  do  this  with  full  right  and  without  laying  themselves  open  to 
any  charge  of  unwarranted  interference.  For  the  State  is  bound  by 
the  very  law  of  its  office  to  serve  the  common  interest.  And  the 
richer  the  benefits  which  come  from  this  general  providence  on  the 
part  of  the  State,  the  less  necessary  it  will  be  to  experiment  with 
other  measures  for  the  well-being  of  workers. 

146.  This  ought  to  be  considered,  as  it  touches  the  question 
more  deeply;  namely,  that  the  State  has  one  basic  purpose  for 
existence,  which  embraces  in  common  the  highest  and  the  lowest 
of  its  members.  Non-owning  workers  are  unquestionably  citizens 
by  nature  in  virtue  of  the  same  right  as  the  rich;  that  is,  true  and 
vital  parts  whence,  through  the  medium  of  families,  the  body  of  the 
State  is  constituted;  and  it  hardly  need  be  added  that  they  are  by 
far  the  greatest  number  in  every  urban  area.  Since  it  would  be 
quite  absurd  to  look  out  for  one  portion  of  the  citizens  and  to 
neglect  another,  it  follows  that  public  authority  ought  to  exercise 
due  care  in  safe-guarding  the  well-being  and  the  interests  of  non- 
owning  workers.  Unless  this  is  done,  justice,  which  commands  that 
everyone  be  given  his  own,  will  be  violated.  Wherefore  St.  Thomas 
says  wisely:  "Even  as  part  and  whole  are  in  a  certain  way  the  same, 
so,  too,  that  which  pertains  to  the  whole,  pertains  in  a  certain  way 
to  the  part  also."73  Consequently,  among  the  numerous  and 
weighty  duties  of  rulers  who  would  serve  their  people  well,  this  is 
first  and  foremost:  namely,  that  they  protect  equitably  each  and 
every  class  of  citizens,  maintaining  inviolate  that  justice  especially 
which  is  called  distributive. 
73  Summa  Theologica,  2a  2ae,  Q.  Ixi,  art.  i  ad  2, 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [147-148] 

147.  Although  all  citizens,  without  exception,  are  obliged  to 
contribute  something  to  the  sum-total  of  common  goods,   some 
share  of  which  naturally  goes  back  to  individuals,  yet  all  can  by 
no  means  contribute  the  same  amount  and  in  equal  degree.  What- 
ever the  vicissitudes  that  occur  in  the  forms  of  government,  there 
will  always  be  those  differences  in  the  condition  of  citizens  without 
which  society  could  neither  exist  nor  be  conceived.  It  is  altogether 
necessary   that   there   be   some   who   dedicate   themselves   to   the 
service  of  the  State,  who  make  laws,  who  dispense  justice,  and, 
finally,  by  whose  counsel  and  authority  civil  and  military  affairs 
are  administered.  These  men,  as  is  clear,  play  the  chief  role  in  the 
State,  and  among  every  people  are  to  be  regarded  as  occupying  first 
place,  because  they  work  for  the  common  good  most  directly  and 
pre-eminently.   On  the  other  hand,  those  engaged  in  some  calling 
benefit  the  State,  but  not  in  the  same  way  as  the  men  just  men- 
tioned, nor  by  performing  the  same  dudes;  yet  they,  too,  in  a  high 
degree,  although  less  directly,  serve  the  public  weal.    Assuredly, 
since  social  good  must  be  of  such  a  character  that  men  through  its 
acquisition  are  made  better,  it  must  necessarily  be  founded  chiefly 
on  virtue.   Nevertheless,  an  abundance  of  corporeal  and  external 
goods  is  likewise  a  characteristic  of  a  well  constituted  State,  "the 
use  of  which  goods  is  necessary  for  the  practice  of  virtue."74   To 
produce  these  goods  the  labor  of  the  workers,  whether  they  expend 
their  skill  and  strength  on  farms  or  in  factories,  is  most  efficacious 
and  necessary.  Nay,  in  this  respect,  their  energy  and  effectiveness 
are  so  important  that  it  is  incontestable  that  the  wealth  of  nations 
originates  from  no  other  source  than  from  the  labor  of  workers. 
Equity,  therefore,  commands  that  public  authority  show  proper 
concern  for  the  worker  so  that  from  what  he  contributes  to  the 
common  good  he  may  receive  what  will  enable  him,  housed, 
clothed  and  secure,  to  live  his  life  without  hardship.   Whence,  it 
follows  that  all  those  measures  ought  to  be  favored  which  seem  in 
any  way  capable  of  benefiting  the  condition  of  workers.  Such  solici- 
tude is  so  far  from  injuring  anyone,  that  it  is  destined  rather  to 
benefit  all,  because  it  is  of  absolute  interest  to  the  State  that  those 
citizens  should  not  be  miserable  in  every  respect  from  whom  such 
necessary  goods  proceed. 

148.  It  is  not  right,  as  We  have  said,  for  either  the  citizen  or 

r4St.  Thomas,  De  Regimine  Principum,  I,  c.  15. 


[l49]  LEO    XIII 

the  family  to  be  absorbed  by  the  State;  it  is  proper  that  the  individ- 
ual and  the  family  should  be  permitted  to  retain  their  freedom 
of  action,  so  far  as  this  is  possible  without  jeopardizing  the  common 
good  and  without  injuring  anyone.  Nevertheless,  those  who  govern 
must  see  to  it  that  they  protect  the  community  and  its  constituent 
parts:  the  community,  because  nature  has  entrusted  its  safeguarding 
to  the  sovereign  power  in  the  State  to  such  an  extent  that  the  pro- 
tection of  the  public  welfare  is  not  only  the  supreme  law,  but  is  the 
entire  cause  and  reason  for  sovereignty;  and  the  constituent  parts, 
because  philosophy  and  Christian  faith  agree  that  the  administra- 
tion of  the  State  has  from  nature  as  its  purpose,  not  the  benefit  of 
those  to  whom  it  has  been  entrusted,  but  the  benefit  of  those  who 
have  been  entrusted  to  it.  And  since  the  power  of  governing  comes 
from  God  and  is  a  participation,  as  it  were,  in  His  supreme  sover- 
eignty, it  ought  to  be  administered  according  to  the  example  of 
the  Divine  power,  which  looks  with  paternal  care  to  the  welfare 
of  individual  creatures  as  well  as  to  that  of  all  creation.  If,  there- 
fore, any  injury  has  been  done  to  or  threatens  either  the  common 
good  or  the  interest  of  individual  groups,  which  injury  cannot  in 
any  other  way  be  repaired  or  prevented,  it  is  necessary  for  public 
authority  to  intervene. 

149.  It  is  vitally  important  to  public  as  well  as  to  private  wel- 
fare that  there  be  peace  and  good  order;  likewise,  that  the  whole 
regime  of  family  life  be  directed  according  to  the  ordinances  of 
God  and  the  principles  of  nature,  that  religion  be  observed  and 
cultivated.,  that  sound  morals  flourish  in  private  and  public  life, 
that  justice  be  kept  sacred  and  that  no  one  be  wronged  with  im- 
punity by  another,  and  that  strong  citizens  grow  up,  capable  of 
supporting,  and,  if  necessary,  of  protecting  the  State.  Wherefore, 
if  at  any  time  disorder  should  threaten  because  of  strikes  or  con- 
certed stoppages  of  work,  if  the  natural  bonds  of  family  life  should 
be  relaxed  among  the  poor,  if  religion  among  the  workers  should 
be  outraged  by  failure  to  provide  sufficient  opportunity  for  per- 
forming religious  duties,  if  in  factories  danger  should  assail  the 
integrity  of  morals  through  the  mixing  of  the  sexes  or  other  per- 
nicious incitements  to  sin,  or  if  the  employer  class  should  oppress 
the  working  class  with  unjust  burdens  or  should  degrade  them 
with  conditions  inimical  to  human  personality  or  to  human  dignity, 
if  health  should  be  injured  by  immoderate  work  and  such  as  is  not 


RERUMNOVARUM  .  [  150-152  j 

suited  to  sex  or  age — in  all  these  cases,  the  power  and  authority  oi 
the  law,  but  of  course  within  certain  limits,  manifestly  ought  to  be 
employed.  And  these  limits  are  determined  by  the  same  reason 
which  demands  the  aid  of  the  law,  that  is,  the  law  ought  not  under- 
take more,  nor  ought  it  go  farther,  than  the  remedy  of  evils  or  the 
removal  of  danger  requires. 

150.  Rights  indeed,  by  whomsoever  possessed,  must  be  reli- 
giously protected;  and  public  authority,  in  warding  off  injuries  and 
punishing  wrongs,  ought  to  see  to  it  that  individuals  may  have 
and  hold  what  belongs  to  them.  In  protecting  the  rights  of  private 
individuals,  however,  special  consideration  must  be  given  to  the 
weak  and  the  poor.  For  the  nation,  as  it  were,  of  the  rich,  is  guarded 
by  its  own  defenses  and  is  in  less  need  of  governmental  protec- 
tion, whereas  the  suffering  multitude,  without  the  means  to  protect 
itself,  relies  especially  on  the  protection  of  the  State.   Wherefore, 
since  wage  workers  are  numbered  among  the  great  mass  of  the 
needy,  the  State  must  include  them  under  its  special  care  and  fore- 

151.  But  it  will  be  well  to  touch  here  expressly  on  certain 
matters  of  special  importance.  The  capital  point  is  this,  that  private 
property  ought  to  be  safeguarded  by  the  sovereign  power  of  the 
State  and  through  the  bulwark  of  its  laws.  And  especially,  in  view 
of  such  a  great  flaming  up  of  passion  at  the  present  time,  the  masses 
ought  to  be  kept  within  the  bounds  of  their  moral  obligations.  For, 
while  justice  does  not  oppose  our  striving  for  better  things,  on  the 
other  hand,  it  does  forbid  anyone  to  take  from  another  what  is  his 
and,  in  the  name  of  a  certain  absurd  equality,  to  seize  forcibly  the 
property  of  others;  nor  does  the  interest  of  the  common  good  itself 
permit  this.  Certainly,  the  great  majority  of  working  people  prefer 
to  secure  better  conditions  by  honest  toil,  without  doing  wrong  to 
anyone.  Nevertheless,  not  a  few  individuals  are  found  who,  imbued 
with  evil  ideas  and  eager  for  revolution,  use  every  means  to  stir  up 
disorder  and  incite  to  violence.  The  authority  of  the  State,  therefore, 
should  intervene  and,  by  putting  restraint  upon  such  disturbers, 
protect  the  morals  of  workers  from  their  corrupting  arts  and  lawful 
owners  from  the  danger  of  spoliation. 

152.  Labor  which  is  too  long  and  too  hard  and  the  belief  that 
pay  is  inadequate  not  infrequently  give  workers  cause  to  strike  and 
become  voluntarily  idle.  This  evil,  which  is  frequent  and  serious, 



ought  to  be  remedied  by  public  authority,  because  such  interruption 
of  work  inflicts  damage  not  only  upon  employers  and  upon  the 
workers  themselves,  but  also  injures  trade  and  commerce  and  the 
general  interests  of  the  State,  and,  since  it  is  usually  not  far  re- 
moved from  violence  and  rioting,  it  very  frequently  jeopardizes 
public  peace.  In  this  matter  it  is  more  effective  and  salutary  that 
the  authority  of  the  law  anticipate  and  completely  prevent  the  evil 
from  breaking  out  by  removing  early  the  causes  from  which  it 
would  seem  that  conflict  between  employers  and  workers  is  bound 
to  arise. 

153.  And  in  like  manner,  in  the  case  of  the  worker,  there  are 
many  things  which  the  power  of  the  State  should  protect;  and,  first 
of  all,  the  goods  of  his  soul.  For  however  good  and  desirable  mortal 
life  be,  yet  it  is  not  the  ultimate  goal  for  which  we  are  born,  but  a 
road  only  and  a  means  for  perfecting,  through  knowledge  of  truth 
and  love  of  good,  the  life  of  the  soul.  The  soul  bears  the  express 
image  and  likeness  of  God,  and  there  resides  in  it  that  sovereignty 
through  the  medium  of  which  man  has  been  bidden  to  rule  all 
created  nature  below  him  and  to  make  all  lands  and  all  seas  serve 
his  interests.  Fill  the  earth  and  subdue  itf  and  rule  over  the  fishes 
of  the  sea  and  the  fowls  of  the  air  and  all  living  creatures  that  move 
Upon  the  earth™  In  this  respect  all  men  are  equal,  and  there  is  no 
difference  between  rich  and  poor,  between  masters  and  servants, 
between  rulers  and  subjects:  For  there  is  the  same  Lord  of  all™ 
No  one  may  with  impunity  outrage  the  dignity  of  man,  which  God 
Himself  treats  with  great  reverence,  nor  impede  his  course  to  that 
level  of  perfection  which  accords  with  eternal  life  in  heaven.  Nay, 
more,  in  this  connection  a  man  cannot  even  by  his  own  free  choice 
allow  himself  to  be  treated  in  a  way  inconsistent  with  his  nature, 
and  voluntarily  put  his  soul  in  slavery;  for  there  is  no  question 
here  of  rights  belonging  to  man,  but  of  duties  owed  to  God,  which 
are  to  be  religiously  observed  ....... 

154.  Now  as  concerns  the  protection  of  corporeal  and  physical 
goods,  the  oppressed  workers,  above  all,  ought  to  be  liberated  from 
the  savagery  of  greedy  men,  who  inordinately  use  human  beings  as 
things  for  gain.     Assuredly,   neither  justice   nor  humanity   can 
countenance  the  exaction  of  so  much  work  that  the  spirit  is  dulled 

75  Genesis,  I,  28. 

76  Romans,  X,  1  2. 



from  excessive  toil  and  that  along  with  it  the  body  sinks  crushed 
from  exhaustion.  The  working  energy  of  a  man,  like  his  entire 
nature,  is  circumscribed  by  definite  limits  beyond  which  it  cannot 
go.  It  is  developed  indeed  by  exercise  and  use,  but  only  on  condi- 
tion that  a  man  cease  from  work  at  regular  intervals  and  rest.  With 
respect  to  daily  work,  therefore,  care  ought  to  be  taken  not  to  extend 
it  beyond  the  hours  that  human  strength  warrants.  The  length  of 
rest  intervals  ought  to  be  decided  on  the  basis  of  the  varying  nature 
of  the  work,  of  the  circumstances  of  time  and  place,  and  of  the 
physical  condition  of  the  workers  themselves.  Since  the  labor  of 
those  who  quarry  stone  from  the  earth,  or  who  mine  iron,  copper, 
and  other  underground  materials,  is  much  more  severe  and  harmful 
to  health,  the  working  period  for  such  men  ought  to  be  correspond- 
ingly shortened.  The  seasons  of  the  year  also  must  be  taken  into 
account;  for  often  a  given  kind  of  work  is  easy  to  endure  in  one 
season  but  cannot  be  endured  at  all  in  another,  or  not  without  the 
greatest  difficulty. 

155.  Finally,  it  is  not  right  to  demand  of  a  woman  or  a  child 
what  a  strong  adult  man  is  capable  of  doing  or  would  be  willing 
to  do.  Nay,  as  regards  children,  special  care  ought  to  be  taken  that 
the  factory  does  not  get  hold  of  them  before  age  has  sufficiently 
matured  their  physical,  intellectual  and  moral  powers.  For  budding 
strength  in  childhood,  like  greening  verdure  in  spring,  is  crushed 
by  premature  harsh  treatment;  and  under  such  circumstances  all 
education  of  the  child  must  needs  be  foregone.    Certain  occupa- 
tions likewise  are  less  fitted  for  women,  who  are  intended  by  nature 
for  the  work  of  the  home — work  indeed  which  especially  protects 
modesty  in  women  and  accords  by  nature  with  the  education  of 
children  and  the  well-being  of  the  family.  Let  it  be  the  rule  every- 
where that  workers  be  given  as  much  leisure  as  will  compensate 
for  the  energy  consumed  by  toil,  for  rest  from  work  is  necessary 
to  restore  strength  consumed  by  use.  In  every  obligation  which  is 
mutually  contracted  between  employers  and  workers,  this  condition, 
either  written  or  tacit,  is  always  present:  that  both  kinds  of  rest  be 
provided  for;  nor  would  it  be  equitable  to  make  an  agreement 
otherwise,  because  no,  one  has  the  right  to  demand  of,  or  to  make 
an  agreement  with  anyone  to  neglect  those  duties  which  bind  a 
man  to  God  or  to  himself. 

156.  We  shall  now  touch  upon  a  matter  of  very  great  impor- 


[I57'I58]  LEO  XIU 

tance,  and  one  which  must  be  correctly  understood  in  order  to 
avoid  falling  into  error  on  one  side  or  the  other.  We  are  told  that 
free  consent  fixes  the  amount  of  a  wage;  that,  therefore,  the  em- 
ployer, after  paying  the  wage  agreed  to,  would  seem  to  have  dis- 
charged his  obligation  and  not  to  owe  anything  more;  that  only 
then  would  injustice  be  done  if  either  the  employer  should  refuse 
to  pay  the  whole  amount  of  the  wage,  or  the  worker  should  refuse 
to  perform  all  the  work  to  which  he  had  committed  himself;  and 
that  in  these  cases,  but  in  no  others,  is  it  proper  for  the  public 
authority  to  intervene  to  safeguard  the  rights  of  each  party. 

157.  An  impartial  judge  would  not  assent  readily  or  without 
reservation  to  this  reasoning,  because  it  is  not  complete  in  all  re- 
spects:   one   factor   to   be   considered,    and   one    of   the   greatest 
importance,  is  missing.    To  work  is  to  expend  one's  energy  for 
the  purpose  of  securing  the  things  necessary  for  the  various  "needs 
of  life  and  especially  for  its  preservation.  In  the  sweat  of  thy  face 
shah  thou  eat  bread.™  Accordingly,  in  man  labor  has  two  marks,  as 
it  were,  implanted  by  nature  so  that  it  is  truly  personal,  because 
work  energy  inheres  in  the  person  and  belongs  completely  to  him 
by  whom  it  is  expended  and  for  whose  use  it  is  destined  by  nature; 
and,  secondly,  that  it  is  necessary,  because  man  has  need  of  the  fruit 
of  his  labors  to  preserve  his  life,  and  nature  itself,  which  must  be 
most  strictly  obeyed,  commands  him  to  preserve  it.  If  labor  should 
be  considered  only  under  the  aspect  that  it  is  personal,  there  is  no 
doubt  that  it  would  be  entirely  in  the  worker's  power  to  set  the 
amount  of  the  agreed  wage  at  too  low  a  figure.  For  inasmuch  as 
he  performs  work  by  his  own  free  will,  he  can  also  by  his  own 
free  will  be  satisfied  with  either  a  paltry  wage  for  his  work  or 
even  with  none  at  all.  But  this  matter  must  be  judged  far  differ- 
ently, if  with  the  factor  of  personality  we  combine  the  factor  of 
necessity,  from  which  indeed  the  former  is  separable  in  thought 
but  not  in  reality.  In  fact,  to  preserve  one's  life  is  a  duty  common 
to  all  individuals,  and  to  neglect  this  duty  is  a  crime.  Hence,  arises 
necessarily  the  right  of  securing  things  to  sustain  life,  and  only  a 
wage  earned  by  his  labor  gives  a  poor  man  the  means  to  acquire 
these  things. 

158.  Let  it  be  granted,  then,  that  worker  and  employer  may 
enter  freely  into   agreements  and,  in  particular,  concerning  the 

n  Genesis,  III,  i. 


amount  of  the  wage;  yet  there  is  always  underlying  such  agree- 
ments an  element  of  natural  justice,  and  one  greater  and  more 
ancient  than  the  free  consent  of  contracting  parties;  namely,  that 
the  wage  shall  not  be  less  than  enough  to  support  a  worker  who 
is  thrifty  and  upright.  If,  compelled  by  necessity  or  moved  by  fear 
of  a  worse  evil,  a  worker  accepts  a  harder  condition,  which  although 
against  his  will  he  must  accept  because  the  employer  or  contractor 
imposes  it,  he  certainly  submits  to  force,  against  which  justice  cries 
out  in  protest. 

159.  But  in  these  and  similar  questions,  such  as  the  number  of 
hours  of  work  in  each  kind  of  occupation  and  the  health  safeguards 
to  be  provided,  particularly  in  factories,  it  will  be  better,  in  order 
to  avoid  unwarranted  governmental  intervention,  especially  since 
circumstances  of  business,  seasons  and  places  are  so  varied,  that 
decision  be  reserved  to  the  organization  of  which  We  are  about  to 
speak  below,  or  else  to  pursue  another  course  whereby  the  interests 
of  the  workers  may  be  adequately  safeguarded— the  State,  if  the 
occasion  demands,  to  furnish  help  and  protection. 

160.  If  a  worker  receives  a  wage  sufficiently  large  to  enable 
him  to  provide  comfortably  for  himself,  his  wife  and  his  children, 
he  will,  if  prudent,  gladly  strive  to  practice  thrift;  and  the  result 
will  be,  as  nature  itself  seems  to  counsel,  that  after  expenditures 
are  deducted  there  will  remain  something  over  and  above  through 
which  he  can  come  into  the  possession  of  a  little  wealth.  We  have 
seen,  in  fact,  that  the  whole  question  under  consideration  cannot 
be  settled  effectually  unless  it  is  assumed  and  established  as  a  prin- 
ciple, that  the  right  of  private  property  must  be  regarded  as  sacred. 
Wherefore,  the  law  ought  to  favor  this  right  and,  so  far  as  it  can, 
see  that  the  largest  possible  number  among  the  masses  of  the  popu- 
lation prefer  to  own  property. 

161.  If  this  is  done,  excellent  benefits  will  follow,  foremost 
among  which  will  surely  be  a  more  equitable  division  of  goods. 
For  the  violence  of  public  disorder  has  divided  cities  into  two 
classes  of  citizens,  with  an  immense  gulf  lying  between  them.  On 
the  one  side  is  a  faction  exceedingly  powerful  because  exceedingly 
rich.  Since  it  alone  has  under  its  control  every  kind  of  work  and 
business,  it  diverts  to  its  own  advantage  and  interest  all  production 
sources  of  wealth  and  exerts  no  little  power  in  the  administration 
itself  of  the  State.    On  the  other  side  are  the  needy  and  helpless 


[162-163]  LEO     XIII 

masses  with  minds  inflamed  and  always  ready  for  disorder.  But  if 
the  productive  activity  of  the  multitude  can  be  stimulated  by  the 
hope  of  acquiring  some  property  in  land,  it  will  gradually  come  to 
pass  that,  with  the  difference  between  extreme  wealth  and  extreme 
penury  removed,  one  class  will  become  neighbor  to  the  other. 
Moreover,  there  will  surely  be  a  greater  abundance  of  the  things 
which  the  earth  produces.  For  when  men  know  they  are  working 
on  what  belongs  to  them,  they  work  with  far  greater  eagerness  and 
diligence.  Nay,  in  a  word,  they  learn  to  love  the  land  cultivated 
by  their  own  hands,  whence  they  look  not  only  for  food  but  for 
some  measure  of  abundance  for  themselves  and  their  dependents. 
All  can  see  how  much  this  willing  eagerness  contributes  to  an 
abundance  of  produce  and  the  wealth  of  a  nation.  Hence,  in  the 
third  place,  will  flow  the  benefit  that  men  can  easily  be  kept  from 
leaving  the  country  in  which  they  have  been  born  and  bred;  for 
they  would  not  exchange  their  native  country  for  a  foreign  land 
if  their  native  country  furnished  them  sufficient  means  of  living. 
But  these  advantages  can  be  attained  only  if  private'  wealth  is  not 
drained  away  by  crushing  taxes  of  every  kind.  For  since  the  right 
of  possessing  goods  privately  has  been  conferred  not  by  man's  law, 
but  by  nature,  public  authority  cannot  abolish  it,  but  can  only 
control  its  exercise  and  bring  it  into  conformity  with  the  common- 
weal. Public  authority,  therefore,  w^ould  act  unjustly  and  inhumanly, 
if  in  the  name  of  taxes  it  should  appropriate  from  the  property  of 
private  individuals  more  than  is  equitable. 

162.  Finally,  employers  and  workers  themselves  can  accomplish 
much  in  this  matter,  manifestly  through  those  institutions  by  the 
help  of  which  the  poor  are  opportunely  assisted  and  the  two  classes 
of  society  are  brought  closer  to  each  other.   Under  this  category 
come  associations  for  giving  mutual  aid;  various  agencies  estab- 
lished by  the  foresight  of  private  persons  to  care  for  the  worker 
and  likewise  for  his  dependent  wife  and  children  in  the  event  that 
an  accident,  sickness,  or  death  befalls  him;  and  foundations  to  care 
for  boys  and  girls,  for  adolescents,  and  for  the  aged. 

163.  But  associations  of  workers  occupy  first  place,  and  they 
include  within  their  circle  nearly  all  the  rest.  The  beneficent  achieve- 
ments of  the  guilds  of  artisans  among  our  ancestors  have  long  been 
well  known.  Truly,  they  yielded  noteworthy  advantages  not  only 
to  artisans,  but,  as  many  monuments  bear  witness,  brought  glory 


RERUM    NO  V  ARUM  [164-165] 

and  progress  to  the  arts  themselves.  In  our  present  age  of  greater 
culture,  with  its  new  customs  and  ways  of  living,  and  with  the 
increased  number  of  things  required  by  daily  life,  it  is  most  clearly 
necessary  that  workers'  associations  be  adapted  to  meet  the  present 
need.  It  is  gratifying  that  societies  of  this  kind,  composed  either  of 
workers  alone  or  of  workers  and  employers  together,  are  being 
formed  everywhere,  and  it  is  truly  to  be  desired  that  they  grow  in 
number  and  in  active  vigor.  Although  We  have  spoken  of  them 
more  than  once,  it  seems  well  to  show  in  this  place  that  they  are 
highly  opportune  and  are  formed  by  their  own  right,  and,  likewise, 
to  show  how  they  should  be  organized  and  what  they  should  do. 

164.  Inadequacy  of  his  own  strength,  learned  from  experience, 
impels  and  urges  a  man  to  enlist  the  help  of  others.   Such  is  the 
teaching  of  Holy  Scripture:  It  is  better,  there j ore,  that  two  should 
be  together,  than  one:  for  they  have  the  advantage  of  their  society. 
If  one  fall  he  shall  be  supported  by  the  other;  woe  to  him  that  is 
alone,  for  when  he  falleth  he  hath  none  to  lift  him  up.7B  And  this 
also:  A  brother  that  is  helped  by  his  brother,  is  lifye  a  strong  city™ 
Just  as  man  is  drawn  by  this  natural  propensity  into  civil  union 
and  association,  so  also  he  seeks  with  his  fellow  citizens  to  form 
other  societies,  admittedly  small  and  not  perfect,  but  societies  none- 

165.  Between  these  latter  and  the  large  society  of  the  State, 
there  is,  because  of  their  different  immediate  purposes,  a  very  great 
distinction.  The  end  of  civil  society  concerns  absolutely  all  mem- 
bers of  this  society,  since  the  end  of  civil  society  is  centered  in  the 
common  good,  in  which  latter,  one  and  all  in  due  proportion  have 
a  right  to  participate.  Wherefore,  this  society  is  called  public,  be- 
cause through  it  "men  share  with  one  another  in  establishing  a 
commonwealth."80  On  the  other  hand,  societies  which  are  formed, 
so  to  speak,  within  its  bosom  are  considered  private  and  are  such 
because  their  immediate  object  is  private  advantage,  appertaining 
to  those  alone  who  are  thus  associated  together.   "Now  a  private 
society  is  one  which  is  formed  to  carry  out  some  private  business, 
as  when  two  or  three  enter  into  association  for  the  purpose  of 
engaging  together  in  trade."81 

™Ecclesiastes,  IV,  9-10. 

79  Proverbs,  XVIII,  19. 

80  St.  Thoma^,  Contra  Impugnantes  Dei  Cultum  et  Religionem,  C,  II,  8. 

[166-167]  LEO    XIII 

1 66.  Although  private  societies  exist  within  the  State  and  are, 
as  it  were,  so  many  parts  o£  it,  still  it  is  not  within  the  authority 
of  the  State  universally  and  per  se  to  forbid  them  to  exist  as  such. 
For  man  is  permitted  by  a  right  of  nature  to  form  private  societies; 
the  State,  on  the  other  hand,  has  been  instituted  to  protect  and  not 
to  destroy  natural  right,  and  if  it  should  forbid  its  citizens  to  enter 
into  associations,  it  would  clearly  do  something  contradictory  to 
itself  because  both  the  State  itself  and  private  associations   are 
begotten  of  one  and  the  same  principle:  namely,  that  men  are  by 
nature  inclined  to  associate.   Occasionally  there  are  times  when  it 
is  proper  for  the  laws  to  oppose  associations  of  this  kind,  that  is,  if 
they  professedly  seek  after  any  objective  which  is  clearly  at  variance 
with  good  morals,  with  justice,  or  with  the  welfare  of  the  State. 
Indeed,  in  these  cases  the  public  power  shall  justly  prevent  such 
associations  from  forming  and  shall  also  justly  dissolve  those  already 
formed.   Nevertheless,  it  must  use  the  greatest  precaution  lest  it 
appear  to  infringe  on  the  rights  of  its  citizens,  and  lest,  under  the 
pretext  of  public  benefit,  it  enact  any  measure  that  sound  reason 
would  not  support.  For  laws  are  to  be  obeyed  only  insofar  as  they 
conform  with  right  reason  and  thus  with  the  eternal  law  of  God.82 

167.  Here  come  to  Our  mind  for  consideration  the  various  con- 
fraternities, societies,  and  religious  Orders  which  the  authority  of 
the  Church  and  the  piety  of  Christians  have  brought  into  being; 
and  history  down  to  our  own  times  speaks  of  the  wonderful  benefit 
they  have  been  to  the  human  race.  Since  societies  of  this  character, 
even  if  judged  in  the  light  of  reason  alone,  have  been  formed  for 
an  honest  purpose,  it  is  clear  that  they  have  been  formed  in  accord- 
ance with  natural  right.    But  in  whatever  respect  they  concerri 
religion,  they  are  properly  subject  to  the  Church  alone.  Therefore, 
those  in  charge  of  the  State  cannot  in  justice  arrogate  to  themselves 
any  right  over  them  or  assume  their  administration  to  themselves. 
Rather  it  is  the  office  of  the  State  to  respect,  to  conserve,  and,  as 
occasion  may  require,  to  protect  them  from  injustice.  Yet  we  have 
seen  something  entirely   different  being  done,  especially   at   the 
present  time.  In  many  places,  the  State  has  violated  associations  of 

82  "Human  law  has  the  essential  nature  of  law  only  insofar  as  it  is  in  accordance  with 
right  reason,  and  thus  manifestly  it  derives  from  the  eternal  law.  But  insofar  as  it 
deviates  from  reason,  it  is  called  unjust  law,  and  so  it  does  not  have  the  essential 
nature  of  law,  but  rather  a  kind  of  violence."  St.  Thomas,  Summa  Theologica, 
I  a  2ae,  Q.  xciii,  art.  3,  ad  2. 


RERUM    NOVARUM  [168-169] 

this  kind,  and  in  fact  with  manifold  injury,  since  it  has  put  them 
in  the  bonds  o£  the  civil  law,  has  divested  them  of  their  lawful 
right  to  be  considered  legal  persons,  and  has  robbed  them  of  their 
property.  In  this  property  the  Church  possessed  her  rights  and 
individual  association  members  possessed  theirs,  as  did  also  the 
persons  who  donated  this  property  for  a  designated  purpose  as  well 
as  those  for  whose  benefit  and  relief  it  had  been  donated.  Conse- 
quently, We  cannot  refrain  from  deploring  such  vicious  and  unjust 
acts  of  robbery,  and  so  much  the  more  because  We  see  the  road 
being  closed  to  Catholic  associations,  which  are  law-abiding  and  in 
every  respect  useful,  at  the  very  time  when  it  is  being  decreed  that 
most  assuredly  men  are  permitted  by  law  to  form  associations,  and 
at  the  very  time  when  this  freedom  is  being  lavishly  granted  in 
actual  fact  to  men  urging  a  course  of  conduct  pernicious  at  once 
to  religion  and  to  the  State. 

1 68.  Certainly,  the  number  of  associations  of  almost  every  pos- 
sible kind,  especially  of  associations  of  workers,  is  now  far  greater 
than  ever  before.   This  is  not  the  place  to  inquire  whence  many 
of  them  originate,  what  object  they  have,  or  how  they  proceed. 
But  the  opinion  is,  and  it  is  one  confirmed  by  a  good  deal  of  evi- 
dence, that  they  are  largely  under  the  control  of  secret  leaders  and 
that  these  same  leaders  apply  principles  which  are  in  harmony 
with  neither  Christianity  nor  the  welfare  of  States,  and  that,  after 
having  possession  of  all  available  work,  they  contrive  that  those 
who  refuse  to  join  with  them  will  be  forced  by  want  to  pay  the 
penalty.   Under  these  circumstances,  workers  who  are  Christians 
must  choose  one  of  two  things:  either  to  join  associations  in  which 
it  is  greatly  to  be  feared  that  there  is  danger  to  religion,  or  to  form 
their  own  associations  and  unite  their  forces  in  such  a  way  that 
they  may  be  able  manfully  to  free  themselves  from  such  unjust 
and  intolerable  oppression.    Can  they  who  refuse  to  place  man's 
highest  good  in  imminent  jeopardy  hesitate  to  affirm  that  the  second 
course  is  by  all  means  to  be  followed? 

169.  Many  of  our  Faith  are  indeed  to  be  highly  commended, 
who,  having  rightly  perceived  what  the  times  require  of  them,  are 
experimenting  and  striving  to  discover  how  by  honest  means  they 
can  raise  the  non-owning  working  class  to  higher  living  levels. 
They  have  championed  their  cause  and  are  endeavoring  to  increase 
the  prosperity  of  both  families  and  individuals,  and  at  the  same 


[170]  LEO    XIII 

time  to  regulate  justly  the  mutual  obligations  which  rest  upon 
workers  and  employers  and  to  foster  and  strengthen  in  both  con- 
sciousness of  duty  and  observance  of  the  precepts  of  the  Gospel — 
precepts,  in  truth,  which  hold  man  back  from  excess  and  prevent 
him  from  over-stepping  the  bounds  of  moderation  and,  in  the  midst 
of  the  widest  divergences  among  persons  and  things,  maintain 
harmony  in  the  State.  For  this  reason,  we  see  eminent  men  meet- 
ing together  frequently  to  exchange  ideas,  to  combine  their  forces, 
and  to  deliberate  on  the  most  expedient  programs  of  action.  Others 
are  endeavoring  to  unite  the  various  kinds  of  workers  in  suitable 
associations,  are  assisting  them  with  advice  and  money,  and  making 
plans  to  prevent  a  lack  of  honest  and  profitable  work.  The  bishops 
are  giving  encouragement  and  bestowing  support;  and  under  their 
authority  and  auspices  many  from  the  ranks  of  the  clergy,  both 
regular  and  diocesan,  are  showing  zealous  care  for  all  that  pertains 
to  the  spiritual  improvement  of  the  members  of  these  associations. 
Finally,  there  are  not  wanting  Catholics  of  great  wealth,  yet  volun- 
tary sharers,  as  it  were,  in  the  lot  of  the  wage  workers,  who  by 
their  own  generous  contributions  are  striving  to  found  and  extend 
associations  through  which  the  worker  is  readily  enabled  to  obtain 
from  his  toil  not  only  immediate  benefits,  but  also  assurance  of 
honorable  retirement  in  the  future.  How  much  good  such  mani- 
fold and  enthusiastic  activity  has  contributed  to  the  benefit  of  all 
is  too  well-known  to  make  discussion  necessary.  From  all  this,  We 
have  taken  auguries  of  good  hope  for  the  future,  provided  that 
societies  of  this  kind  continually  grow  and  that  they  are  founded 
with  wise  organization.  Let  the  State  protect  these  lawfully  associ- 
ated bodies  of  citizens;  let  it  not,  however,  interfere  with  their 
private  concerns  and  order  of  life;  for  vital  activity  is  set  in  motion 
by  an  inner  principle,  and  it  is  very  easily  destroyed,  as  We  know, 
by  intrusion  from  without. 

170.  Unquestionably,  wise  direction  and  organization  are  essen- 
tial to  these  associations  in  order  that  in  their  activities  there  be 
unity  of  purpose  and  concord  of  wills.  Furthermore,  if  citizens 
have  free  right  to  associate,  as  in  fact  they  do,  they  also  must  have 
the  right  freely  to  adopt  the  organization  and  the  rules  which  they 
judge  most  appropriate  to  achieve  their  purpose.  We  do  not  feel 
that  the  precise  character  in  all  details  which  the  aforementioned 
direction  and  organization  of  associations  ought  to  have  can  be 

RERUM     NOVARUM  [171] 

determined  by  fast  and  fixed  rules,  since  this  is  a  matter  to  be 
decided  gather  in  the  light  of  the  temperament  of  each  people, 
of  experiment  and  practice,  of  the  nature  and  character  of  the  work, 
of  the  extent  of  trade  and  commerce,  and  of  other  circumstances 
of  a  material  and  temporal  kind,  all  of  which  must  be  carefully 
considered.  In  summary,  let  this  be  laid  down  as  a  general  and 
constant  law:  workers'  associations  ought  to  be  so  constituted 
and  so  governed  as  to  furnish  the  most  suitable  and  most  convenient 
means  to  attain  the  object  proposed,  which  consists  in  this,  that  the 
individual  members  of  the  association  secure,  so  far  as  is  possible, 
an  increase  in  the  goods  of  body,  of  soul,  and  of  property.  It  is 
clear,  however,  that  moral  and  religious  perfection  ought  to  be 
regarded  as  their  principal  goal,  and  that  their  social  organization 
as  such  ought  above  all  to  be  directed  completely  by  this  goal.  For 
otherwise  they  would  degenerate  in  nature  and  would  be  little  better 
than  those  associations  in  which  no  account  is  ordinarily  taken  of 
religion.  Besides,  what  would  it  profit  a  worker  to  secure  through 
an  association  an  abundance  of  goods,  if  his  soul  through  lack  of 
its  proper  food  should  run  the  risk  of  perishing?  What  doth  it 
profit  a  man,  if  he  gain  the  whole  world,  but  suffer  the  loss  of  his 

own  soul?8B 

171.  When  the  regulations  of  associations  are  founded  upon 
religion,  the  way  is  easy  toward  establishing  the  mutual  relations 
of  the  members  so  that  peaceful  living  together  and  prosperity  will 
result.  Offices  in  the  associations  are  to  be  distributed  properly  in 
accordance  with  the  common  interest,  and  in  such  a  way,  more- 
over, that  wide  difference  in  these  offices  may  not  create  discord. 
It  is  of  special  importance  that  obligations  be  apportioned  wisely 
and  be  clearly  defined,  to  the  end  that  no  one  is  done  an  injustice. 
Let  the  funds  be  disbursed  equitably  in  such  way  that  the  amount 
of  benefit  to  be  paid  out  to  members  is  fixed  beforehand  in  accord- 
ance with  individual  needs,  and  let  the  rights  and  duties  of  em- 
ployers be  properly  adjusted  to  the  rights  and  duties  of  workers. 
If  any  one  in  these  two  groups  feels  that  he  has  been  injured  in 
any  way,  nothing  is  more  to  be  desired  than  that  prudent  and 
upright  men  of  the  same  body  be  available,  and  that  the  association 
regulations  themselves  prescribe  that  the  dispute  be  settled  accord- 
ing to  the  decision  of  these  men.  It  must  also  be  specially  provided 

83  Matthew,  XVI,  26. 


[172-174]  LEO    XIII 

that  the  worker  at  no  time  be  without  sufficient  work,  and  that  the 
monies  paid  into  the  treasury  of  the  association  furnish  the  means 
of  assisting  individual  members  in  need,  not  only  during  sudden 
and  unforeseen  changes  in  industry,  but  also  whenever  anyone  is 
stricken  by  sickness,  by  old  age,  or  by  misfortune. 

172.  Through    these    regulations,    provided    they    are    readily 
accepted,  the  interests  and  welfare  of  the  poor  will  be  adequately 
cared  for.  Associations  of  Catholics,  moreover,  will  undoubtedly  be 
of  great  importance  in  promoting  prosperity  in  the  State.  Through 
past  events  we  can,  without  temerity,  foresee  the  future.  Age  presses 
hard  upon  age,  but  there  are  wondrous  similarities  in  history,  gov- 
erned as  it  is  by  the  Providence  of  God,  Who  guides  and  directs 
the  continuity  and  the  chain  of  events  in  accordance  with  that  pur- 
pose which  He  set  before  Himself  in  creating  the  human  race.   In 
the  early  ages,  when  the  Church  was  in  her  youth,  We  know  that 
the  reproach  was  hurled  at  the  Christians  that  the  great  majority 
of  them  lived  by  precarious  alms  or  by  toil.  Yet,  although  destitute 
of  wealth  and  power,  they  succeeded  in  winning  the  good  will  of 
the  rich  and  the  protection  of  the  mighty.  All  could  see  that  they 
were  energetic,  industrious,  peace-loving,  and  exemplarily  devoted 
to  the  practice  of  justice  and  especially  of  charity.   In  the  presence 
of  life  and  conduct  such  as  this,  all  prejudice  vanished,  the  taunting 
voices  of  the  malevolent  were  silenced,  and  the  falsehoods  of  in- 
veterate superstition  yielded  little  by  little  to  Christian  truth. 

173.  The  condition  of  workers  is  a  subject  of  bitter  controversy 
at  the  present  time;  and  whether  this  controversy  is  resolved  in 
accordance  with  reason  or  otherwise,  it  is,  in  either  event,  of  utmost 
importance  to  the  State.  Now  Christian  workers  will  readily  resolve 
it  in  accordance  with  reason,  if,  united  in  associations  and  under 
wise  leaders,  they  enter  upon  the  path  which  their  fathers  and  their 
ancestors  followed  to  their  own  best  welfare  as  well  as  to  that  of 
the  State.  For,  no  matter  how  strong  the  power  of  prejudice  and 
passion  in  man,  yet,  unless  perversity  of  will  has  deadened  the  sense 
of  the  right  and  just,  the  good-will  of  citizens  is  certain  to  be  more 
freely  inclined  toward  those  whom  they  learn  to  know  as  industrious 
and  temperate,  and  who  clearly  place  justice  before  profit  and  con- 
scientious observance  of  duty  before  all  else.  .  .  . 

174.  These,  Venerable  Brethren,  are  the  persons,  and  this  is  the 
procedure  to  be  employed  in  dealing  with  this  most  difficult  ques- 



tion.  Everyone  according  to  his  position  ought  to  gird  himself  for 
the  task,  and  indeed  as  speedily  as  possible,  lest,  by  delaying  the 
remedy,  the  evil,  which  is  already  of  vast  dimensions,  become  in- 
curable. Let  those  in  charge  of  States  make  use  of  the  provision 
afforded  by  laws  and  institutions;  let  the  rich  and  employers  be 
mindful  of  their  duties;  let  the  workers,  whose  cause  is  at  stake, 
press  their  claims  with  reason.  And  since  religion  alone,  as  We 
said  in  the  beginning,  can  remove  the  evil,  root  and  branch,  let  all 
reflect  upon  this:  first  and  foremost,  Christian  morals  must  be  re- 
established, without  which  even  the  weapons  of  prudence,  which 
are  considered  especially  effective,  will  be  of  no  avail  to  secure 

175.  So  far  as  the  Church  is  concerned,  at  no  time  and  in  no 
manner  will  she  permit  her  efforts  to  be  wanting,  and  she  will 
contribute  all  the  more  help  in  proportion  as  she  has  more  freedom 
of  action.  Let  this  be  understood  in  particular  by  those  whose  duty 
it  is  to  promote  the  public  welfare.  Let  the  members  of  the  Sacred 
Ministry  exert  all  their  strength  of  mind  and  all  their  diligence, 
and,  Venerable  Brethren,  under  the  guidance  of  your  authority  and 
example,  let  them  not  cease  to  impress  upon  men  of  all  ranks  the 
principles  of  Christian  living  as  found  in  the  Gospel;  by  all  means 
in  their  power  let  them  strive  for  the  well-being  of  peoples;  and 
especially  let  them  aim  both  to  preserve  in  themselves  and  to  arouse 
in  others,  in  the  highest  equally  as  well  as  in  the  lowest,  the  mistress 
and  queen  of  the  virtues,  Charity 

ENCYCLICAL  Au  Milieu  des  Sollicitudes  TO  THE  CHURCH  IN 


The  Pope  analyzes  the  relations  between  the  Church 
and  the  State  in  France.  There  can  be  no  internal  peace 
in  the  State  unless  religion  be  protected. 

February  16,  1892 

176 Now  We  deem  it  opportune,  nay,  even  necessary, 

once  again  to  raise  Our  voice  entreating  still  more  earnestly,  We 
shall  not  say  Catholics  only,  but  all  upright  and  intelligent  French- 

84  Translation  from  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.  250-259. 
Original  French,  A.S.S.  v.  24,  pp.  519-526  (1892). 


[177-178]  LEO  xnl 

men,  utterly  to  disregard  all  germs  o£  political  strife  in  order  to 
devote  their  efforts  solely  to  the  pacification  of  their  country.  All 
understand  the  value  of  this  pacification;  all  continue  to  desire  it 
more  and  more.  And  We  who  crave  it  more  than  any  one,  since 
We  represent  on  earth  the  God  of  peace/5  urge  by  these  present 
Letters  all  righteous  souls,  all  generous  hearts,  to  assist  Us  in  making 
it  stable  and  fruitful. 

177.  First  of  all,  let  us  take  as  a  starting-point  a  well-known 
truth  admitted  by  all  men  of  good  sense  and  loudly  proclaimed  by 
the  history  of  all  peoples;  namely,  that  religion,  and  religion  only, 
can  create  the  social  bond;  that  it  alone  maintains  the  peace  of  a  na- 
tion on  a  solid  foundation.  When  different  families,  without  giving 
up  the  rights  and  duties  of  domestic  society,  unite  under  the  in- 
spiration of  nature,  in  order  to  constitute  themselves  members  of 
another  larger  family  circle  called  civil  society,  their  object  is  not 
only  to  find  therein  the  means  of  providing  for  their  material 
welfare,  but,  above  all,  to  draw  thence  the  boon  of  moral  improve- 
ment.  Otherwise  society  would  rise  but  little  above  the  level  of 
an  aggregation  of  beings  devoid  of  reason,  and  whose  whole  life 
would  consist  in  the  satisfaction  of  sensual  instincts.    Moreover, 
without  this  moral  improvement  it  would  be  difficult  to  demon- 
strate that  civil  society  was  an  advantage  rather  than  a  detriment 
to  man,  as  man. 

178.  Now,  morality,  in  man,  by  the  mere  fact  that  it  should 
establish  harmony  among  so  many  dissimilar  rights  and  duties, 
since  it  enters  as  an  element  into  every  human  act,  necessarily  sup- 
poses God,  and  with  God,  religion,  that  sacred  bond  whose  privilege 
is  to  unite,  anteriorly  to  all  other  bonds,  man  to  God.  Indeed,  the 
idea  of  morality  signifies,  above  all,  an  order  of  dependence  in 
regard  to  truth  which  is  the  light  of  the  mind;  in  regard  to  good 
which  is  the  object  of  the  will;  and  without  truth  and  good  there 
is  no  morality  worthy  of  the  name.  And  what  is  the  principal  and 
essential  Truth,  that  from  which  all  truth  is  derived?    It  is  God. 
What,  therefore,  is  the  supreme  Good  from  which  all  other  good 
proceeds?   God.  Finally,  who  is  the  Creator  and  Guardian  of  our 
reason,  our  will,  our  whole  being,  as  well  as  the  end  of  our  life? 
God;  always  God.    Since,  therefore,  religion  is  the  interior  and 
exterior  expression  of  the  dependence  which,  in  justice,  we  owe 

85  Cf.  I  Corinthians,  XIV^  33. 


AU     MILIEU    DES    SOLLICITUDES        [179-181] 

to  God,  there  follows  a  grave  obligation.  All  citizens  are  bound 
to  unite  in  maintaining  in  the  nation  true  religious  sentiment,  and 
to  defend  it  in  case  of  need,  if  ever,  despite  the  protestations  of 
nature  and  of  history,  an  atheistical  school  should  set  about  banish- 
ing God  from  society,  thereby  surely  annihilating  the  moral  sense 
even  in  the  depths  of  the  human  conscience.  Among  men  who  have 
not  lost  all  notion  of  integrity  there  can  exist  no  difference  of 
opinion  on  this  point 

179.  Various  political  governments  have  succeeded  one  another 
in  France  during  the  last  century,  each  having  its  own  distinctive 
form:  the  Empire,  the  Monarchy,  and  the  Republic.    By  giving 
oneself  up  to  abstractions,  one  could  at  length  conclude  which  is 
the  best  of  these  forms,  considered  in  themselves;  and  in  all  truth 
it  may  be  affirmed  that  each  of  them  is  good,  provided  it  lead 
straight  to  its  end— that  is  to  say,  to  the  common  good  for  which 
social  authority  is  constituted;  and  finally,  it  may  be  added  that, 
from  a  relative  point  of  view,  such  and  such  a  form  of  government 
may  be  preferable  because  of  being  better  adapted  to  the  character 
and  customs  of  such  or  such  a  nation.  In  this  order  of  speculative 
ideas,  Catholics,  like  all  other  citizens,  are  free  to  prefer  one  form 
of  government  to  another  precisely  because  no  one  of  these  social 
forms  is,  in  itself,  opposed  to  the  principles  of  sound  reason  nor  to 
the  maxims  of  Christian  doctrine 

1 80.  However,  here  it  must  be  carefully  observed  that  what- 
ever be  the  form  of  civil  power  in  a  nation,  it  cannot  be  considered 
so  definitive  as  to  have  the  right  to  remain  immutable,  even  though 
such  were  the  intention  of  those  who,  in  the  beginning,  determined 
it.  ...  But,  in  regard  to  purely  human  societies,  it  is  an  oft-repeated 
historical  fact  that  time,  that  great  transformer  of  all  things  here 
below,  operates  great  changes  in  their  political  institutions.    On 
some  occasions  it  limits  itself  to  modifying  something  in  the  form 
of  the  established  government;  or,  again,  it  will  go  so  far  as  to 
substitute  other  forms  for  the  primitive  ones — forms  totally  dif- 
ferent, even  as  regards  the  mode  of  transmitting  sovereign  power. 

181.  And  how  are  these  political  changes  of  which  We  speak 
produced?    They  sometimes  follow  in  the  wake  of  violent  crises, 
too  often  of  a  bloody  character,  in  the  midst  of  which  pre-existing 
governments  totally  disappear;  then  anarchy  holds  sway,  and  soon 
public  order  is  shaken  to  its  very  foundations  and  finally  over- 


[182-184]  LEO    XIII 

thrown.  From  that  time  onward  a  social  need  obtrudes  itself  upon 
the  nation;  it  must  provide  for  itself  without  delay.  Is  it  not  its 
privilege — or,  better  still,  its  duty— to  defend  itself  against  a  state 
of  affairs  troubling  it  so  deeply,  and  to  re-establish  public  peace  in 
the  tranquillity  of  order?  Now,  this  social  need  justifies  the  creation 
and  the  existence  of  new  governments,  whatever  form  they  take; 
since,  in  the  hypothesis  wherein  we  reason,  these  new  governments 
are  a  requisite  to  public  order,  all  public  order  being  impossible 
without  a  government.  Thence  it  follows  that,  in  similar  junctures, 
all  the  novelty  is  limited  to  the  political  form  of  civil  power,  or  to 
its  mode  of  transmission;  it  in  no  wise  affects  the  power  considered 
in  itself.  This  continues  to  be  immutable  and  worthy  of  respect, 
as,  considered  in  its  nature,  it  is  constituted  to  provide  for  the 
common  good,  the  supreme  end  which  gives  human  society  its 
origin.  To  put  it  otherwise,  in  all  hypotheses,  civil  power,  con- 
sidered as  such,  is  from  God,  always  from  God:  For  there  is  no 
power  but  from  God.8Q 

182.  Consequently,  when  new  governments  representing  this 
immutable  power  are  constituted,  their  acceptance  is  not  only  per- 
missible but  even  obligatory,  being  imposed  by  the  need  of  the 
social  good  which  has  made  and  which  upholds  them.  This  is  all 
the  more  imperative  because  an  insurrection  stirs  up  hatred  among 
citizens,  provokes  civil  war,  and  may  throw  a  nation  into  chaos 
and  anarchy,  and  this  great  duty  of  respect  and  dependence  will 
endure  as  long  as  the  exigencies  of  the  common  good  shall  demand 
it,  since  this  good  is,  after  God,  the  first  and  last  law  in  society. 

183.  Thus  the  wisdom  of  the  Church  explains  itself  in  the 
maintenance  of  her  relations  with  the  numerous  governments  which 
have  succeeded  one  another  in  France  in  less  than  a  century,  each 
change  causing  violent  shocks.   Such  a  line  of  conduct  would  be 
the  surest  and  most  salutary  for  alL  Frenchmen  in  their  civil  rela- 
tions with  the  Republic,  which  is  the  actual  government  of  their 
nation.  Far  be  it  from  them  to  encourage  the  political  dissensions 
which  divide  them;  all  their  efforts  should  be  combined  to  pre- 
serve and  elevate  the  moral  greatness  of  their  native  land. 

184.  But  a  difficulty  presents  itself.  "This  Republic,"  it  is  said, 
"is  animated  by  such  anti-Christian  sentiments  that  honest  men, 
Catholics  particularly,  could  not  conscientiously  accept  it."    This, 

86  Romans,  XIII,  i. 

MOLTI    E    SEGNALATI  [185-186] 

more  than  anything  else,  has  given  rise  to  dissensions,  and,  in  fact, 
aggravated  them.  .  .  .  These  regrettable  differences  would  have 
been  avoided  if  the  very  considerable  distinction  between  constituted 
power  and  legislation  had  been  carefully  kept  in  view.  In  so  much 
does  legislation  differ  from  political  power  and  its  form,  that,  under 
a  system  of  government  most  excellent  in  form,  legislation  could 
be  detestable;  while  quite  the  opposite,  under  a  regime  most  im- 
perfect in  form,  might  be  found  excellent  legislation.  It  were  an 
easy  task  to  prove  this  truth,  history  in  hand,  but  what  would  be 
the  use?  All  are  convinced  of  it.  And  who,  better  than  the  Church, 
is  in  position  to  know  it — she  who  has  striven  to  maintain  habitual 
relations  with  all  political  governments?  Assuredly  she,  better  than 
any  other  power,  could  tell  the  consolation  or  sorrow  occasioned 
her  by  the  laws  of  the  various  governments  by  which  nations  have 
been  ruled  from  the  Roman  Empire  down  to  the  present. 

185.  If  the  distinction  just  established  has  its  major  importance, 
it  is  likewise  manifestly  reasonable:  legislation  is  the  work  of  men 
invested  with  power,  and  who,  in  fact,  govern  the  nation;  there- 
fore, it  follows  that,  practically,  the  quality  of  the  laws  depends 
more  upon  the  quality  of  these  men  than  upon  the  form  of  power. 
The  laws  will  be  good  or  bad  accordingly  as  the  minds  of  the  legis- 
lators are  imbued  with  good  or  bad  principles,  and  as  they  allow 
themselves  to  be  guided  by  political  prudence  or  by  passion 


In   human  society  peace  is  the  daughter  of  justice. 

December  23,  1893 

1 86.  Without  doubt,  the  benefits  for  which  We  render  thanks 
to  the  loving  Providence  of  God  are  many  and  remarkable,  and 
We  are  happy,  Lord  Cardinal,  that  the  Sacred  College  also  renders 
thanks  and  praise  to  the  Lord  with  Us,  as  Our  praise  and  Our 
thanks  alone  would  be  insufficient  return  for  such  an  abundance 
of  mercy.  It  is  the  Hand  of  God  that  keeps  Us  safe  in  Our  advanced 
years,  which  gives  Us  the  great  consolation  of  seeing  alive  in  the 
people  the  devotion  to  the  Apostolic  See,  and  guides  Us  without 
fear  through  the  cares  of  a  ministry  that  even  in  less  difficult  times 

87  Original  Italian,  Acta  Leonis  Papae  XIII,  v.  5,  pp.  227-228. 


[187-188]  LEO    XIII 

and  circumstances  might  have  proved  exceedingly  heavy  for  Our 

187.  In  the  meantime,  determined  as  We  are  to  accomplish  to 
the  limit  of  Our  strength  Our  heavy  duties,  We  would  ask  for 
nothing  more  eagerly  than  that  which  you,  Lord  Cardinal,  have 
wished  Us  just  now:  to  be  permitted  to  be,  as  many  of  Our  Predeces- 
sors have  been,  real  ministers  and  bearers  of  peace  to  Europe  and 
to  the  world.  ...  It  is  indeed  true,  that  by  the  nature  of  Our 
office,  We  are  partisans  and  abettors  of  peace;  because  peace,  both 
in  the  individual  and  in  human  society,  is  the  daughter  of  justice, 
and  justice  derives  life  from  faith:  Justus  ex  fide  vivit?*  Indeed, 
the  highest  Christian  priesthood  being  the  incorruptible  guardian 
of  faith  and  the  supreme  vindicator  of  all  justice,  is  by  consequence 
an  apostolate  of  unification  and  peace.  Give  free  reins  to  this 
apostolate  which  derives  its  mission  from  above;  receive  without 
suspicion  the  message  that  it  brings;  let  it  penetrate  the  conscience 
of  the  citizen,  of  the  family,  and  of  the  government  of  the  States, 
and  you  will  behold  the  tranquillity  of  order,  that  supreme  aspira- 
tion and  supreme  need  of  the  people.  .  .  .  The  moral  reason  of  the 
present  troublous  times  is  to  be  found  particularly  in  the  weaken- 
ing of  religious  beliefs.  When  the  human  mind  loses  sight  of 
heaven,  and  keeps  the  eye  pinned  to  earth,  then  uniting  charity 
disappears,  and  dividing  selfishness  prevails.  Hence  the  dark  dis- 
cords hidden  under  lying  appearances,  rivalries,  and  mad  ambitions; 
the  growing  unrest  in  every  social  class,  the  hungry  desire  for  revo- 
lution which  springs  up  everywhere,  bringing  about  disorder  and 
strife.  Under  such  conditions,  peoples  and  nations  instinctively 
feel  a  need  for  peace  and  search  for  it  ardently,  but  true  peace  is 
nowhere  to  be  found,  because  for  too  long  a  time  they  have  for- 
gotten Him  Who  alone  can  give  it. 

1 88.  Should  we  not,  then,  hope  for  a  religious  revival,  fore- 
runner of  happier  days  ?  Indeed  we  should,  and  strongly,  because 
Jesus  Christ  never  forsakes  mankind  whom  He  has  redeemed.  As 
the  Spirit  of  God,  on  the  first  day  of  creation,  moved  over  the  new 
waters  and  made  them  fruitful,  so  at  the  moment  designed  by  His 
mercy  will  that  Spirit  descend  on  humankind  and  will  revive,  by 
its  virtue  and  the  work  of  the  Church,  the  spent  or  scarcely  living 
germ  of  Divine  Faith. 

^Romans,  I,  17. 


CARITATIS  [189-190] 

189.  With  this  sweet  hope  in  Our  heart,  We  welcome  the  good 
wishes  which  the  Sacrdd  College  has  expressed  to  Us  through  its 
worthy  Dean.  And  as  a  just  exchange,  in  the  august  and  beautiful 
solemnities  o£  these  days,  We  shall  pray  the  Divine  Child  to  bestow 
abundantly  upon  the  Sacred  College  His  heavenly  graces.  Mean- 
while, as  a  token  of  fatherly  love,  We  bestow  on  it,  on  the  Bishops, 
on  the  various  Prelates,  and  on  all  those  present  Our  Apostolic 


The  Pope  states  the  doctrine  of  the  Church  on  the 
duties  of  citizens  and  rulers  of  States. 

March  19,  1894 

I9° On  the  other  hand,  the  Church  does  not  teach 

and  prescribe  anything  that  is  injurious  or  contrary  to  the  majesty 
of  princes  or  to  the  happiness  or  progress  of  peoples;  nay,  rather, 
from  the  treasury  of  Christian  wisdom  she  is  constantly  drawing 
what  may  be  of  the  greatest  possible  advantage  to  them.  Among 
the  truths  which  she  teaches,  it  is  proper  to  mention  the  following: 
those  who  possess  power  bear  among  men  the  image  of  the  Divine 
Power  of  Providence;  their  command  must  be  just  and  imitate 
that  of  God,  be  tempered  by  a  paternal  kindness,  and  tend  solely 
to  the  welfare  of  the  State;  they  will  one  day  have  to  render  an 
account  to  God,  their  Judge,  an  account  so  much  the  more  serious 
the  higher  their  dignity.  As  for  those  who  are  under  the  depend- 
ence of  authority,  they  are  bound  to  observe  respect  and  fidelity 
towards  princes  as  exercising  towards  God  His  authority  through 
the  intermediation  of  men;  they  must  obey  them,  not  only  from 
fear  of  chastisement,  but  also  from  conscience,90  pray  for  them  and 
give  thanks  in  their  behalf,91  religiously  respect  the  order  of  the 
State,  abstain  from  the  plots  of  men  of  disorder  and  from  adhesion 
to  secret  societies;  they  must  commit  no  seditious  act,  but  must 
assist  with  all  their  efforts  in  maintaining  peace  in  justice 

89  Translation  from  Furey,  Life  of  Leo  X2II  and  History  of  His  Pontificate,  p.  244* 

Original  Latin,  AS.S.f  v.  .26,  p.  525  (1894). 

90  Cf.  Romans,  XIII,  5, 

91  Cf.  I  Timothy,  II,  i. 


[191-193]  LEO  XI11 

APOSTOLIC  LETTER  Praeclara  Gratulationis  TO  ALL  RULERS  AND 



//  governments  and  States  are  restored  to  the  unity  of 
the  faith,  peace  and  security  will  return  to  the  world. 

June  20,  1894 

191 Were  this  twofold  danger  averted,  and  govern- 
ment and  States  restored  to  the  unity  of  faith,  it  is  wonderful  what 
efficacious  remedies  for  evils  and  abundant  store  of  benefits  would 
ensue.  We  will  touch  upon  the  principal  ones. 

192.  The  first  regards  the  dignity  and  office  of  the  Church. 
She  would  receive  that  honor  which  is  her  due  and  she  would  go 
on  her  way,  free  from  envy  and  strong  in  her  liberty,  as  the  minister 
of  Gospel  truth  and  grace  to  the  notable  welfare  of  States.  For  as 
she  has  been  given  by  God  as  a  teacher  and  guide  to  the  human 
race,  she  can  contribute  assistance  which  is  peculiarly  adapted  to 
direct  even  the  most  radical  transformations  of  time  to  the  common 
good,  to  solve  the  most  complicated  questions,  and  to  promote 
uprightness  and  justice,  which  are  the  most  solid  foundations  of 
the  commonwealth.  Moreover,  there  would  be  a  marked  increase 
of  union  among  the  nations,  a  thing  most  desirable  to  ward  off  the 
horrors  of  war. 

193.  We  behold  the  condition  of  Europe.  For  many  years  past 
peace  has  been  rather  an  appearance  than  a  reality.  Possessed  with 
mutual  suspicions,  almost  all  the  nations  are  vying  with  one  an- 
other in  equipping  themselves  with  military  armaments.  Inexperi- 
enced youths  are  removed  from  parental  direction  and  control,  to 
be  thrown  amid  the  dangers  of  the  soldier's  life;  robust  young  men 
are  taken  from  agriculture  or  ennobling  studies  or  trade  or  the  arts 
to  be  put  under  arms.  Hence  the  treasures  of  States  are  exhausted 
by  the  enormous  expenditure,  the  national  resources  are  frittered 
away,  and  private  fortunes  impaired;  and  this,  as  it  were,  armed 
peace,  which  now  prevails,  cannot  last  much  longer.   Can  this  be 
the  normal  condition  of  human  society?    Yet  we  cannot  escape 
from  this  situation,  and  obtain  true  peace,  except  by  the  aid  of 

92  Translation  from  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.  315-316. 
Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  26,  p.  714  (1894). 


Jesus  Christ.  For  to  repress  ambition  and  covetousness  and  envy—- 
the chief  instigators  of  war — nothing  is  more  fitted  than  the  Chris- 
tian virtues  and,  in  particular,  the  virtue  of  justice;  for,  by  its  exer- 
cise, both  the  law  of  nations  and  the  faith  of  treaties  may  be  main- 
tained inviolate,  and  the  bonds  of  brotherhood  continue  unbroken, 
if  men  are  but  convinced  that  justice  exdteth  a  nation?*  As  in  its 
external  relations,  so  in  the  internal  life  of  the  State  itself,  the 
Christian  virtues  will  provide  a  guarantee  of  the  commonweal  much 
more  sure  and  far  stronger  than  any  which  law  or  armies  can  afford. 
For  there  is  no  one  who  does  not  see  that  the  dangers  to  public 
security  and  order  are  daily  on  the  increase,  since  seditious  societies 
continue  to  conspire  for  the  overthrow  and  ruin  of  States,  as  the 
frequency  of  their  atrocious  outrages  testifies 

ENCYCLICAL   Jucunda  Semper   Expectatione   ON   THE   HOLY 


To  safeguard  the  peace  of  Christian  society,  prayer  is 
necessary  and  the  Rosary  is  especially  adapted  for  this 
fynd  of  prayer. 

September  8,  1894 

194 But  the  Rosary,  if  rightly  considered,  will  be 

found  to  have  in  itself  special  virtues,  whether  for  producing  and 
continuing  a  state  of  recollection,  or  for  touching  the  conscience 
for  its  healing,  or  for  lifting  up  the  soul.  As  all  men  know,  it  is 
composed  of  two  parts,  distinct  but  inseparable — the  meditation  of 
the  Mysteries  and  the  recitation  of  the  prayers.  It  is  thus  a  kind 
of  prayer  that  requires  not  only  some  raising  of  the  soul  to  God, 
but  also  a  particular  and  explicit  attention,  so  that  by  reflection 
upon  the  things  to  be  contemplated,  impulses  and  resolutions  may 
follow  for  the  reformation  and  sanctification  of  life. 

195.  Those  same  things  are,  in  fact,  the  most  important  and 
the  most  admirable  of  Christianity,  the  things  through  which  the 
world  was  renewed  and  filled  with  the  fruits  of  truth,  justice 
and  peace.  And  it  is  remarkable  how  well  adapted  to  every  kind 
of  mind,  however  unskilled,  is  the  manner  in  which  these  things 

93  Proverbs,  XIV,  34. 

04  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  84,  p.  498  (September  29,  1894).  Original  Latin, 
A.S.S.,  v.  27,  pp.  181-182  (1894-95). 

[196-197]  LEO     XIII 

are  proposed  to  us  in  the  Rosary.  They  are  proposed  less  as  truths 
or  doctrines  to  be  speculated  upon  than  as  present  facts  to  be  seen 
and  perceived.  .  .  . 

196.  ...  At  the  present  day — and  on  this  We  have  already 
touched—there  is  a  signal  necessity  of  special  help  from  heaven, 
particularly   manifest  in   the   many   tribulations   suffered   by   the 
Church  as  to  her  liberties  and  her  rights,  as  also  in  the  perils 
whereby  the  prosperity  and  peace  of  Christian  society  are  funda- 
mentally threatened.  So  it  is  that  it  belongs  to  Our  office  to  assert 
once  again  that  We  place  the  best  of  Our  hopes  in  the  holy  Rosary, 
inasmuch  as  more  than  any  other  means  it  can  impetrate  from  God 
the  succor  which  We  need 

LETTER  Tres  Puissant  Negus  TO  KING  MENELIK  OF  ABYSSINIA.95 
The  Pope  as\s  mercy  for  the  Italian  prisoners. 
May  n,  1896 

197.  ...  It  has  pleased  You  on  a  former  occasion  spontaneously 
to  salute  the  beginning  of  Our  Pontificate,  and  ten  years  later,  upon 
the  occasion  of  Our  sacerdotal  jubilee,  You  offered  Us  a  new  testi- 
monial of  Your  courtesy.   These  proofs  of  good  will  filled  Our 
heart  with  joy;  they  do  honor  to  Your  heart.  So,  it  is  to  Your  heart 
of  a  monarch  and  a  Christian  that  We  address  Our  words  today 
in  order  to  urge  You  to  perform  an  act  of  sovereign  generosity. 
Victory  has  left  numerous  prisoners  in  Your  hands.    They  are 
vigorous  young  men  and  worthy  of  respect,  who,  in  the  flower  of 
their  manhood  and  at  the  dawn  of  the  finest  hopes,  have  been 
snatched  from  their  families  and  their  homeland.   Their  captivity 
neither  augments  the  measure  of  Your  power,  nor  the  extent  of 
Your  prestige;  but  the  longer  it  lasts  the  more  poignant  is  the  grief 
in  the  souls  of  thousands  of  mothers  and  innocent  wives.  For  Our 
part,  filled  with  the  holy  mission  which  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
has  entrusted  to  Us  and  which  extends  to  all  Christian  nations, 
We  love  them  as  sons.  Therefore,  deign  to  heed  the  request  which 
We  make  with  a  father's  heart,  in  the  name  of  the  Divine  Trinity, 
in  the  name  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  in  the  name  of  all  'that  You 
hold  most  dear  in  this  world;  be  pleased  to  grant  them  their  liberty 

95  Original  French,  L'Osservatore  Romano  (November  14,  1896). 


LETTER     TO     WORLD     PEACE     CONGRESS       [198] 

without  delay.  Most  powerful  Negus  Negesti,  do  not  refuse  to 
show  Yourself  magnanimous  before  the  eyes  of  the  nations.  Inscribe 
this  glorious  page  in  the  annals  of  Your  reign!  After  all,  what  are 
the  merciless  rights  of  war  alongside  of  the  rights  and  duties  of 
human  fraternity  ?  God  will  give  You  a  very  rich  reward,  for  He 
is  the  Father  of  mercy!  Thousands  of  voices  will  be  raised  in  chorus 
to  bless  You,  and  Ours  will  be  the  first  to  be  heard.  .  .  . 


The  Pope  as  the  Head  of  the  Church  has  a  special  obli- 
gation to  promote  peace. 

December  15,  1896 

198.  The  homage  rendered  the  Holy  Father  by  the  World  Peace 
Congress,  recently  held  in  Budapest,  and  of  which  you  were  the 
spokesman,  pleased  him  exceedingly.  He  readily  recognized  this 
expression  of  confidence  as  a  public  testimony  of  respect  for  the 
high  office  of  peace  with  which  the  Head  of  the  Church  is  vested. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  it  was  the  most  outstanding  duty  of  the  chief 
Prince  of  the  Church,  who  has  at  all  times  placed  his  authority  and 
influence  in  the  service  of  civilization  and  of  concord  among  peoples, 
to  bring  the  world  under  the  influence  of  justice  and  peace,  and 
to  unite  all  nations,  as  in  a  single  family,  by  the  bonds  of  Christian 
brotherhood.  The  Pope  who  today  rules  the  Church  has  of  his 
own  initiative  put  his  heart  and  soul  to  this  extraordinary  Christian 
and  beneficent  work,  and  he  will  not  cease  to  devote  his  solicitude 
and  efforts  to  this  work  in  the  future.  He  is  strengthened  in  this 
intention  by  the  conviction,  of  which  men  are  becoming  more  and 
more  conscious,  that  the  foundations  on  which  civil  society  rests 
are  performance  of  all  duties  and  respect  for  all  rights,  that  the 
law  of  reason  succeeds  the  law  of  force,  and  that  a  new  era  of  true 
civilization  will  facilitate  for  the  human  family  the  fulfillment 
of  their  chief  duties.  .  .  . 

1)0  Original  German,  Miiller,  Das  Friedenswerk^  der  Kirche,  pp.  344-345. 


[199-200]  LEO    XIII 



The  Catholic  religion,  which  teaches  justice  and  honor, 
is  the  enemy  of  disorder  and  insurrection. 

August  5,  1898 

199 We  did  not  fail  to  raise  Our  voice  against  these 

serious  and  repeated  attacks.  We  complained  of  them  on  account 
of  our  holy  Religion,  exposed  to  the  greatest  dangers;  We  com- 
plained of  them  also — and  We  say  this  with  all  the  sincerity  of 
Our  heart — on  account  of  our  country,  because  Religion  is  the 
source  of  prosperity  and  greatness  for  the  nation  and  the  principal 
foundation  of  every  well-regulated  society.  And,  in  fact,  when  the 
religious  sentiment,  which  elevates  and  ennobles  the  soul  and  deeply 
impresses  upon  it  the  ideas  of  justice  and  honor,  is  weakened,  man 
declines  and  abandons  himself  to  savage  instincts  and  material 
interests;  whence  follow,  as  a  logical  result,  rancors,  divisions, 
depravity,  conflicts  and  disturbance  of  order,  for  which  evils  sure 
and  sufficient  remedies  are  not  to  be  found  either  in  the  severity 
of  the  laws,  or  the  harshness  of  the  tribunals,  or  the  use  of  armed 
force  itself.  To  this  natural  and  intrinsic  connection  between  reli- 
gious decadence  and  the  development  of  insurrection  and  disorder, 
We  have  often  called  the  attention  of  those  with  whom  rests  the 
formidable  responsibility  of  power,  pointing  out  in  public  docu- 
ments addressed  to  the  Italian  people  the  progress  of  Socialism 
and  anarchy  and  the  endless  evils  to  which  they  exposed  the 

200.  But  then  took  place  the  painful  occurrences  which,  accom- 
panied by  tumults  and  the  shedding  of  citizens'  blood,  brought 
disaster  to  several  districts  in  Italy.  No  one  suffered  more  in  mind 
or  was  more  disturbed  than  We  at  this  sad  sight.  We  thought, 
however,  that  at  the  beginning  of  these  outbreaks  and  these  strug- 
gles between  brethren,  those  who  have  the  direction  of  public  affairs 
would  recognize  the  unhappy  but  natural  fruit  of  the  evil  seed 
scattered  so  widely,  and  for  such  a  long  time  scattered  with  im- 
punity, throughout  the  whole  peninsula;  We  thought  that,  going 
back  from  the  effects  to  the  causes,  and  profiting  by  the  bitter 

97 Translation  from  The  American  Ecclesiastical  Review,  v.  19,  pp.  392-397  (1898). 
Original  Italian,  A.S.S.,  v.  31,  pp.  129-133  (1898-1899). 


FIRST     NOTE     TO     COUNT     MOURAVIEV.        [201-202] 

lessons  received,  they  would  return  to  the  Christian  standards  o£ 
social  order  by  which  nations  are  restored,  if  they  are  not  allowed 
to  perish,  and  that,  therefore,  they  would  hold  in  honor  the  prin- 
ciples of  justice,  probity  and  religion  to  which  are  to  be  mainly 
attributed  even  the  material  welfare  of  the  people.  We  thought  at 
least  that  in  looking  for  the  authors  and  accomplices  of  these  out- 
breaks they  would  seek  them  amongst  those  who  oppose  Catholic 
teaching,  and,  through  naturalism  and  scientific  and  political 
materialism,  stir  up  every  kind  of  inordinate  cupidity  amongst  those 
who,  under  cover  of  sectarian  gatherings,  conceal  evil  designs  and 
take  up  arms  against  order  and  the  security  of  society.  And  indeed 
there  were  not  wanting  even  in  the  camp  of  the  enemy  some 
elevated  and  impartial  minds  who  understood  and  had  the  praise- 
worthy courage  to  proclaim  publicly  the  true  cause  of  the  lamentable 

201.  The  Italian  Catholics,  by  virtue  of  the  immutable  and  well- 
known  principles  of  their  Religion,  eschew  all  conspiracy  and  re- 
bellion against  the  public  authorities,  to  which  they  render  due 
tribute.  Their  conduct  in  the  past,  to  which  all  impartial  men  can 
render  honorable  testimony,  is  a  guarantee  of  their  conduct  in  the 
future,  and  this  ought  to  be  sufficient  to  assure  them  the  justice 
and  liberty  to  which  all  peaceful  citizens  have  a  right.  More  than 
this,  being,  owing  to  the  doctrine  they  profess,  the  strongest  sup- 
porters of  order,  they  are  entitled  to  respect,  and  if  virtue  and  merit 
were  adequately  appreciated,  they  would  also  have  a  right  to  the 
regard  and  gratitude  of  those  at  the  head  of  public  affairs 

FOR  RussiA.98 

Peace  cannot  be  established  if  it  does  not  rest  on  the 
foundation  of  Christian  public  law. 

September  15,  1898 

202.  .  .  .  The  noble  initiative  of  His  Majesty  corresponds  to 
one  of  the  most  ardent  wishes  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff.  The  Pope 
holds  that  peace  cannot  possibly  be  established  if  it  does  not  rest 

y8  Original  French,  Revue  des  Deux-Mondes,  v.  154,  p.  593  sqq. 


[203-206]  LEO     XIII 

on  the  foundation  of  Christian  public  law,  from  which  comes  the 
concord  of  princes  among  themselves  and  of  peoples  with  their 

203.  In  order  that  mutual  mistrust,  and  the  reciprocal  motives 
of  offense  and  defense  which  have  led  the  nations  of  our  day  to 
develop  their  armaments,  should  cease,  and  in  order  that  a  spirit 
of  peace,  spreading  throughout  the  universe,  should  lead  nations 
to  regard  one  another  as  brothers,  Christian  justice  must  have  full 
vigor  in  the  world,  the  maxims  of  the  Gospel  must  again  be  held 
in  honor,  and  the  difficult  art  of  governing  peoples  must  have  as 
its  principal  element  that  fear  of  God  which  is  the  beginning  of 

204.  Men  have  wished  to  regulate  the  relations  among  nations 
by  a  new  law  founded  on  utilitarian  interests,  on  the  predom- 
inance of  force,  on  the  success  of  accomplished  deeds,  and  on  other 
theories  which  are  the  negation  of  the  eternal  and  immutable  prin- 
ciples of  justice.  This  is  the  capital  error  which  has  brought  Europe 
to  a  state  of  disaster. 

205.  Against  such  a  baneful  system,  the  Holy  See  has  not  ceased 
to  raise  its  voice  in  order  to  arouse  the  attention  of  princes  and 
peoples.  Already,  during  the  Middle  Ages,  by  means  of  the  happy 
unity  of  Christendom,  the  voice  of  the  Roman  Pontiffs  found  every- 
where easy  access;  it  succeeded  by  the  force  of  its  authority  alone  to 
conciliate  princes  and  peoples,  to  put  an  end  to  quarrels  by  words 
of  arbitration,  to  defend  the  weak  against  the  unjust  oppression  of 
the  strong,  to  prevent  war,  and  to  save  Christian  civilization. 

206.  Today  again,  although  the  conditions  of  the  world  are 
changed,  the  Pope  does  not  cease  to  use  his  moral  power  with  a 
constant  solicitude,  in  order  to  fill  the  minds  of  peoples  with  the 
Christian  idea  of  justice  and  of  love,  to  recall  nations  to  the  re- 
ciprocal duties  of  brotherhood,  to  inculcate  respect  for  the  authority 
established  by  God  for  the  good  of  peoples,  and  to  oppose  to  the 
law  of  might  the  might  of  law,  in  conformity  with  the  principles 
of  the  Gospel 




Mediation  and  arbitration,  not  force,  are  the  solution 
for  international  disputes. 

February  10,  1899 

207 There  is  lacking  in  the  international  consortium 

of  nations  a  system  of  legal  and  moral  means  proper  to  determine, 
to  make  good  the  right  of  each.  There  only  remains,  then,  imme- 
diate recourse  to  force.  The  result  is  the  rivalry  of  nations  in  the 
development  of  their  military  power.  .  .  . 

208.  ...  In  view  of  such  an  unfortunate  state  of  things,  the 
institution  of  mediation  and  arbitration  appears  to  be  the  most 
opportune  remedy;  it  corresponds  in  all  respects  to  the  aspirations 
of  the  Holy  See,  .Perhaps — and  this  will  be  better  brought  out  in 
the  discussions  of  the  Conference— perhaps  we  cannot  hope  that 
arbitration,  obligatory  by  its  very  nature,  can  become  in  all  circum- 
stances the  object  of  unanimous  acceptance  and  assent.  An  institu- 
tion of  mediation,  invested  with  authority,  clothed  with  all  the 
necessary  moral  prestige,  fortified  with  the  indispensable  guarantees 
of  competence  and  impartiality,  in  no  way  restraining  the  liberty 
of  the  litigating  parties,  would  be  less  exposed  to  meet  obstacles.100 

209.  ...  At  the  same  time,  the  Holy  See  expresses  the  most 
ardent  wish  that  in  the  councils  of  the  powers  the  principle  of 
mediation  and  of  arbitration  may  find  a  favorable  welcome  and 
may  be  applied  as  widely  as  possible.  It  gives  its  keenest  sympathy 
to  such  a  proposal  and  it  declares  that  it  is  always  disposed  to 
co-operate  most  willingly  in  order  that  such  a  proposal  may  have  a 
favorable  issue.  For  it  is  convinced  that,  if  an  effective  international 
accord  could  be  realized,  the  latter  would  have  a  most  happy  effect 
in  the  interests  of  civilization. 

"Original  French,  Revue  des  Deux-Mondes,  v.  154,  pp.  597-598  (1899). 
100  Such  an  institution  was  the  permanent  International    Court  of  Arbitration   of 
The  Hague. 

[210-212]  LEO    XIII 


History   clearly   teaches   how   often   the   Popes   have 
worked  for  peace  among  nations. 

April  ii ,  1899 

210.  Gladly  Our  thoughts,  Lord  Cardinal,  turn  to  the  fact102 
which  you  have  just  mentioned,  which  We  Ourselves  have  antici- 
pated by  desire  and  which  comes  now  as  a  ray  of  sunlight  to  console 
the  decline  of  the  century.    To  make  rarer  and  less  bloody  the 
terrible  play  of  arms,  and  thus  to  prepare  the  way  for  a  more  tran- 
quil social  life  is  such  an  enterprise  that  it  will  make  illustrious  in 
the  history  of  civilization  him  who  had  sufficient  intelligence  and 
courage  to  take  the  initiative  in  it.  Thus,  from  the  very  beginning, 
We  have  greeted  this  plan  with  that  eagerness  of  will  which  befits 
him  who  has  the  supreme  task  of  promoting  and  disseminating  on 
earth  the  peaceful  influence  of  the  Gospel.   We  do  not  cease  to 
pray  that  this  noble  enterprise  may  result  in  complete  and  universal 
success.   Heaven  grant  that  this  first  step  may  lead  to  the  experi- 
ment of  resolving  disputes  among  nations  by  means  of  purely  moral 
and  persuasive  measures. 

211.  What  could  be  more  ardently  wished  for  and  desired  by 
the  Church,  mother  of  nations,  the  natural  enemy  of  violence  and 
bloodshed,  who  could  not  happily  fulfill  her  sacred  rites  without 
dispelling  by  her  prayers  the  scourge  of  war?    The  spirit  of  the 
Church  is  a  spirit  of  humanity,  of  sweetness,  of  concord,  of  universal 
charity.    Her  mission,  like  that  of  Christ,  is  peaceful  and  peace- 
making by  nature  because  she  has  for  her  object  the  reconciliation 
of  man  with  God.  Hence,  results  the  efficacy  of  the  religious  power 
to  translate  into  actuality  true  peace  among  men,  not  only  in  the 
realm  of  conscience,  which  it  does  every  day,  but  also  in  the  public 
and  social  order,  by  reason  always  of  the  liberty  of  action  granted  to 
her;  an  action,  which,  when  it  has  intervened  directly  in  the  great 
affairs  of  the  world,  has  never  been  exerted  without  producing  some 
public  benefit. 

212.  It  suffices  to  recall  how  many  times  it  has  been  given  to 
the  Roman  Pontiffs  to  put  a  stop  to  oppressions,  to  dispel  wars,  to 
obtain  truces,  agreements,  treaties  of  peace.  They  have  been  moved 

101  Original  Italian,  Civilta  Cattolica,  sen  17,  v.  6,  pp.  354-355  (April  24,  1899). 

102  The  International  Peace  Conference  being  held  at  The  Hague. 


ANNUM    SACRUM  [213-214] 

by  the  realization  of  their  exalted  office,  by  the  driving  force  of 
their  spiritual  fatherhood,  which  unites  brothers  and  saves  them. 
Woe  to  the  civilization  of  nations  if  the  papal  authority  had  not 
hastened  in  certain  crises  to  curb  the  inhuman  instincts  of  tyranny 
and  conquest,  by  claiming  in  law  and  in  fact  the  natural  supremacy 
of  reason  over  force.  Thus  speak  the  indissolubly  united  names  of 
Alexander  III  and  Legnano,  of  St.  Ghislieri  (family  name  of  Pope 
St.  Pius  V)  and  Lepanto. 

213.  Such  is  the- intrinsic  virtue  of  the  religious  power.  Contra- 
dictions and  pressure  may  be  able,  here  and  there,  to  hinder  the 
effects;  but  in  itself  it  lives  immutable  and  indefectible.  So  that, 
whatever  may  be  the  fortune  of  the  times,  the  Church  of  God  will 
follow  her  course  with  serenity,  always  doing  good.  Her  gaze  is 
towards  heaven,  but  her  action  embraces  heaven  and  earth  because 
all  things  have  been  united  in  Christ,  the  things  of  heaven  as  those 
of  earth.  That  is  why  the  promise  of  a  true  and  lasting  prosperity 
by  purely  human  means  would  be  a  vain  illusion.  It  would  even 
be  regression  and  ruin  to  try  to  deprive  civilization  of  the  breath 
of  Christianity  which  gives  life  and  form  to  it  and  which  alone 
can  preserve  for  it  the  solidity  of  existence  and  the  fruitfulness  of 


a   To  insure  peace  between  nations  there  must  be  a  closer 
bond  between  religion  and  civil  society. 

May  25,  1899 

214.  ......  This  world-wide  and  solemn  testimony  of  allegi- 
ance and  piety  is  especially  appropriate  to  Jesus  Christ,  Who  is  the 
Head  and  Supreme  Lord  of  the  race.  His  empire  extends  not  only 
over  Catholic  nations  and  those  who,  having  been  duly  washed  in 
the  waters  of  holy  baptism,  belong  of  right  to  the  Church,  although 
erroneous  opinions  keep  them  astray,  or  dissent  from  her  teaching 
cuts  them  off  from  her  care;  it  comprises  also  all  those  who  are 

103  Translation  from  The  Holy  Ghost  and  the  Sacred  Heart  (Catholic  Truth  Society 
of  England  Pamphlet),  pp.  24-29.  Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  31,  pp.  647-650 


[215-216]  LEO     XIII 

deprived  of  the  Christian  Faith,  so  that  the  whole  human  race  is 
most  truly  under  the  power  of  Jesus  Christ 

215.  Such  an  act  of  consecration,  since  it  can  establish  or  draw 
tighter  the  bonds  which  naturally  connect  public  affairs  with  God, 
gives  to  States  a  hope  of  better  things.   In  these  latter  times  espe- 
cially, a  policy  has  been  followed  which  has  resulted  in  a  sort  of 
wall  being  raised  between  the  Church  and  civil  society.    In  the 
constitution  and  administration  of  States  the  authority  of  sacred 
and  divine  law  is  utterly  disregarded,  with  a  view  to  the  exclusion 
of  religion  from  having  any  constant  part  in  public  life.  This  policy 
almost  tends  to  the  removal  of  the  Christian  Faith  from  our  midst, 
and,  if  that  were  possible,  to  the  banishment  of  God  Himself  from 
the  earth.   When  men's  minds  are  raised  to  such  a  height  of  in- 
solent pride,  what  wonder  is  it  that  the  greater  part  of  the  human 
race  should  have  fallen  into  such  disquiet  of  mind  and  be  buffeted 
by  waves  so  rough  that  no  one  is  suffered  to  be  free  from  anxiety 
and  peril?   When  religion  is  once  discarded  it  follows  of  necessity 
that  the  surest  foundations  of  the  public  welfare  must  give  way, 
whilst  God,  to  inflict  on  His  enemies  the  punishment  they  so  richly 
deserve,  has  left  them  the  prey  of  their  own  evil  desires,  so  that 
they  .  .  .  wear  themselves  out  by  excess  of  liberty. 

216.  Hence  that  abundance  of  evils  which  have  now  for  a  long 
time  settled  upon  the  world,  and  which  pressingly  call  upon  us  to 
seek  for  help  from  Him  by  Whose  strength  alone  they  can  be  driven 
away.  Who  can  He  be  but  Jesus  Christ,  the  only  begotten  Son  of 
God?    For  there  is  no  other  name  under  heaven  given  to  men 
whereby  we  must  be  saved r.104    We  must  have  recourse  to  Him 
Who  is  the  Way,  the  Truth  and  the  Life.  We  have  gone  astray 
and  we  must  return  to  the  right  path:  darkness  has  overshadowed 
our  minds,  and  the  gloom  must  be  dispelled  by  the  light  of  truth: 
death  has  seized  upon  us,  and  we  must  lay  hold  of  life.  It  will  at 
length  be  possible  that  our  many  wounds  be  healed  and  all  justice 
spring  forth  again  with  the  hope  of  restored  authority;  that  the 
splendors  of  peace  be  renewed,  and  swords  and  arms  drop  from  the 
hand  when  all  men  shall  acknowledge  the  empire  of  Christ  and 
willingly  obey  His  word,  and  every  tongue  shall  confess  that  Our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  is  in  the  glory  of  God  the  Father™* 

104  Acts,  IV,  12. 
imPMippians,  II,  11. 

NOUS     NE    POUVONS  [217-218] 



The  Popes  always  have  and  always  will  wor\  for  peace 
among  the  nations. 

May  29,  1899 

217.  We  cannot  but  find  agreeable  the  letter  by  which  Your 
Majesty,  in  announcing  to  Us  the  meeting  of  the  Conference  for 
Peace107  in  Your  capital,  did  Us  the  courtesy  to  request  Our  moral 
support  for  that  assembly.  We  hasten  to  express  Our  keen  sympathy 
for  the  august  initiator  of  the  Conference,108  and  for  Your  Majesty, 
who  extended  to  it  such  spontaneous  and  noble  hospitality,  and  for 
the  eminently  moral  and  beneficent  object  toward  which  the  labors 
already  begun  are  tending, 

218.  We  consider  that  it  comes  especially  within  Our  province 
not  only  to  lend  Our  moral  support  to  such  enterprises,  but  to  co- 
operate actively  in  them,  for  the  object  in  question  is  supremely 
noble  in  its  nature  and  intimately  bound  up  with  Our  August 
Ministry,  which,  through  the-  Divine  Founder  of  the  Church,  and 
in  virtue  of  traditions  of  many  secular  instances,  has  been  invested 
with  the  highest  possible  mission,  that  of  being  a  mediator  of 
peace.  In  fact,  the  authority  of  the  Supreme  Pontiff  goes  beyond 
the  boundaries  of  nations;  it  embraces  all  peoples,  to  the  end  of 
federating  them  in  the  true  peace  of  the  Gospel.   His  action  to 
promote  the  general  good  of  humanity  rises  above  the  special 
interests  which  the  chiefs  of  the  various  States  have  in  view,  and, 
better  than  any  one  else,  his  authority  knows  how  to  incline  toward 
concord  peoples  of  diverse  nature  and  character.  History  itself  bears 
witness  to  all  that  has  been  done,  by  the  influence  of  Our  Predeces- 
sors, to  soften  the  inexorable  laws  of  war,  to  arrest  bloody  conflicts 
when  controversies  have  arisen  between  princes,  to  terminate  peace- 
fully even  the  most  acute  differences  between  nations,  to  vindicate 
courageously  the  rights  of  the  weak  against  the  pretensions  of  the 
strong.  Even  unto  Us,  notwithstanding  the  abnormal  condition  to 
which  We  are  at  present  reduced,  it  has  been  given  to  put  an  end 

106  Translation  from  Holls,  The  Peace  Conference  at  The  Hagtie,  pp.  339-34O.  Original 

French,  A3.S.,  v.  32,  pp.  65-67  (1900). 

107  The  First  Peace  Conference  at  The  Hague. 

108  The  Czar  Nicholas  II  of  Russia. 


[219-220]  LEO    XIII 

to  grave  differences  between  great  nations  such  as  Germany  and 
Spain,109  and  this  very  day  We  hope  to  be  able  soon  to  establish 
concord  between  two  nations  of  South  America110  which  have  sub- 
mitted their  controversy  to  Our  arbitration. 

219.  In  spite  of  obstacles  which  may  arise.  We  shall  continue, 
since  it  rests  with  Us  to  fulfill  that  traditional  mission,  without 
seeking  any  other  object  than  the  public  weal,  without  envying  any 
glory  but  that  of  serving  the  sacred  cause  of  Christian  civiliza- 


Priests  must  teach  the  salutary  principles  of  religion 
which  furnish  the  only  solution  for  the  crisis. 

September  8,  1899 

220 The  present  times  are  evil;  the  future  is  still 

more  gloomy  and  menacing,  and  seems  to  herald  the  approach  of 
a  redoubtable  crisis  and  social  upheaval.  It  behooves  us,  then,  as 
We  have  said  on  many  occasions,  to  honor  the  salutary  principles 
of  Religion,  as  well  as  those  of  justice,  charity,  respect  and  duty. 
It  is  for  us  to  imbue  men's  souls  with  these  principles — and  espe- 
cially those  souls  which  have  become  captive  to  infidelity  or  dis- 
turbed by  destroying  passions,  to  bring  about  the  reign  of  the  grace 
and  peace  of  our  Divine  Redeemer,  Who  is  the  Light  and  the 
Resurrection  and  the  Life,  and  in  Him  to  unite  all  men,  notwith- 
standing the  inevitable  social  distinctions  which  divide  them.  Yet, 
now  more  than  ever,  is  there  need  of  the  help  and  devotedness  of 
exemplary  priests,  full  of  faith,  discretion  and  zeal,  who,  taking 
inspiration  from  the  gentleness  and  energy  of  Jesus  Christ,  Whose 
.true  ambassadors  they  are  ...  to  announce  with  a  courageous  and 
inexhaustible  patience  the  eternal  truths  which  are  seldom  fruitless 
of  virtue  in  men's  souls 

109  The' dispute  over  the  Caroline  Islands  in  1885. 

110  The  difficulty  of  establishing  a  boundary  between  Haiti  and  Santo  Domingo. 

111  Translation  from  The  Catholic  University  Bulletin,  v.  5,  p.  501  (1899).   Original 

French,  A.S.S.,  v.  32,  p.  213  (1900). 



ALLOCUTION   Auspicandac   Celebritatis   TO   THE   COLLEGE   OF 


Leo  XIII  regrets  the  exclusion  of  the  Holy  See  -from  the 
International  Peace  Conference  at  The  Hague. 

December  14,  1899 

221 Meanwhile,  the  year  nearing  its  end  brought 

forth  another  setback  combined  with  injury  to  the  Apostolic  See, 
and  one  condemned  by  the  universal  agreement  of  men  who  judge 
justly,  which  We  could  not  tolerate  in  silence;  We  refer  to  the  con- 
ference of  legates  of  the  highest  rulers  at  The  Hague.  At  the 
suggestion  of  the  august  Czar  of  Russia,  there  was  to  be  a  consul- 
tation about  establishing  more  firmly  the  peace  of  empires  and 
about  restricting  both  the  frequency  and  cruelty  of  wars.  What 
could  be  more  deserving  of  the  support  of  the  Pontiff?  In  truth, 
to  contend  for  justice,  to  bring  about  peace,  to  prevent  quarrels, 
is  divinely  fixed  in  the  Roman  Pontificate;  all  previous  ages  have 
recognized  this  both  in  judgment  and  in  practice.  That  Our  Pre- 
decessors have  frequently  performed  these  functions  to  the  great 
advantage  of  Christian  nations  is  too  well-known  to  need  mention. 

222.  In  fact,  even  from  the  beginning,  the  help  of  'Our  author- 
ity had  been  spontaneously  sought  for  that  undertaking  at  once 
so  fruitful  and  so  noble;  even  then,  it  was  desired,  and  for  the  most 
part  opinions  were  inclined  to  give  Us  a  place  in  The  Hague 
Conference,  One  voice  out  of  all  dissented,  and  indeed  it  contin- 
ued stubborn  in  its  dissent  as  long  as  it  aroused  opposition  against 
Us:  the  voice  of  those  very  men,  I  say,  who  have  exposed  the 
supreme  ruler  of  the  Church  to  their  power  by  their  capture  of 
the  City.  What  hostility  should  We  not  fear  from  such  men,  when 
they  do  not  hesitate  in  the  sight  of  Europe  to  offer  violence  to  the 
sanctity  of  the  laws  and  the  duties  which  proceed  spontaneously 
from  the  Apostolic  Office?  Nevertheless,  of  whatever  sort  future 
times  may  be,  they  shall  find  Us,  with  God's  help,  neither  conniving 
nor  fearful 

112  Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  32,  pp.  322-323  (1900). 


[223-224]  LEO    XIII 


The  Pope  as\s  all  to  fray  for  a  speedy  end  to  the  war  in 
South  Africa. 

March  2,  1900 

223 For  the  rest,  it  will  not  appear  foreign  to  the 

nature  of  today's  celebrations  to  invite  you,  as  We  do,  to  join  with 
Us  in  the  holy  union  of  a  prayer  for  a  purpose  altogether  conformed 
to  the  dictates  of  that  evangelical  love  which  knows  neither  distance 
of  place  nor  difference  of  race.  Let  us  all  unitedly  supplicate  the 
Lord  that  He  deign  to  look  with  pity  on  the  bloody  duel  which 
has  been  fought  for  months  on  the  African  land,  and  that  He 
permit  it  not  to  continue  further.  They  are  all  His  sons  and  our 
brothers  who  suffer  in  the  difficult  trial  of  the  anxieties  and  engage- 
ments of  war.  May  the  blessed  God  look  upon  them  with  a  fatherly 
eye,  extinguish  their  wrath,  and  lead  their  hearts  to  sentiments 
of  reciprocal  moderation  and  agreement,  so  that  they  may  come, 
as  soon  as  possible,  to  a  loyal  and  solid  friendship  consecrated  by 
the  mutual  kiss  of  peace  and  of  justice.  .  .  . 


//  Christ  is  j or  gotten  or  excluded  from  civil  society,  the 
peace  and  security  of  States  will  be  completely  under- 

November  i,  1900 

224 When  Jesus  had  blotted  but  the  handwriting 

which  was  contrary  to  us,  and  fastened  it  to  the  cross,  the  wrath  of 
heaven  was  immediately  appeased;  the  disordered  and  erring  race 
of  man  had  the  bonds  of  their  ancient  slavery  loosed,  the  Will  of 
God  was  reconciled  to  them,  grace  restored,  the  way  to  eternal  hap- 
piness opened,  and  the  tide  to  possess  and  the  means  of  attaining 
it  both  given  back.  Then,  as  though  awakened  from  a  long-linger- 
ing and  deadly  lethargy,  man  beheld  the  light  of  truth  so  long 
desired,  but  for  generations  sought  in  vain;  he  recognized,  in 

113 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  95,  p.  374  (March  10,  1900).    Original  Italian, 

Civiltd  Cattolica,  ser.  17,  v.  9,  pp.  738-739  (1900). 
114  Translation  from  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.  465-476, 

Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  33,  pp.  275-284  (1900-1901). 


TAMETSI  [225-226] 

particular,  that  he  was  born  for  much  higher  and  more  splendid 
things  than  the  frail  and  fleeting  objects  of  sense,  to  which  he  had 
formerly  confined  his  thoughts  and  pursuits,  and  that  this  was  in 
fine  the  constitution  and  supreme  law  of  human  life,  and  the  end 
to  which  all  must  tend,  that  as  we  came  from  God  so  we  should 
one  day  return  to  Him.  From  this  beginning  and  on  this  founda- 
tion consciousness  of  human  dignity  was  restored  and  lived  again; 
the  sense  of  a  common  brotherhood  took  possession  of  men's  hearts; 
their  rights  and  duties  in  consequence  were  perfected  or  established 
anew  and  virtues  beyond  the  imagination  or  conception  of  ancient 
philosophy  were  revived.  So  men's  purposes,  tenor  of  life,  and 
characters  were  changed,  and  the  knowledge  of  the  Redeemer  hav- 
ing spread  far  and  wide,  and  His  power  having  penetrated  into 
the  very  life-blood  of  nations,  expelling  their  ignorance  and  their 
ancient  vices,  a  marvelous  transformation  took  place,  which,  origi- 
nating in  Christian  civilization,  utterly  changed  the  face  of  the 

225.  Besides,  to  suffer  and  to  bear  is  the  lot  of  humanity.  Man 
can  no  more  construct  for  himself  a  life  free  from  pain  and  replete 
with  every  happiness  than  he  can  annul  the  counsels  of  his  divine 
Creator,  Who  has  willed  that  the  consequences  of  our  fault  should 
remain  in  perpetuity.    It  is  proper,  therefore,  not  to  look  for  an 
end  of  pain  upon  the  earth,  but  to  strengthen  our  mind  to  bear  pain 
which,  in  fact,  educates  us  to  the  attainment  of  the  greatest  of  all 
good  things  for  which  we  hope.  For  it  is  not  to  wealth  and  luxury, 
nor  to  worldly  honors  and  powers  that  Christ  has  promised  eternal 
happiness  in  heaven,  but  to  patient  suffering  and  tears,  to  the  desire 
of  justice  and  to  cleanness  of  heart.  ...... 

226.  The  case  of  governments  is  much  the  same  as  that  of  the 
individual;  they  also  must  run  into  fatal  issues,  if  they  depart  from 
the  Way.  The  Creator  and  Redeemer  of  human  nature,  the  Son 
of   God,   is   King   and  Lord   of  the  world,   and   holds   absolute 
sovereignty  over  men,  both  as  individuals  and  as  members  of  society. 
He  hath  given  to  Him  power  and  honor  and  dominion,  and  all 
peoples,  tribes,  and  languages  shall  serve  Him.115   Yet  am  I  estab- 
lished King  by  Him I  will  give  Thee  the  nations  for  Thine 

inheritance,  and  the  ends  of  the  earth  for  Thy  possession™  There- 

115  Daniel  VII,  14. 

116  Psalmf,  II,  6,  8. 


[227-228]  LEO    XIII 

fore,  the  law  of  Christ  ought  to  hold  sway  in  human  society,  and 
in  communities  so  far  as  to  be  the  teacher  and  guide  of  public  no 
less  than  private  life.  This  being  divinely  appointed  and  provided, 
no  one  may  resist  with  impunity,  and  it  fares  ill  with  any  common- 
wealth in  which  Christian  institutions  are  not  allowed  their  proper 
place.  Let  Jesus  be  excluded,  and  human  reason  is  left  without  its 
greatest  protection  and  illumination;  the  very  notion  is  easily  lost 
of  the  end  for  which  God  created  human  society,  to  wit:  that  by 
help  of  their  civil  union  the  citizens  should  attain  their  natural 
good,  but  nevertheless  in  a  way  not  to  conflict  with  that  highest 
and  most  perfect  and  enduring  good  which  is  above  nature.  Their 
minds  busy  with  a  hundred  confused  projects,  rulers  and  subjects 
alike  travel  a  devious  road;  bereft,  as  they  are,  of  safe  guidance 
and  fixed  principle 

227.  .  .  .  How  little  that  kind  of  virtue  which  despises  faith 
avails  in  the  end,  and  what  sort  of  fruit  it  brings  forth,  we  see  only 
too  plainly.  Why  is  it  that  with  so  much  zeal  displayed  for  estab- 
lishing and  augmenting  the  commonwealth,  nations  still  have  to 
labor  and  yet  in  so  many  and  such  important  matters  fare  worse 
and  worse  every  day?    They  say  indeed  that  civil  society  is  self- 
dependent,  that  it  can  go  on  happily  without  the  protection  of 
Christian  institutions,  that  by  its  own  unaided  energies  it  can  reach 
its  goal.   Hence,  they  prefer  to  have  public  affairs  conducted  on  a 
secular  basis,  so  that  in  civil  discipline  and  public  life  there  are 
always  fewer  and  fewer  traces  discernible  of  the  old  religious  spirit. 
They  do  not  see  what  they  are  doing.  Take  away  the  supremacy 
of  God,  Who  judges  right  and  wrong;  and  law  necessarily  loses 
its  paramount  authority,  while  at  the  same  time  justice  is  under- 
mined, these  two  being  the  strongest  and  most  essential  bonds  of 
social  union.    In  the  same  way,  when  the  hope  and  expectation 
of  immortality  are  gone,  it  is  only  human  to  seek  greedily  after 
perishable  things,  and  everyone  will  try,  in  proportion  to  his  power, 
to  clutch  a  larger  share  of  tjiem.   Hence  spring  jealousies,  envies, 
hatreds;  the  most  iniquitous  plots  to  overthrow  all  power  and  mad 
schemes,  of  universal  ruin  are  formed.  There  is  no  peace  abroad, 
nor  security  at  home,  and  social  life  is  made  hideous  by  crime. 

228.  In  such  strife  of  passions,  in  such  impending  perils,  we 
must  either  look  for  utter  ruin,  or  some  effective  remedy  must  be 
found  without  delay.  To  restrain  evil-doers,  to  soften  the  manners 


TAMETSI  [229] 

of  our  populations,  to  deter  them  from  committing  crimes  by  legis- 
lative intervention,  is  right  and  necessary;  but  that  is  by  no  means 
all.  The  healing  of  the  nations  goes  deeper;  a  mightier  influence 
must  be  invoked  than  human  endeavor,  one  that  may  touch  the 
conscience  and  reawaken  the  sense  of  duty,  the  same  influence  that 
has  once  already  delivered  from  destruction  a  world  overwhelmed 
with  far  greater  evils. 

229.  Do  away  with  the  obstacles  to  the  spirit  of  Christianity; 
revive  and  make  it  strong  in  the  State,  and  the  State  will  be 
recreated.  The  strife  between  high  and  low  will  at  once  be  appeased, 
and  each  will  observe  with  mutual  respect  the  rights  of  the  other. 
If  they  listen  to  Christ,  the  prosperous  and  the  unfortunate  will 
both  alike  remember  their  duty;  the  one  will  feel  that  they  must 
keep  justice  and  charity,  if  they  would  be  saved;  the  other  that 
they  must  show  temperance  and  moderation.  Domestic  society 
will  have  been  solidly  established  under  a  salutary  fear  of  the  divine 
commands  and  prohibitions;  and  so  likewise  in  society  at  large, 
the  precepts  of  the  natural  law  will  prevail,  which  tells  us  that  it 
is  right  to  respect  lawful  authority,  and  to  obey  the  laws,  to  do  no 
seditious  act  nor  contrive  anything  by  unlawful  association.  Thus, 
when  Christian  law  exerts  its  power  without  being  thwarted  in  any 
way,  naturally  and  without  effort  the  order  of  society  is  maintained 
as  constituted  by  divine  Providence,  and  prosperity  and  public  safety 
are  secured.  The  security  of  the  State  demands  that  we  should  be 
brought  back  to  Him  from  Whom  we  ought  never  to  have  departed, 
to  Him  Who  is  the  Way,  the  Truth  and  the  Life,  not  as  individ- 
uals merely,  but  as  human  society  through  all  its  extent.  Christ  our 
Lord  must  be  reinstated  as  the  Ruler  of  human  society.  It  belongs 
to  Him,  as  do  all  its  members.  All  the  elements  of  the  common- 
wealth; legal  commands  and  prohibitions,  popular  institutions, 
schools,  marriage,  home  life,  the  workshop  and  the  palace,  all  must 
be  made  to  come  to  that  Fountain  and  imbibe  the  life  that  comes 
from  Him.  No  one  should  fail  to  see  that  on  this  largely  depends 
the  civilization  of  nations,  which  is  so  eagerly  sought,  but  which 
is  nourished  and  augmented  not  so  'much  by  bodily  comforts  and 
conveniences,  as  by  what  belongs  to  the  soul,  viz.,  commendable 
lives  and  the  cultivation  of  virtue 


[230-233]  LEO    XIII 



Although  nations  and  peoples  may  differ  in  race  and 
in  language,  they  are  one  in  Christ. 

August  20,  1901 

230 Certainly  the  keeping  of  one's  native  tongue,  if 

it  be  restricted  with  certain  bounds,  does  not  deserve  blame;  yet 
what  holds  with  regard  to  other  rights  of  private  individuals  must 
be  considered  to  hold  here  also  lest  the  public  good  of  the  common- 
.  wealth  suffer  harm  from  their  exercise 

231.  And  so,  Venerable  Brethren,  We  vehemently  desire  and 
urge  that  the  faithful  entrusted  to  each  of  you,  even  though  they 
be  different  in  origin  and  language,  nevertheless  retain  that  rela- 
tionship of  soul  which  is  by  far  the  most  noble;   and  which  is 
begotten  of  communion  of  faith  and  of  the  same  sacred  rites.  For 
as  many  as  are  baptized  in  Christ  have  the  one  Lord  and  the  one 
Faith;  and,  therefore,  they  are  one  body  and  one  spirit  as  they  are 
called  in  one  hope  of  their  calling.118  .  .  . 

232.  Therefore,  this  relationship   of  soul  which  comes  from 
Christ  is  to  be  inculcated  assiduously*  among  the  faithful,  and  is  to 
be  extolled  with  all  zeal.    "The  brotherhood  of  Christ  indeed  is 
greater  than  that  of  blood;  for  brotherhood  of  blood  shows  a  like- 
ness of  body  only,  but  the  brotherhood  of  Christ  shows  a  oneness 
of  heart  and  soul,  as  it  is  written:119   There  was  one  heart  and  one 
soul  in  the  multitude  of  believers"™ 

233.  Under  the '  circumstances,  it  is  necessary  that  members  of 
the  sacred  clergy  precede  others  by  their  example.  For  in  addition 
to  the  fact  that  it  is  not  in  keeping  with  their  office  to  become 
involved  in  dissensions  of  this  kind,  if  they  are  in  places  inhabited 
by  men  of  different  race  and  different  language,  they  will  easily, 
unless   they  abstain  from  all  appearance  of  contention,   become 
hateful  and  offensive  to  both  parties,  and  nothing  is  more  detri- 
mental to  the  exercise  of  their  sacred  office  than  this.  The  faithful 

117  Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  34,  pp.  321-322  (1902). 

118  Cf.  Ephesians  IV,  4. 

119  Sermon  of  St.  Maximus  found  among  St.  Augustine's   Wor^s;  cf.  Migne,  P.L., 

v.  39,  c.  1937.        » 

120  Acts,  IV,  32. 

1 06 

PERVENUTI  [234'235] 

should  know  through  actual  experience  that  the  ministers  of  the 
Church  value  only  the  eternal  interests  of  souls  and  do  not  desire 
at  all  the  things  that  are  their  own,  but  only  the  things  that  are 
of  Jesus  Christ 



As  nations  continue  to  repudiate  Christian  principles, 
war  becomes  more  certain. 

March  19,  1902 

234 Consequent  upon  the  repudiation  of  those  Chris- 
tian principles  which  had  contributed  so  efficaciously  to  unite  the 
nations  in  the  bonds  of  brotherhood  and  to  bring  all  humanity 
into  one  great  family,  there  has  arisen  little  by  little,  in  the  inter- 
national order,  a  system  of  jealous  egoism,  in  consequence  of  which 
the  nations  now  watch  each  other,  if  not  with  hate,  at  least  with 
the  suspicion  of  rivals.  Hence,  in  their  great  undertakings  they  lose 
sight  of  the  lofty  principles  of  morality  and  justice  and  forget  the 
protection  which  the  feeble  and  oppressed  have  a  right  to  demand. 

235.  In  the  desire  by  which  they  are  actuated  to  increase  their 
national  riches,  they 'regard  only  the  opportunity  which  circum- 
stances afford,  the  advantages  of  successful  enterprises,  and  the 
tempting  bait  of  an  accomplished  fact,  sure  that  no  one  will  trouble 
them  in  the  name  of  right  or  the  respect  which  right  can  claim. 
Such  are  the  fatal  principles  which  have  consecrated  material  power 
as  the  supreme  law  of  the  world,  and  to  them  is  to  be  imputed  the 
limitless  increase  of  military  establishments  and  that  armed  peace 
which  in  many  respects  is  equivalent  to  a  disastrous  war.  This 
lamentable  confusion  in  the  realm  of  ideas  has  produced  restlessness 
among  the  people,  outbreaks  and  the  general  spirit  of  rebellion. 
•  From  these  have  sprung  the  frequent  popular  agitations  and  dis- 
orders of  our  times  which  are  only  the  preludes  of  much  more 
terrible  disorders  in  the  future 

121  Translation  from  American  Ecclesiastical  Review,  v.   26,  p.   690    (June,   1902). 
Original  Italian,  A.S.S.,  v.  34,  pp.  519-520  (1902). 


[236-238]  LEO    XIII 

ENCYCLICAL  Mirae  Caritatis  ON  THE  HOLY  EUCHARIST.  122 

It  is  because  men  and  nations  fail  to  practice  Chris- 
tian charity  that  dissensions  and  wars  arise. 

May  28,  1902 

236 Indeed,  it  is  greatly  to  be  desired  that  those  men 

would  rightly  esteem  and  would  make  due  provision  for  life  ever- 
lasting whose  industry  or  talents  or  rank  have  put  it  in  their  power 
to  shape  the  course  of  human  events.  But,  alas!  we  see  with  sorrow 
that  such  men  too  often  proudly  flatter  themselves  that  they  have 
conferred  upon  this  world,  as  it  were,  a  fresh  lease  of  life  and 
prosperity,  inasmuch  as  by  their  own  energetic  action  they  are 
urging  it  on  to  the  race  for  wealth,  to  a  struggle  for  the  possession 
of  commodities  which  minister  to  the  love  of  comfort  and  display. 
And  yet,  whithersoever  we  turn,  we  see  that  human  society,  if  it 
be  estranged  from  God,  instead  of  enjoying  that  peace  in  its  posses- 
sions for  which  it  had  sought,  is  shaken  and  tossed  like  one  who 
is  in  the  agony  and  heat  of  fever;  for  while  it  anxiously  strives  for 
prosperity,  and  trusts  to  it  alone,  it  is  pursuing  an  object  that  ever 
escapes  it,  clinging  to  one  that  ever  eludes  the  grasp.  For  as  men 
and  States  alike  necessarily  have  their  being  from  God,  so  they  can 
do  nothing  good  except  in  God  through  Jesus  Christ,  through 
Whom  every  best  and  choicest  gift  has  ever  proceeded  and  pro- 
ceeds. But  the  source  and  chief  of  all  these  gifts  is  the  venerable 
Eucharist,  which  not  only  nourishes  and  sustains  that  life,  the  desire 
whereof  demands  our  most  strenuous  efforts,  but  also  enhances 
beyond  measure  that  dignity  of  man  of  which  in  these  days  we 
hear  so  much.  ...... 

237.  Furthermore,  if  anyone  will  diligently  examine  into  the 
causes  of  the  evils  of  our  day,  he  will  find  that  they  arise  from  this, 
that  as  charity  towards  God  has  grown  cold,  the  mutual  charity  of 
men  among  themselves  has  likewise  cooled.    Men  have  forgotten 
that  they  are  children  of  God  and  brethren  in  Jesus  Christ;  they 
care  for  nothing  except  their  own  individual  interests;  the  interests 
and  the  rights  of  others  they  not  only  make  light  of,  but  often 
attack  and  invade. 

238.  Hence,  frequent  disturbances  and  strifes  between  class  and 

122  Translation  from  The  Great  Encyclical  Letters  of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  pp.  522-529.  Orig- 
inal Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  34,  pp.  644-649  (1902). 



class:  arrogance,  oppression,  fraud  on  the  part  o£  the  more  powerful: 
misery,  envy  and  turbulence  among  the  poor.  These  are  evils  for 
which  it  is  in  vain  to  seek  a  remedy  in  legislation,  in  threats  of 
penalties  to  be  incurred,  or  in  any  other  device  of  merely  human 
prudence.  Our  chief  care  and  endeavor  ought  to  be,  according  to 
the  admonitions  which  We  have  more  than  once  given  at  consider- 
able length,  to  secure  the  union  of  classes  in  a  mutual  interchange 
of  dutiful  services,  a  union  which,  having  its  origin  in  God,  shall 
issue  in  deeds  that  reflect  the  true  spirit  of  Jesus  Christ  and  a 
genuine  charity.  This  charity  Christ  brought  into  the  world;  with 
it  He  would  have  all  hearts  on  fire.  For  it  alone  is  capable  of 
affording  to  soul  and  body  alike,  even  in  this  life,  a  foretaste  of 
blessedness;  since  it  restrains  man's  inordinate  self-love,  and  puts 
a  check  on  avarice,  which  is  the  root  of  all  evil^z  And  whereas 
it  is  right  to  uphold  all  the  claims  of  justice  as  between  the  various 
classes  of  society,  nevertheless,  it  is  only  with  the  efficacious  aid  of 
charity,  which  tempers  justice,  that  the  equality  which  St.  Paul  com- 
mended,124 and  which  is  so  salutary  for  human  society,  can  be 
established  and  maintained.  .  .  .  All  of  which  is  confirmed  by  the 
declaration  of  the  Council  of  Trent  that  Christ  left  the  Eucharist 
in  His  Church  "as  a  symbol  of  that  unity  and  charity  whereby  He 
would  have  all  Christians  mutually  joined  and  united  ...  a  sym- 
bol of  that  one  body  of  which  He  is  Himself  the  Head,  and  to 
which  He  would  have  us,  as  members,  attached  by  the  closest  bonds 
of  faith,  hope,  and  charity."125 

123 1  Timothy,  VI,  10. 

]24II  Corinthians,  VIII,  14. 

125  Council  of  Trent,  Session  XIII,  De  Eucharistia,  c.  II. 


PART  Two 




cc/"  |  ^o  RESTORE  all  things  in  Christ"  was  the  lofty  ambition  o£ 
I  Giuseppe  Melchior  Cardinal  Sarto,  Patriarch  of  Venice, 

-*-  when  as  Pius  X  on  August  4,  1903,  he  succeeded  Leo  XIII 
in  the  papacy.  In  origin,  experience,  temperament  he  differed 
greatly  from  the  aristocratic  diplomat  who  had  preceded  him;  yet 
Pius  X's  pontificate,  concentrating  more  on  the  internal  reform  of 
the  Church,  greatly  enhanced  the  new  power  and  influence  the 
papacy  had  attained  under  Leo. 

Born  at  Riese  in  the  province  of  Venice  on  June  2,  1835,  the 
son  of  a  postman,  he  attended  the  seminary  at  Padua,  and  was 
ordained  on  September  15,  1858.  After  doing  parish  work  at  Tom- 
bplo,  Salzano  and  Treviso,  he  was  appointed  canon  of  the  cathedral 
in  1875,  then  rector  of  the  seminary,  chancellor  and  vicar  general 
of  the  diocese,  and  in  1884  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Mantua,  a 
diocese  that  had  been  without  a  bishop  for  ten  years  because  of 
difficulties  with  the  Italian  government.  His  zeal  in  reforming 
Mantua  caught  the  attention  of  Leo  XIII,  and  in  1893  Bishop  Sarto 
was  made  Cardinal  Patriarch  of  Venice,  although  he  was  unable 
to  take  possession  of  his  diocese  for  eighteen  months  because  of 
opposition  from  the  government.  Ten  years  later,  in  the  conclave 


of  1903,  he  was  elected  pope  after  Austria  had  vetoed  the  election 
of  Cardinal  Rampolla. 

"A  country  pastor  on  the  papal  throne,"  one  writer  calls  Pius  X, 
since  most  of  his  life  had  been  bound  up  exclusively  in  pastoral 
work  among  the  common  people.  A  priest  of  unusual  sanctity,  of 
surpassing  simplicity  and  gentleness,  Pius  X  kept  himself  aloof 
from  diplomacy  and  international  relations,  concentrating  more  on 
the  directly  spiritual  apostolate  of  souls.  The  keynote  of  his  reign 
was  the  spiritual  reform  of  the  Church;  and  almost  every  phase 
of  Catholic  life  felt  his  influence. 

Served  throughout  his  pontificate  by  a  devoted  Secretary  of  State, 
Cardinal  Merry  del  Val,  Pius  X  accomplished  much  in  his  eleven 
years.  In  1903  he  issued  a  famous  Motu  Proprio  on  Church  music, 
restoring  Gregorian  Chant  to  its  primitive  preeminent  position.  In 
1904  he  set  up  a  commission  to  codify  Church  law.  He  shortened 
and  simplified  the  Roman  breviary,  reorganized  seminaries,  re- 
arranged the  Roman  congregations.  The  rising  heresy  of  Modern- 
ism he  decisively  crushed  within  the  Church  by  a  series  of  letters 
and  decrees  in  1907.  In  1909  he  founded  the  Biblical  Institute  in 
Rome  to  train  experts  in  the  field  of  Scripture  studies. 

The  early  days  of  his  pontificate  witnessed  a  growing  anti- 
Catholic  spirit  in  the  policies  of  the  French  government,  culminat- 
ing in  the  "Law  of  Separation"  of  1905,  by  which  Church  property 
was  confiscated,  and  many  of  the  clergy  and  religious  were  exiled. 
He  relaxed  the  more  severe  restrictions  made  by  Pius  IX  and 
Leo  XIII  against  Catholic  participation  in  Italian  politics. 

The  last  days  of  his  pontificate  were  saddened  by  the  outbreak 
of  the  World  War.  A  long,  tender  letter  sent  by  Pius  to  the  aged 
Emperor  Franz  Josef  was  intercepted  en  route  and  never  reached 
its  destination.  Pius  X  died  on  August  20,  1914.  World-wide 
affirmation  of  his  sanctity  prompted  the  recent  introduction  of 
his  cause  at  Rome. 




ENCYCLICAL  E  Supremi  Apostolatus  ON  THE  RESTORATION  OF 


Peace  without  God  is  an  absurdity. 
October  4,  1903 

239 For,  Venerable  Brethren,  who  can  avoid  being 

appalled  and  afflicted  when  he  beholds,  in  the  midst  of  a  progress 
in  civilization  which  is  justly  extolled,  the  greater  part  of  mankind 
fighting  among  themselves  so  savagely  as  to  make  it  seem  as  though 
strife  were  universal?  The  desire  for  peace  is  certainly  harbored 
in  every  breast,  and  there  is  no  one  who  does  not  ardently  invoke 
it.  But  to  want  peace  without  God  is  an  absurdity,  seeing  that 
where  God  is  absent  thence,  too,  justice  flies,  and  when  justice  is 
taken  away  it  is  vain  to  cherish  the  hope  of  peace.  And  the  wor\ 
of  justice  shall  be  peace?  There  are  many,  we  are  well  aware,  who, 
in  yearning  for  peace,  that  is  to  say,  the  tranquillity  of  order,  band 
themselves  into  societies  and  parties  which  they  style  parties  of 
order.  Hope  and  labor  lost!  For  there  is  but  one  party  of  order 
capable  of  restoring  peace  in  the  midst  of  all  this  turmoil,  and  that 
is  the  party  of  God.  It  is  this  party,  therefore,  that  we  must  advance, 
and  to  it  attract  as  many  as  possible,  if  we  are  really  urged  by  the 
love  of  peace 

ALLOCUTION  Amplusimum  Coetum  TO  THE  COLLEGE  OF 


The  Holy  See  acts  as  arbitrator  in  the  boundary  dispute 
between  Brazil,  Peru  and  Bolivia. 

March  27,  1905 

240 Meanwhile,  Venerable  Brethren,  Our  soul  is  still 

cast  into  sorrow  by  the  terrible  war  as  a  result  of  which  the  furthest 

•"•Translation  from  The  American  Catholic  Quarterly  Review,  v.  29,  p.  i3  (January, 
1904).  Original  Latin,  A.S,S.,  v.  36,  pp.  132-133  (1903-1904). 

2  isatas,  xxxii,  17. 

3 Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  37,  p,  560  (1904-1905). 


IL    FERMO    PROPOSITC/  [241-242] 

shores  of  the  Orient  have  long  been  saddened  by  slaughter,  fire 
and  bloodshed.  How  many  things  there  move  Us  to  tears!  Hold- 
ing on  this  earth  the  place  of  Him  Who  is  the  Author  and  Con- 
ciliator of  peace,  We  earnestly  beg  God  in  a  spirit  of  humility  that 
He  in  His  kindness  may  grant  to  princes  and  people  plans  leading 
to  peace.  So  many  and  such  great  evils  consume  the  human  race 
everywhere  that  there  is  no  need  that  it  be  troubled  also  by  the 
clash  of  arms  and  the  strife  of  war! 

241.  How  much  ought  to  be  conceded  on  all  sides  to  the  desire 
for  peace,  has  recently,  and  happily  been  experienced  by  the  rulers 
of  Brazil,  Peru  and  Bolivia.  For  when  controversies  had  arisen 
regarding  the  determination  and  government  of  boundaries  between 
the  United  States  of  Brazil  and  the  two  other  nations,  that  is  to  say, 
Peru  and  Bolivia,  their  long  standing  harmony  seemed  to  be  en- 
dangered. But  their  governments,  adopting  a  wise  and  most  salutary 
plan,  decided  that  the  dispute  should  be  terminated  by  the  arbitra- 
tion of  others.  Since  in  this  situation  they  considered  very  wisely 
that  the  duty  of  guarding  peace  is  natural  to  and  innate  in  the 
Roman  Pontificate,  by  common  consent  they  made  the  Nuncio  of 
the  Apostolic  See  president  of  the  board  by  whose  votes  the  affair 
was  to  be  decided.  While  We  with  joyful  mind  communicate  this 
news  to  you,  Venerable  Brethren,  it  is  Our  pleasure  to  give  thanks 
publicly  to  the  rulers  of  the  said  nations  for  having  wished  to  show 
such  an  honor  to  Us  and  to  the  Chair  of  St.  Peter.  ...... 


//  the  Christian  ideal  were  realized,  peace  and  concord 
would  reign.  It  is  the  duty  of  Catholic  Action  to  wort^ 
toward  this  ideal. 

June  ii,  1905 

242 The   Church,   while   preaching  Jesus   crucified, 

Who  was  a  stumbling-block  and  folly  to^the  world,5  has  been  the 
first  inspirer  and  promoter  of  civilization.  She  has  spread  it 
wherever  her  Apostles  have  preached,  preserving  and  perfecting 

4  Translation  from  The  Pope  and  the  People,  pp.  190-198.    Original  Italian,  A.S.S., 

v.  37,  PP.  745-76i  (1904-1905). 
5 1  Corinthians,  I,  23. 


f>43"245]  PIUS   x 

what  was  good  in  ancient  pagan  civilization,  rescuing  from  barbar- 
ism and  raising  to  a  form  of  civilized  society  the  new  peoples  who 
took  refuge  in  her  maternal  bosom,  and  giving  to  the  whole  of 
human  society,  little  by  little,  no  doubt,  but  with  a  sure  and  ever 
onward  march,  that  characteristic  stamp,  which  it  still  everywhere 
preserves.  The  civilization  of  the  world  is  Christian  civilization;  the 
more  frankly  Christian  it  is,  so  much  is  it  more  true,  more  lasting, 
and  more  productive  of  precious  fruit;  the  more  it  withdraws  from 
the  Christian  ideal,  so  much  the  feebler  is  it,  to  the  great  detriment 
of  society. 

243.  Thus,  by  the  intrinsic  force  of  things,  the  Church  becomes 
again  in  fact  the  guardian  and  protector  of  Christian  civilization. 
This  truth  was  recognized  and  admitted  in  former  times;  it  even 
formed  the  immovable  foundation  of  civil  legislation.  On  it  rested 
the  relations  of  Church  and  States,  the  public  recognition  of  the 
authority  of  the  Church  in  all  matters  relating  in  any  way  to  con- 
science, the  subordination  of  all  State  laws  to  the  divine  laws  of 
the  Gospel,  the  harmony  of  the  two  powers,  civil  and  ecclesiastical, 
for  procuring  the  temporal  well-being  of  the  nations  without  injury 
to  their  eternal  welfare. 

244.  It  is  unnecessary  to  tell  you  what  prosperity  and  happiness, 
what  peace  and  concord,  what  respectful  submission  to  authority, 
and  what  excellent  government  would  be  established  and  main- 
tained in  the  world  if  the  perfect  ideal  of  Christian  civilization 
could  be  everywhere  realized.  But,  given  the  continual  warfare  of 
the  flesh  with  the  spirit,  of  darkness  with  light,  of  Satan  with  God, 
we  cannot  hope  for  so  great  a  good,  at  least  in  its  full  measure. 
Hence,  against  the  peaceful  conquests  of  the  Church  arose  unceas- 
ing attacks,  the  more  deplorable  and  fatal  as  human  society  tends 
more  to  govern  itself  by  principles  opposed  td  the  Christian  ideal, 
and  to  separate  itself  wholly  from  God.  ...... 

245.  To  restore  all  things  in  Christ  has  ever  been  the  Church's 
motto,  and  it  is  specially  Ours,  in  the  perilous  times  in  which  we 
live.   To  restore  all  things,  not  in  any  fashion,  but  in  Christ;  that 
are  in  heaven,  and  on  earth,  in  Him?  adds  the  Apostle;  to  restore 
in  Christ  not  only  what  directly  depends  on  the  divine  mission  of 
the  Church  to  conduct  souls  to  God,  but  also,  as  We  have  explained, 
that  which  flows   spontaneously   from  this   divine  mission,   viz., 

®Ephesiav$,  I,  10. 


IL     PER  MO    PROPOSITO  [246-248] 

Christian  civilization  in  each  and  every  one  of  the  elements  which 
compose  it. 

246.  To  dwell  only  on  this  last  part  of  the  desired  restoration, 
you  see  well  what  support  is  given  to  the  Church  by  those  chosen 
bands  of  Catholics  whose  aim  is  to  unite  all  their  forces  in  order 
to  combat  anti-Christian  civilization  by  every  just  and  lawful  means, 
and  to  repair  in  every  way  the  grievous  disorders  which  flow  from 
it;  to  reinstate  Jesus  Christ  in  the  family,  the  school  and  society; 
to  re-establish  the  principle  that  human  authority  represents  that  of 
God;  to  take  intimately  to  heart  the  interests  of  the  people,  especially 
those  of  the  working  and  agricultural  classes,  not  only  by  the  incul- 
cation of  religion,  the  only  true  source  of  comfort  in  the  sorrows 
of  life,  but  also  by  striving  to  dry  their  tears,  to  soothe  their  suffer- 
ings, and  by  wise  measures  to  improve  their  economic  condition; 
to  endeavor,  consequently,  to  make  public  laws  conformable  to 
justice,  to  amend  or  suppress  those  which  are  not  so;  finally,  with 
a  true  Catholic  spirit,  to  defend  and  support  the  rights  of  God  in 
everything,  and  the  no  less  sacred  rights  of  the  Church. 

247.  All  these  works,  of  which  Catholic  laymen  are  the  principal 
supporters  and  promoters,  and  whose  form  varies  according  to  the 
special  needs  of  each  nation,  and  the  particular  circumstances  of 
each  country,  constitute  what  is  generally  known  by  a  distinctive, 
and  surely  a  very  noble  name:  Catholic  Action  or  Action  of  Cath- 
olics.   This  has  always  come  to  the  aid  of  the  Church,  and  the 
Church  has  always  welcomed  and  blessed  it,  although  it  has  acted 
in  various  ways  in  accordance  with  the  age 

248.  Further,  in  order  that  Catholic  Action  may  be  effectual 
on  all  points,  it  is  not  enough  that  it  be  adapted  to  actual  social 
needs  only;  it  ought  also  to  be  invigorated  by  all  the  practical 
methods  furnished  at  the  present  day  by  progress  in  social  and 
economic  studies,  by  experience  already  gained  elsewhere,  by  the 
condition  of  civil  society,  and  even  by  the  public  life  of  States. 
Otherwise  there  will  be  a  risk  of  groping  for  a  long  time  for  new 
and  hazardous  things,  while  good  and  safe  ones  are  ready  to  hand, 
and  have  been  already  well  tried;  or  again,  there  will  be  the  danger 
of  proposing  institutions  and  methods  suitable,  perhaps,  in  former 
times,  but  not  understood  by  people  of  the  present  day;  or  finally, 
there  will  be  the  danger  of  stopping  half-way  by  not  using,  in  the 
measure  in  which  they  are  granted,  those  rights  of  citizenship  which 

[249-252]  PIUS  x 

modern  constitutions  offer  to  all,  and,  therefore,  also  to  Catholics, 

249.  We  dwell  on  this  last  point,  for  it  is  certain  that  the  present 
constitution  of  States  offers  to  all  without  distinction  the  power  of 
influencing  public  opinion,  and  Catholics,  while  recognizing  the 
obligations  imposed  by  the  law  of  God  and  the  precepts  of  the 
Church,  may  with  safe  conscience  enjoy  this  liberty,  and  prove 
themselves  capable,  as  much  as,  and  even  more  than  others,  of 
co-operating  in  the  material  and  civil  well-being  of  the  people,  thus 
acquiring  that  authority  and  respect  which  may  make  it  even 
possible  for  them  to  defend  and  promote  a  higher  good,  namely, 
that  of  the  soul. 

250.  These  civil  rights  are  many  and  various,  going  as  far  as 
a  direct  share  in  the  political  life  of  the  country  by  representing 
the  people  in  the  legislature.  .  .  .  This  makes  it  incumbent  on  all 
Catholics  to  prepare  themselves  prudently  and  seriously  for  political 
life  in  case  they  should  be  called  to  it.  ... 

251.  Lastly,  in  order  to  renew  and  increase  in  all  Catholic  under- 
takings the  necessary  enthusiasm,  to  give  to  their  promoters  and 
members  an  opportunity  of  seeing  and  becoming  acquainted  with 
each  other,  to  draw  ever  more  closely  the  bonds  of  brotherly  love, 
to  enkindle  in  one  another  a  more  burning  zeal  for  efficient  action, 
and  to  provide  for  the  better  establishment  and  spread  of  the  same 
works,  a  wonderful  help  will  be  found  in  the  meeting  from  time  to 
time,  according  to  the  rules  already  given  by  the  Holy  See,  of 
general  or  local  Congresses  of  Italian  Catholics;  and  they  ought 
to  be  a  solemn  manifestation  of  Catholic  faith,  and  a  common 
festival  of  harmony  and  peace 

Catholics  must  stand  on  the  side  of  peace  and  order. 
December  3,  1905 

252 The  most  Holy  Religion  of  Christ  demands  that 

we  never  allow  ourselves  to  be  carried  away  by  disturbances  of 
passion,  but  rather  that  a  sound  mind  govern  them  and  compel 
them  to  submit  to  control.  Wherefore,  all  Catholics  are  forbidden 
to  belong  to  factional  groups  which  run  counter  to  the  law  of  God. 

7  Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  38,  pp.  324-325  (1906). 


POLONIAE    POPULUM  [253'255] 

Nor  surely  does  it  free  them  from  guilt,  the  fact  that  they  do  this 
for  human  advantages.  For  again  Catholic  doctrine  warns  us  that 
the  gains  of  eternal  goods  ought  to  be  preferred  to  all  the  fleeting 
advantages  of  this  life,  according  to  the  Lord's  words:  For  what 
does  it  profit  a  man,  if  he  gain  the  whole  world,  but  suffer  the  loss 
of  his  own  soul?8 

253.  With  this  established  as  a  foundation,  so  to  speak,  another 
principle  follows:  in  the  midst  of  the  movements  and  changes  by 
which  the  Russian  Empire  is  now  being  disturbed,  and  at  the  same 
time  that  part  of  Poland  which  is  subject  to  the  same  empire, 
Catholics  must  constantly  stand  on  the  side  of  peace  and  order. 

254.  In  this  situation  it  should  help  all  to  remember  what  Our 
Predecessor  of  happy  memory  wrote  to  you  on  March  19,  1894: 
"They  who  are  subject  to  power  ought  constantly  to  observe  rever- 
ence and  loyalty  toward  their  princes,  as  though  to  God  exercising 
His  rule  through  man,  and  obey  them:  not  only  for  wrath,  but  also 
for  conscience'  sa\e?  and  on  their  behalf  offer  supplications,  prayers, 
intercessions  and  thanksgivings^  they  should  keep  holy  the  disci- 
pline of  the  State,  abstain  from  the  machinations  and  factions  of 
the  wicked,  and  do  nothing  seditiously,  and  do  everything  to  pre- 
serve tranquil  peace  in  justice."11 

255.  In  order  that  Catholics  may  not  only  love  this  tranquillity 
of  peace  and  pray  ardently  for  it,  but  also,  as  is  their  duty,  hasten 
to  bring  it  to  realization  and,  when  obtained,  preserve  it  in  safety, 
it   is   absolutely   necessary   that,   following   the   examples    of   the 
turbulent,    they    enter    into    societies    and   groups    wherein    with 
united  plan  and  effort  they  may  fight  efficaciously  for  religion  and 

*  Matthew,  XVI,  26. 
9  Romans,  XIII,  5. 
10 1  TimotAy,  II,  1-2. 

11  Encyclical  Caritatis  of  March  19,  1894.    Cf.  A.S.S.,  v.  26,  p.  525   (1893-1894), 
and  supra  n.  190. 


[256-257]  PIUS   x 


Reciprocal  security  of  nations  depends  mainly  on  the 
inviolable  fidelity  and  the  sacred  respect  with  which 
they  observe  their  treaties. 

February  11,  1906 

256 The  Concordat18  entered  upon  by  the  Sovereign 

Pontiff  and  the  French  Government  was,  like  all  treaties  of  the 
same  kind  concluded  between  States,  a  bilateral  contract  binding 
on  both  parties  to  it.  The  Roman  Pontiff  on  the  one  side  and  the 
head  of  the  French  nation  on  the  other  solemnly  stipulated  both 
for  themselves  and  their  successors  to  maintain  inviolate  the  pact 
they  signed.  Hence,  the  same  rule  applied  to  the  Concordat  as  to 
all  international  treaties,  viz.,  the  law  of  nations,  which  prescribes 
that  it  could  not  be  in  any  way  annulled  by  one  alone  of  the  con- 
tracting parties.  The  Holy  See  has  always  observed  with  scrupulous 
fidelity  the  engagements  it  has  made,  and  it  has  always  required 
the  same  fidelity  from  the  State.  This  is  a  truth  which  no  im- 
partial judge  can  deny.  Yet  to-day  the  State,  by  its  sole  authority, 
abrogates  the  solemn  pact  it  signed.  Thus  it  violates  its  sworn 
promise.  To  break  with  the  Church,  to  free  itself  from  her  friend- 
ship, it  has  stopped  at  nothing,  and  has  not  hesitated  to  outrage 
the  Apostolic  See  by  this  violation  of  the  law  of  nations,  and  to 
disturb  the  social  and  political  order  itself — for  the  reciprocal  security 
of  nations  in  their  relations  with  one  another  depends  mainly  on 
the  inviolable  fidelity  and  the  sacred  respect  with  which  they 
observe  their  treaties. 

257 Besides  the  injury  it  inflicts  on  the  interests  of 

the  Church,  the  new  law14  is  destined  to  be  most  disastrous  to  your 
country.  For  there  can  be  no  doubt  but  that  it  lamentably  destroys 
union  and  concord.  And  yet  without  such  union  and  concord  no 
nation  can  live  long  or  prosper.  Especially  in  the  present  state  of 
Europe,  the  maintenance  of  perfect  harmony  must  be  the  most 
ardent  wish  of  everybody  in  France  who  loves  his  country  and  has 
its  salvation  at  heart.  As  for  Us,  following  the  example  of  Our 

12  Translation  from  The  American  Catholic  Quarterly  Review,  v.  31,  pp.  212^-217 

(April,  1906).   Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  39,  pp.  6-12  (1906). 

13  Concordat  of  1801  between  Pius  VII  and  Napoleon  I. 

14  The  Law  of  Separation  between  Church  and  State  of  1905. 



Predecessor  and  inheriting  from  him  a  special  predilection  for  your 
nation,  We  have  not  confined  Ourself  to  striving  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  all  the  rights  of  the  religion  of  your  forefathers,  but  with 
that  fraternal  peace  of  which  religion  is  certainly  the  strongest  bond, 
ever  before  Our  eyes.  We  have  always  endeavored  to  promote 
unity  among  you.  We  cannot,  therefore,  without  the  keenest  sorrow, 
observe  that  the  French  Government  has  just  done  a  deed  which 
inflames,  on  religious  grounds,  passions  already  too  dangerously 
excited,  and  which,  therefore,  seems  to  be  calculated  to  plunge  the 
whole  country  into  disorder 

ENCYCLICAL   Gravissimo   Officii  Munere  FORBIDDING  FRENCH 


In  difficulties  between  the  Church  and  the  State  the 
Pope  forbids  seditions  and  violence  but  demands  firm- 
ness in  defense  of  their  natural  rights. 

August  10,  1906 

258 Therefore,  if  they  desire  to  show  Us  their  sub- 
mission and  their  devotion,  let  the  Catholic  men  of  France  struggle 
for  the  Church  in  accordance  with  the  directions  We  have  already 
given  them — that  is  to  say,  with  perseverance  and  energy,  and  yet 
without  acting  in  a  seditious  and  violent  manner.  It  Is  not  by 
violence,  but  by  firmness,  that,  fortifying  themselves  in  their  good 
right  as  within  a  citadel,  they  will  succeed  in  breaking  the  obstinacy 
of  their  enemies.  Let  them  well  understand,  as  We  have  said  and 
as  We  repeat,  that  their  efforts  will  be  useless  unless  they  unite 
in  a  perfect  understanding  for  the  defense  of  religion.  As  they 
now  know  Our  verdict16  on  the  subject  of  this  nefarious  law,  they 
should  wholeheartedly  conform  to  it,  and  whatever  the  opinions 
of  some  or  others  of  them  may  have  been  hitherto  during  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  question,  We  entreat  all  that  no  one  shall  permit 

15  Translation  from  the  Catholic  University  Bulletin,  v.  12,  pp.  537-538  (Oct.J  1906). 

Original  Latin,  A.S.S.,  v.  39,  pp.  389-390  (1906). 

16  The  Pope  forbade  French  Catholics  to  form  the  associations  of  worship  which  were 

required  by  the  Law  of  Separation.  These  associations  would  riave  placed  control 
of  ecclesiastical  affairs  and  church  property  exclusively  in  the  hands  of  the  laity. 
Later  the  Law  of  Separation  was  amended  so  that  the  formation  of  these  associa- 
tions was  not  necessary. 


[259-261]  PIUS  x 

himself  to  wound  anyone  whomsoever  on  the  pretext  that  his 
own  way  of  seeing  is  the  best.  What  can  be  done  by  concord 
of  will  and  union  of  forces,  let  them  learn  from  their  adversaries, 
and  just  as  the  latter  were  able  to  impose  on  the  nation  the  stigma 
of  this  criminal  law,  so  Our  people  will  be  able  to  eliminate  and 
remove  it 



The  Pope  is  deeply  interested  in  all  peace  movements 
throughout  the  world. 

November  3,  1906 

259.  The  Holy  Father,  through  His  Eminence,  the  Archbishop 
of  Milan,  has  answered  in  sympathetic  words  the  respectful  greet- 
ings sent  him  by  many  delegates  to  the  151!!  World  Peace  Con- 
gress. This  frank  expression  of  sincere  sentiments  occasioned  that 
noble-minded  letter  that  you  forwarded  to  His  Holiness  in  the 
name  of  the  illustrious  convention  at  Milan  over  which  you  presided 
last  September.   His  Holiness  received  this  tribute  of  honor  with 
deep  gratitude,  because  it  was  directed  rather  to  the  exalted  dignity 
with  which  he  is  vested,  than  to  his  own  person.  It  acknowledges 
the  high  office  of  peace  that  God  has  entrusted  to  the  Head  of  the 
Catholic  Church. 

260.  History  proves  that  the  Popes  have  always  endeavored  to 
fulfill  this  office.   The  present  Pontiff  was  happy  that  the  oppor- 
tunity was  granted  him,  without  his  taking  the  initiative,  to  carry 
out  this  mandate.  He  presided,  through  one  of  his  representatives, 
over  a  peace  court  of  arbitration  to  which  three  American  republics 
committed  their  differences  so  that  they  might  avoid  war. 

261.  One  can  understand,  therefore,  the  interest  with  which  the 
Holy  Father,  Pius  X,  follows  the  endeavors  of  the  international 
peace  associations,  as  well  as  his  ardent  wish  to  see  these  efforts 
crowned  with  success.  The  assurance  of  this  interest  and  this  wish 
may  possibly  help  to  increase  that  lively  zeal  which  inspires  you 
and  your  colleagues.  It  is  my  honor,  therefore,  to  submit  to  you,  in 

17  Original  German,  Miiller,  Das  Friedenswer\  der  Kirche,  pp.  345-346. 


NOUS    VOUS    REMERCIONS  [262-264] 

this  regard,  the  above-mentioned  clear  and  definite  explanations. 
At  the  same  time  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  expresses  the  hope  that  the 
great  idea  that  inspires  you  may  be  duly  esteemed,  both  in  avoiding 
and  circumventing  the  danger  of  war,  and  in  lessening  the  terror 
when  this  danger  can  no  longer  be  averted 



Catholicism  fosters  a  proper  love  of  one's  country. 
April  19,  1909 

262 Venerable  Brethren  and  Beloved  Children,  be- 
cause you  preach  and  practice  the  teachings  of  the  Church  without 
human  respect  and  in  obedience  to  your  conscience,  you  have  had  to 
suffer  all  sorts  of  insults,  you  are  pointed  out  for  public  scorn,  you 
are  branded  as  enemies  of  your  country!  Have  courage,  and  throw 
back  in  the  face  of  your  accusers  this  vile  calumny  which  opens 
in  your  Catholic  hearts  a  wound  so  deep  that  it  can  only  be  par- 
doned with  the  help  of  divine  grace.  There  is  not,  in  fact,  any  more 
undeserving  outrage  to  your  honor  and  your  Faith,  for  if  Catholi- 
cism were  an  enemy  of  one's  native  land,  it  would  no  longer  be  a 
divine  religion. 

263.  Yes,  your  country  is  worthy  not  only   of  love  but  of 
predilection,  whose  sacred  name  awakens  in  your  minds  the  dearest 
memories  and  thrills  all  the  fibers  of  your  soul,  this  common  land 
which  has  been  your  cradle  and  to  which  the  bonds  of  blood  and 
that  other  more  noble  community  of  affections  and  traditions  attach 
you.  But  this  love  of  the  native  soil,  these  bonds  of  patriotic  brother- 
hood, which  are  common  to  all  countries,  are  stronger  when  the 
terrestrial  country  remains  indissolubly  united  to  that  other  country, 
the  Catholic  Church,  which  knows  neither  differences  of  language 
nor  the  barriers  of  mountains  and  seas,  which  embraces  both  the 
visible  world  and  that  beyond  the  grave. 

264.  This  grace,  if  it  is  also  possessed  by  other  nations,  belongs 
especially  to  you,  very  dear  sons  of  France,  to  you  who  have  so 
much  at  heart  the  love  of  your  country,  because  it  is  united  with 
the  Church  of  which  you  are  the  defenders.  ...... 

18 Original  French,  A.A.S.,  v.  i,  pp.  408-409  (May  15,  1909). 


[  265-269  ]  p  i  u  s   x 


The  Pope  praises  the  Carnegie  Endowment  for  Inter- 
national Peace  on  the  occasion  of  its  -foundation. 

June  ii,  1911 

265.  With  gladness  We  have  learned  from  you  that  in  the 
United  States  of  America  learned  men,  under  the  patronage  of  a 
group  whose  influence  with  the  people  is  very  great,  are  busily 
engaged  in  making  studies  the  purpose  of  which  is  the  preservation 
of  the  benefits  of  peace  for  all  nations.  To  compose  differences,  to 
restrain  the  outbreak  of  hostilities,  to  prevent  the  dangers  of  war, 
to  remove  even  the  anxieties  of  so-called  armed  peace  is,  indeed, 
most  praiseworthy,  and  any  effort  in  this  cause,  even  though  it 
may  not  immediately  or  wholly  accomplish  its  purpose,  manifests, 
nevertheless,  a  zeal  which  cannot  but  redound  to  the  credit  of  its 
authors  and  be  of  benefit  to  the  States. 

266.  This  is  especially  true  at  the  present  day,  when  vast  armies, 
instrumentalities  most  destructive  to  human  life,  and  the  advanced 
state  of  military  science  portend  wars  which  must  be  a  source  of 
fear  even  to  the  most  powerful  rulers. 

267.  Wherefore,  We  most  heartily  commend  the  work  already 
begun,  which  should  be  approved  by  all  good  men  and  especially 
by  Us,  holding  as  We  do,  the  supreme  pontificate  of  the  Church 
and  representing  Him  Who  is  both  the  God  and  the  Prince  of 
Peace;  and  We  most  gladly  lend  the  weight  of  Our  authority  to 
those  who  are  striving  to  realize  this  most  beneficent  purpose. 

268.  For  We  do  not  doubt  that  the  same  distinguished  men 
who  possess  so  much  ability  and  such  wisdom  in  affairs  of  State 
will  construct  in  behalf  of  a  struggling  age  a  royal  road  for  the 
nations  leading  to  peace  and  conciliation  in  accordance  with  the 
laws  of  justice  and  charity,  which  should  be  sacredly  observed  by 
all.  For,  inasmuch  as  peace  consists  in  order,  who  will  vainly  think 
that  it  can  be  established  unless  he  strives  with  all  the  force  within 
him  that  due  respect  be  everywhere  given  to  those  virtues  which 
are  the  principles  of  order  and  its  firmest  foundation? 

269.  As  for  the  remaining  aspects  of  the  matter,  We  recall  to 

19  Translation  from  Schaefer,  A  Papal  Peace  Mosaic,  pp.  14-15.  Original  Latin,  A.A.S., 
v-  3»  PP-  473-474  (September  30,  1911). 


TELEGRAM    TO     ARCHBISHOP     MORA  [270-271  ] 

mind  the  example  of  so  many  of  Our  illustrious  Predecessors,  who. 
when  the  condition  of  the  times  permitted,  rendered,  in  this  very 
matter  also,  the  most  signal  service  to  the  cause  of  humanity  and  to 
the  stability  of  governments;  but  since  the  present  age  allows  Us 
to  aid  in  this  cause  only  by  pious  prayers  to  God,  We,  therefore, 
most  earnestly  pray  God,  Who  knows  the  hearts  of  men  and  inclines 
them  as  He  wills,  that  He  may  be  gracious  to  those  who  are  further- 
ing peace  among  the  peoples,  and  may  grant  to  the  nations  which, 
with  united  purposes,  are  laboring  to  this  end,  that  the  destruction 
of  war  and  its  disasters  being  averted,  they  may  at  length  find 
repose  in  the  beauty  of  peace 


The  Holy  Father  as\s  the  Mexican  Catholics  to  encour- 
age the  -present  peace  movement  in  their  country. 

May  9,  1914 

270.  The  Holy  Father,  Pius  X,  inspired  by  the  paternal  affec- 
tion which  he  cherishes  for  Mexico  and  preoccupied  with  the  supreme 
interests  of  your  dearly  beloved  nation,  desires  most  earnestly  that 
the  generous  initiative  of  the  three  South  American  conferences 
for  peace  may  meet  with  efficacious  support  from  Mexican  Catholics 
for  the  public  tranquillity  and  prosperity  of  their  country.  It  would 
be  a  great  satisfaction  for  the  Holy  Father  if  these  sentiments  and 
wishes  were  communicated  to  His  Excellency,  the  President,  and 
all  influential  persons  in  the  Mexican  Republic. 



Peace  depends  not  only  on  statesmen  but  also  upon 
the  people  who  must  have  a  profound  sense  of  justice 
and  chanty. 

May  25,  1914 

271.  ...  And  yet,  thanks  to  God's  mercy,  We  are  not  without 
timely  consolations.  Such  a  consolation  was  the  centenary  celebra- 

20  Original  Italian,  Civilta  Cattolica,  1914,  v.  3,  p.  no. 

21  original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  6,  p.  254  (May  28,  1914)- 


[272-273]  PIUS   x 

tion  last  year  of  the  peace  and  unhampered  liberty  secured  for  the 
Church,  after  so  long  a  period  of  trials  and  tribulations,  by  the 
edict  of  Constantine  the  Great.  During  those  months  the  continual 
demonstrations  of  filial  devotion,  so  admirable  and  memorable, 
could  not  but  greatly  encourage  Us;  in  them  the  Catholic  world 
zealously  strengthened  its  own  faith  and  before  troubled  humanity 
held  up  the  Cross  of  Christ  as  the  only  source  of  peace  and  salvation. 

272.  To-day  more  than  ever  they  seek  for  peace,  and  indeed 
we  see  classes  of  citizens,  races,  nations  fighting  among  themselves, 
and  from  the  enmities  ever  becoming  more  intense  among  them 
we  see  break  out  sudden  fearful  wars.  True,  there  are  clever  and 
distinguished  statesmen  who  put  before  themselves  the  good  of 
nations  and  indeed  of  human  society,  and  seek  by  common  agree- 
ment for  the  means  of  arresting  the  harm  that  comes  from  the 
strife  of  classes  and  the  slaughters  of  war,  and  of  securing  within 
and  without  their  borders  the  benefits  of  peace.    These,  without 
doubt,  are  excellent  endeavors,  but  their  counsels  will  bear  little 
fruit,  unless  at  the  same  time  they  can  ensure  that  the  precepts  of 
justice  and  Christian  charity  are  deeply  rooted  in  souls.    To-day 
peace  or  war  in  society  and  in  the  State  do  not  depend  so  much 
on  the  governors  as  on  the  multitudes.   Deprived  of  the  light  of 
truth  revealed  by  God,  unused  to  the  discipline  of  the  laws  of 
Christ,  what  wonder  if  the  multitudes,  the  prey  of  blind  passions, 
rush  to  their  common  ruin,  instigated  by  clever  agitators  who  seek 
nothing  but  their  own  advantage? 

EXHORTATION  Dum  Europa  Fere  Omnis  TO  THE  CATHOLICS  OF 



On  the  outbreaJ^  of  the  World  War  the  Pope  asT^s  all 
Catholics  to  pray  for  peace. 

August  2,  1914 

273.  While  nearly  all  Europe  is  being  dragged  into  the  whirl- 
pool of  a  most  deadly  war,  of  whose  dangers,  bloodshed  and  conse- 
quences no  one  can  think  without  feeling  oppressed  with  sorrow 
and  alarm,  We,  too,  cannot  but  be  anxious  and  feel  Our  soul  rent 

22  Translation  from  Schaefer,  A  Papal  Peace  Mosaic,  pp.  16-17.  Original  F.atin,  A.A.S 
v-  6,  p.  373  (August  3,  1914). 

DUM    EUROPA    FERE    OMNIS  [274] 

by  the  most  bitter  grief  for  the  safety  and  for  the  lives  of  so  many 
citizens  and  so  many  peoples  for  whose  welfare  We  are  supremely 

274.  Amid  this  tremendous  upheaval  and  danger  We  deeply 
feel  and  realize  that  Our  fatherly  charity  and  Our  Apostolic  Minis- 
try demand  of  Us  that  We  direct  men's  minds  upward  to  Him 
from  Whom  alone  help  can  come,  to  Christ,  the  Prince  of  Peace,  and 
man's  all-powerful  Mediator  with  God.  Therefore,  We  do  exhort 
the  Catholics  of  the  whole  world  to  turn,  full  of  confidence,  to  His 
throne  of  grace  and  mercy,  and  let  the  clergy  lead  the  way  by  their 
example  and  by  appointing  special  prayers  in  their  respective 
parishes,  under  the  orders  of  the  bishops,  that  God  may  be  moved 
to  pity  and  may  remove  as  soon  as  possible  the  disastrous  torch 
of  war  and  inspire  the  supreme  rulers  of  the  nations  with  thoughts 
of  peace  and  not  of  affliction. 






THE  OUTBREAK  o£  the  World  War  in  1914,  involving  millions 
of  Catholics  on  both  sides  of  the  conflict,  created  an  extremely 
delicate  position  for  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  the  Common  Father 
of  all.   Under  such  circumstances,  it  was  indeed  fortunate  that  the 
saintly  Pius  X  was  succeeded  by  Giacomo  Cardinal  della  Chiesa, 
Archbishop  of  Bologna,  a  veteran  diplomat,  keenly  aware  of  the 
difficulties  of  his  position. 

The  background  of  Benedict  XV  bears  many  resemblances  to 
that  of  Lee  XIIL  Born  in  Genoa  on  November  21,  1854,  della 
Chiesa  was  the  son  of  a  marquis,  and  it  was  at  the  suggestion  of 
his  father  that  he  took  up  the  study  of  law,  obtaining  the  doctorate 
at  the  Royal  University  in  1875.  Turning  toward  the  priesthood, 
he  enrolled  at  the  Capranica  College  and  the  Gregorian  University 
in  Rome,  and  was  ordained  in  1878.  After  finishing  his  training 
for  a  diplomatic  career  at  the  Pontificia  Accademia  dei  Nobili 
Ecclesiastici,  in  1883  he  was  selected  to  go  to  Madrid  as  personal 
secretary  to  the  newly-appointed  Nuncio  to  Spain,  Monsignor  Ram- 
polla.  In  1887,  when  Leo  XIII  recalled  Rampolla  to  make  him 
Secretary  of  State,  della  Chiesa  returned  to  Rome  to  work  in  the 
secretariate.  After  serving  as  Under-Secretary  of  State  from  1901, 


he  was  appointed  Archbishop  of  Bologna  on  December  16,  1907.  He 
was  created  cardinal  in  May,  1914,  and  less  than  four  months  after- 
ward was  elected  pope. 

A  tiny  figure  of  unprepossessing  appearance,  Benedict  XV  had 
few  consolations  during  the  eight  years  of  his  pontificate;  yet  his 
dignity,  his  courage  and  firmness,  in  the  face  of  bitter  criticism 
and  suspicion,  won  the  tardy  admiration  of  the  world.  Two  prin- 
ciples of  action  guided  him  throughout  the  four  years  of  the  war: 
to  maintain  strict  neutrality  toward  both  belligerents  and  to  pro- 
mote peace  by  every  available  means.  Assisted  by  an  unusually 
gifted  Secretary  of  State,  Cardinal  Gasparri,  he  explored  every 
avenue  for  bringing  about  an  early  cessation  of  hostilities.  Encour- 
aged by  the  friendly  reception  given  to  his  legate,  Monsignor  Pacelli, 
by  the  German  Emperor,  Benedict  offered  both  Powers  a  basis 
for  opening  peace  negotiations  in  1917,  but  it  was  rejected. 

Through  the  co-operation  of  neutral  Switzerland,  Benedict  was 
instrumental  in  exchanging  countless  war  prisoners  on  both  sides 
and  helped  to  promote  better  hospitalization  for  the  wounded. 
Through  his  intercession,  bereaved  families  of  missing  soldiers  re- 
ceived definite  information  about  the  fate  of  their  relatives. 

After  the  war,  the  pope  was  excluded  from  participating  in  the 
peace  settlement  due  to  the  Treaty  of  London,  a  secret  arrangement 
made  by  Italy  with  Great  Britain,  France  and  Russia  before  Italy 
entered  the  struggle  in  1915. 

During  Benedict's  reign,  diplomatic  relations  were  renewed  with 
France,  and  initiated  with  England,  Holland,  Finland,  Poland, 
Czechoslovakia  and  Latvia. 

An  attack  of  influenza  resulted  in  his  death  on  January  22,  1922, 
and  very  soon  he  was  completely  forgotten.  It  is  one  of  the  ironies 
of  history  that  it  has  taken  another  World  War  to  reveal  Benedict's 
accomplishments  in  their  true  historical  perspective. 






The  Sovereign  Pontiff  is  determined  to  neglect  nothing 
to  hasten  the  end  of  the  war. 

September  8,  1914 

275.  .  .  .  But  when  We  look  from  the  height  of  this  Apostolic 
See  toward  the  Lord's  flock  committed  to  Our  care,  We  are  filled 
with  horror  and  inexpressible  grief  by  the  sight  of  this  war  through 
which  so  great  a  part  of  Europe  is  reddened  with  Christian  blood, 
devastated  by  fire  and  sword.  From  the  Good  Shepherd,  Jesus 
Christ,  Whose  place  We  hold  in  the  government  of  the  Church, 
We  have  this  very  duty,  that  We  embrace  with  the  bowels  of 
paternal  love  all  the  lambs  and  sheep  of  His  flock.  Inasmuch, 
then,  as  from  the  example  of  the  Lord  Himself,  We  must  be — 
as  indeed  We  are — ready  to  give  even  Our  life  itself  for  their 
salvation,  We  are  firmly  and  deliberately  determined  to  leave 
nothing  that  is  in  Our  power  undone  to  hasten  the  end  of  so  great 
a  calamity.  Now,  therefore — even  before  We  address  Encyclical 
Letters  to  all  the  bishops,  as  is  the  established  custom  of  the  Roman 
Pontiffs  at  the  beginning  of  their  Apostolate — We"  cannot  refrain 
from  repeating  the  last  words  of  Our  most  saintly  Predecessor, 
Pius  X,  worthy  of  immortal  memory,  spoken  on  his  death-bed  at  the 
first  thunder  of  war,  out  of  his  Apostolic  solicitude  and  love  of  the 
human  race.  Wherefore,  while  We  Ourselves  will  be  suppliant 
before  God  with  eyes  and  hands  raised  to  Heaven,  We  exhort  and 
pray  all  children  of  the  Church,  particularly  those  in  Holy  Orders, 
as  Our  Predecessor  exhorted  and  urged  them,  that  they  insistently, 
in  all  ways  possible,  whether  privately  in  humble  prayer  or  publicly 
with  solemn  supplications,  implore  God,  the  Arbiter  and  Sovereign 
Master  of  all  things,  that  mindful  of  His  pity  He  may  put  away 
this  scourge  of  His  wrath  with  which  He  exacts  of  the  people 

1  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  124,  pp.  435-436  (October  3,  1914).  Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  6,  pp.  501-502  (September  17,  1914). 


C'EST      AVEC    UN     INTERET 

penance  for  their  sins.  And  may  you  be  assisted  and  protected 
in  your  common  prayers  by  the  Virgin  Mother  of  God  whose  most 
blessed  Nativity,  celebrated  this  very  day,  has  shone  out  like  a 
dawn-light  of  peace  on  an  afflicted  world— the  Virgin  who  was  to 
give  birth  to  Him  in  Whom  the  Eternal  Father  willed  to  reconcile 
all  things,  making  peace  through  the  blood  of  His  cross,  both  as 
to  the  things  on  earth  and  the  things  that  are  in  heaven? 

276.  But  We  urgently  implore  and  conjure  those  who  rule  the 
affairs  of  peoples,  that  they  now  turn  their  minds  to  forget  all 
their  own  discords  for  the  sake  of  the  salvation  of  human  society; 
that  they  consider  that  already  there  is  enough  misery  and  trouble 
in  the  life  of  men,  that  it  should  not  be  rendered  for  a  long  time 
more  miserable  and  troubled;  that  they  be  satisfied  with  the  ruin 
wrought,  the  human  blood  already  shed;  that  they  initiate  councils 
of  peace  and  reconcile  themselves;  for  thus  will  they  truly  deserve 
well  of  God  and  of  their  own  peoples,  and  will  be  benefactors  of 
the  civil  society  of  the  nations.  And  for  Us  who  see  grave  troubles 
in  the  terrible  disorganization  of  all  things  at  this  the  very  begin- 
ning of  Our  Apostolic  Office,  let  them  know  that  they  will  be  doing 
a  thing  most  pleasing  to  Us  and  one  which  from  all  Our  heart 
We  desire. 

LETTER  C'Est  avec  un  Interet  TO  CARDINAL  Lu£ON,  ARCH- 

The  Pope  laments  the  spiritual  and  material  damages 
of  the  war. 

October  16,  1914 

277.  ...  If  it  is  a  deep  sorrow  for  Us  that  We  have  from  the 
beginning  of  Our  Pontificate  had  to  witness  the  sad  events  of  the 
present  time,  it  is  equally  distressing  to  Us  to  have  heard  from  you 
a  sorrowful  echo,  and  to  have  to  write  to  you  for  the  first  time  in 
circumstances  and  for  reasons  so  little  comforting.   We  have  not 
failed  to  follow  with  special  attention  the  news  of  the  grave  events 
of  which  Rheims,  your  episcopal  see,  has  lately  been*  the  scene. 
We  are  grateful  to  you  for  having  given  Us  a  detailed  account  of 

2  Colossians,  I,  20. 

3  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  124,  p.  724  (November  28,  1914).  Original  French, 

A.A.S.,  v.  6,  p.  541  (November  9,  1914). 


[278-279]  BENEDICT    XV 

the  facts  set  forth  in  all  their  exactitude.  Be  assured  of  the  part  We 
take  in  the  deep  sorrow  caused  you  by  the  sight  of  so  many  evils, 
and  by  the  thought  of  the  dire  consequences  of  the  war  from  the 
point  of  view  of  religion  and  art,  and  also  from  the  material  point 
of  view  to  your  sorely  tried  diocese.  .  .  . 


The  Holy   Father  is  gratified  to  learn   that  French 
priests,  prisoners  of  war,  will  be  treated  as  officers? 

October  18,  1914 

278.  We  have  received  from  you  the  very  welcome  news  that 
His  Majesty,  the  German  Emperor,  acceding  to  your  request,  has 
determined  that  all  French  priests  among  the  French  soldiers  now 
held  as  prisoners  of  war  in  Germany  shall  be  treated  strictly  as 
officers.    In  this  bitter  time,  when  We  see  nearly  all  Europe  laid 
waste  by  fire  and  sword  and  reddened  with  the  blood  of  Christians, 
and  when  the  terrible  spectacle  of  this  whole  war  fills  Our  mind 
with  an  indescribable  sickness  of  heart,  the  news  which  you  have 
recently  given  Us  has  afforded  Us  great  consolation.  For  from  this 
news  We  have  seen  with  what  zealous  love  your  heart  is  enkindled 
towards  those  who  are  bound  to  you  by  the  bond  of  the  priesthood. 

279.  This,  too,  is  Our  firm  conviction,  that  your  great  charity 
will  embrace  not  only  French  clerics  who  are  captives,  but,  so  far 
as  can  be,  all  others,  without  distinction  of  religion  or  nationality, 
who  are  detained  within  your  boundaries,  and  those  especially  who 
are  afflicted  with  sickness  or  wounds,  in  order  that  their  sufferings 
and  ills  may  be  alleviated  and  that  provision  may  be  made  for  their 
spiritual  welfare.  The  duty  of  such  charity,  as  is  clearly  evident,  is 
common  to  all  men;  in  a  special  way,  however,  is  that  duty  incum- 
bent upon  the  ministers  of  God  and  all  other  religious  persons. 
Wherefore,  We  are  confident  that  all  indeed  who  glory  in  the  name 
of  Christian,  particularly,  however,  Catholic  bishops  and  priests, 
will  imitate  your  shining  example  not  in  Germany  only  but  in 
all  other  regions  also  where  refugees,  captives,  and  especially  sick 
and  wounded  men  are  consumed  with  grief.  .  .  . 

4  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  6,  p.  542  (November  9,  1914). 

5  Priests  were  drafted  into  the  French  army  as  common  soldiers. 


AD    BEATISSIMI  [280-281  ] 

ENCYCLICAL  Ad  Beatissimi  ON  WORLD  WAR  I.6 

The  bloody  conflict  produces  deep  sorrow  in  the  heart 
of  the  Common  Father  of  all  nations.  He  analyzes  the 
basic  causes  of  the  war  and  issues  an  earnest  appeal  for 

November  i,  1914 

280 As  soon,  therefore,  as  We  had  looked,  from  the 

height  of  the  Apostolic  dignity,  upon  the  direction  in  which  human 
affairs  were  going,  and  had  seen  the  lamentable  state  of  civil  society, 
We  were  filled  with  bitter  sorrow.  For  how  could  it  be  that  We, 
the  Common  Father  of  all,  should  not  be  pierced  to  the  heart  by  the 
spectacle  of  Europe  and  the  world — a  spectacle  perhaps  the  darkest 
and  saddest  in  all  human  history  ?  It  seems  as  if  the  days  foretold 
by  Christ  had  indeed  come:  You  shall  hear  of  wars  and  rumors  of 
wars.  For  nation  shall  rise  against  nation,  and  kingdom  against 
fyngdom.7  The  dread  image  of  war  overshadows  the  world,  and 
absorbs  nearly  every  thought.  The  strongest  and  wealthiest  nations 
are  in  conflict.  What  wonder,  then,  that,  furnished  as  they  are  with 
the  latest  weapons  devised  by  military  science,  their  struggle  is 
causing  enormous  slaughter.  There  is  no  end  to  the  ruin,  no  end 
to  the  deaths;  each  day  sees  the  earth  flowing  with  fresh  blood, 
and  covered  with  dead  and  wounded.  Who  would  think  that  the 
nations,  thus  armed  against  each  other,  are  all  descended  from  one 
ancestor,  share  the  same  nature,  belong  to  the  same  human  family  ? 
Who  could  realize  that  they  are  brethren,  children  of  the  same 
Father  in  heaven?  And  while  the  mighty  hosts  are  contending  in 
the  fury  of  combat,  cities,  families,  individuals  are  being  oppressed 
by  those  evils  and  miseries  which  follow  at  the  heels  of  war;  day 
by  day  the  numbers  increase  of  widows  and  orphans;  the  paths 
of  commerce  are  blocked;  the  fields  are  left  untilled;  the  arts  are 
at  a  standstill;  the  rich  are  made  poor,  the  poor  still  more  destitute, 
all  are  made  to  mourn. 

281.  Shocked  by  so  great  evils,  We  have  held  it  to  be  Our 
duty,  at  the  very  beginning  of  Our  Supreme  Pontificate,  and  as  the 
first  act  of  Our  Apostolic  Ministry,  to  take  up  and  repeat  the  last 

6  Official  English  version,  A.A.S.,  v.  6,  pp.  647-660  (November  25,  1914).   Official 

Latin  version,  A.A.S.,  v.  6,  pp.  565-581  (November  18,  1914)- 

7  Matthew,  XXIV,  6-7. 

[282]  BENEDICT    XV 

words  that  fell  from  the  lips  of  Our  Predecessor  —  a  Pontiff  of 
illustrious  and  so  holy  memory;  and,  therefore,  We  earnestly  be- 
seech princes  and  rulers  that,  moved  by  the  sight  of  so  many  tears, 
so  much  blood  already  shed,  they  delay  not  to  bring  back  to  their 
peoples  the  life-giving  blessings  of  peace.  When  the  divine  Re- 
deemer first  appeared  upon  earth,  the  glad  tidings  were  sung  by 
angels'  voice,  so  now,  may  God  in  His  mercy  grant  that,  at  the 
beginning  of  Our  labor  as  Christ's  Vicar,  the  same  voice  be  heard 
proclaiming:  Peace  on  earth  to  men  of  good  will?  We  beg  of  those 
who  hold  in  their  hands  the  destinies  of  peoples,  to  give  heed  to 
that  voice.  If  their  rights  have  been  violated,  they  can  certainly 
find  other  ways  and  other  means  of  obtaining  a  remedy;  to  these, 
laying  aside  the  weapons  of  war,  let  them  have  recourse  in  sincerity 
of  conscience,  and  good  will.  With  no  view  to  Our  own  self- 
interest  do  We  speak  thus,  but  in  charity  toward  them  and  toward 
all  nations.  Let  them  not  suffer  Our  voice  of  father  and  friend  to 
pass  away  unheeded. 

282.  But  it  is  not  only  the  murderous  struggle  now  going  on 
that  is  ruining  the  nations,  and  filling  Us  with  anxious  alarm. 
There  is  another  dreadful  evil,  which  goes  deep  down  in  modern 
society,  an  evil  that  inspires  fear  in  the  minds  of  thoughtful  men, 
because  while  it  has  already  caused,  and  is  threatening  still  to  cause 
immense  mischief  to  nations,  it  must  also  be  recognized  as  the  true 
source  of  the  present  deplorable  conflict.  Truly,  as  soon  as  the  rules 
and  dictates  of  Christian  wisdom,  which  are  the  assured  basis  of 
stability  and  peace,  came  to  be  disregarded  in  the  ordering  of  public 
life,  the  very  structure  of  the  State  began  to  be  shaken  to  its  fall; 
and  there  has  also  ensued  so  great  a  change  of  thought  and  con- 
duct, that,  unless  God  comes  to  the  rescue,  the  dissolution  of  human 
society  itself  would  seem  to  be  at  hand.  The  more  prominent 
disorders  are  these:  the  lack  of  mutual  love  among  men;  disregard 
for  authority;  unjust  quarrels  between  the  various  classes;  material 
prosperity  become  the  absorbing  object  of  human  endeavor,  as 
though  there  were  nothing  higher  and  better  to  be  gained.  These 
We  regard  as  the  four  chief  causes  why  the  world  is  so  terribly 
shaken.  We  must  labor  earnestly,  therefore,  by  putting  in  prac- 
tice Christian  principles,  to  remove  such  disorders  from  our  midst, 
if  indeed  we  have  at  heart  the  common  peace  and  welfare. 

n,  14. 


AD    BEATISSIMI  [283] 

283.  When  Jesus  Christ  came  from  heaven  for  the  very  purpose 
of  restoring  the  Kingdom  of  Peace,  which  had  been  ruined  by  the 
envy  of  Satan,  He  chose  no  other  foundation  for  it  than  that  of 
brotherly  love.  Hence  those  words  of  His  so  often  repeated:  A  new 
commandment  I  give  unto  you,  that  you  love  one  another?  This 
is  my  commandment,  that  you  love  one  another  ;^  These  things  1 
command  you,  that  you  love  one  another;^  as  though  the  whole 
scope  and  purpose  of  His  coming  were  to  make  men  love  each 
other.  To  stimulate  us  to  this  love,  what  motives  has  He  not  set 
before  us?  He  bids  us  to  lift  up  our  eyes  to  heaven:  For  one  is 
your  Father,  Who  is  in  heaven}-2  Setting  aside  every  difference 
of  race,  of  language  and  of  interest,  He  puts  the  selfsame  prayer 
on  the  lips  of  all:  Our  Father  Who  art  in  heaven;^  He  even 
teaches  that  the  heavenly  Father  in  bestowing  nature's  gifts,  is  not 
swayed  by  our  deserving:  Who  ma^eth  His  sun  to  rise  upon  the 
good  and  bad,  and  raineth  upon  the  just  and  the  unjust^  He 
further  declares  that  we  are  all  brethren:  But  all  you  are  brethren;^ 
and  brethren  of  Himself:  That  he  might  be  the  -first-born  amongst 
many  brethren^  Then,  what  ought  most  powerfully  to  urge  us  to 
brotherly  love,  even  towards  those  whom  our  natural  pride  would 
lead  us  to  despise,  He  went  so  far  as  to  identify  Himself  with 
the  meanest  of  men,  in  whom  He  wished  us  to  recognize  His  own 
personal  dignity:  As  long  as  you  did  it  to  one  of  these  My  least 
brethren,  you  did  it  to  Me.17  What  more?  At  the  close  of  His  life, 
He  earnestly  besought  of  the  Father,  that  all  who  should  believe 
in  Him  might  be  made  one  by  the  bond  of  charity:  As  Thou 
Father  in  Me  and  I  in  Thee.18  Lastly,  when  hanging  on  the  Cross, 
He  poured  out  His  blood  upon  us  all,  so  that,  as  if  compacted  and 
joined  together  in  one  body,  mutual  love  should  be  found  amongst 
us,  just  as  mutual  sympathy  is  found  amongst  the  members  of  the 
same  body. 

9  John,  XIII,  34. 

10  John.  XV,  12. 

11  John,  XV,  17. 

12  Matthew,  XXIII,  9. 

13  Matthew,  VI,  9. 
^Matthew,  V,  45. 

15  Matthew,  XXIII,  8. 
^Romans,  VIII,  29. 
17  Matthew,  XXV,  40. 


[284-287]  BENEDICT    XV 

284.  But  in  these  times  the  conduct  of  men  is  far  different. 
Never  perhaps  was  human  brotherhood  more  preached  than  now; 
nay,  it  is  pretended  that,  without  any  help  from  the  teaching  of 
the  Gospel,  or  from  the  work  of  Christ  and  the  Church,  the  spirit 
of  brotherhood  has  been  one  of  the  highest  creations  of  modern 
civilization.   Yet  the  truth  is,  that  men  never  acted  towards  each 
other  in  less  brotherly  fashion  than  now.  Race  hatreds  are  becom- 
ing almost  a  frenzy;  nation  is  divided  from  nation  more  by  enmity 
and  jealousy  than  by  geographical  position;  in  the  same  city,  within 
the  same  walls,  the  different  ranks  are  on  fire  with  mutual  envy; 
all  take  as  their  supreme  law  their  own  self-interest. 

285.  You  see,  Venerable  Brethren,  how  necessary  it  is  that  no 
effort  should  be  spared  to  bring  back  among  men  the  power  of  the 
charity  of  Christ.  This  shall  be  Our  constant  endeavor,  the  chosen 
task  of  Our  Pontificate;  to  this  We  exhort  you  to  attend.   Let  us 
not  grow  weary  of  teaching  and  practicing  the  injunction  of  the 
Apostle,  St.  John:  That  we  love  one  another^  Doubtless  there  are 
numerous  benevolent  institutions  now  doing  useful  and  valuable 
work,  but  they  do  not  prove  to  be  of  real  benefit,  unless  they  help  in 
promoting  a  true  love  of  God  and  our  neighbor;  without  this  they 
are  worth  nothing,  for:  He  that  loveth  not,  abideth  in  death.20 

286.  We  have  said  that  another  cause  of  social  disorder  lies  in 
this,  that  authority  is  generally  disregarded.  For  as  soon  as  human 
authority  began  to  emancipate  itself  from  God,  the  Creator  and 
Master  of  the  universe,  and  to  seek  its  origin  in  man's  free  choice, 
the  bonds  between  superiors  and  subjects  were  relaxed  so  that  now 
they  would  almost  seem  not  to  exist.  An  unbridled  spirit  of  inde- 
pendence, joined  with  pride,  has  gradually  permeated  everywhere, 
not  sparing  even  the  family,  where  nature  itself  discloses  authority 
in  the  clearest  light;  what  is  more  to  be  deplored,  the  evil  has  even 
reached  the  sanctuary.    Hence,  the  contempt  for  law;  hence,  the 
insubordination  of  the  masses;  hence,  the  petulant  criticism  of  the 
commands  of  authority;  hence,  the  continual  attempts  to  break 
its  power;  hence,  the  monstrous  deeds  of  those  who,  making  pro- 
fession of  anarchy,  have  no  respect  either  for  the  property  or  the 
lives  of  others. 

287.  In  the  presence  of  this  perversity  of  thought  and  deed — a 

19 1  John,  III,  23. 
20 1  1ohn,lll,  14. 


AD    BEATISSIMI  [288-289] 

perversity  destructive  of  all  human  society — We,  to  whom  has  been 
committed  the  guardianship  of  divine  Truth,  cannot  be  silent;  and 
We  admonish  all  of  that  doctrine  which  cannot  be  changed  by 
man's  will:  There  is  no  -power  but  from  God;  and  those  that  are, 
are  ordained  of  God.21  All  power,  therefore,  whether  of  the  sov- 
ereign or  of  subordinate  authorities,  comes  from  God.  Wherefore 
St.  Paul  teaches  the  duty  of  obeying,  not  in  any  way,  but  for  con- 
science' sake,  those  who  have  the  rule  over  us,  except  when  what 
is  commanded  is  against  the  law  of  God:  Wherefore  be  subject  of 
necessity,  not  only  for  wrath,  but  also  for  conscience  safe.22  In 
agreement  with  this  are  the  words  of  the  Prince  of  the  Apostles: 
Be  ye  subject,  therefore,  to  every  human  creature  for  God's  safe: 
whether  it  be  to  the  king  as  excelling,  or  to  governors  as  sent  by 
Him?z  From  this  doctrine  the  same  Apostle  of  the  Gentiles  draws 
the  conclusion,  that  whoever  is  a  rebel  against  lawful  human  au- 
thority, is  a  rebel  against  God,  and  prepares  for  himself  eternal 
punishment:  Therefore,  he  that  resisteth  the  power,  resisteth  the 
ordinance  of  God.  And  they  that  resist,  purchase  to  themselves 

288.  Let  princes  and  rulers  of  the  peoples  bear  this  in  mind 
and  bethink  themselves  whether  it  be  wise  and  salutary  that  public 
authority  should  divorce  itself  from  the  holy  Religion  of  Jesus  Christ, 
in  which  it  may  find  so  powerful  a  support.    Let  them  seriously 
consider  whether  it  be  politically  wise  to  banish  from  public  in- 
struction the  teaching  of  the  Gospel  and  of  the  Church.   Experi- 
ence teaches  only  too  well  that  where  religion  is  absent  public 
authority  falls.  It  generally  happens  to  States  as  it  happened  to  our 
first  parent  after  his  failure  in  his  duty  to  God.  As  in  him,  scarcely 
had  the  will  been  rebel  to  God  when  the  passions  broke  loose  and 
rebelled  against  the  will;  so,  too,  whenever  those  who  have  the 
rule  over  peoples  disdain  the  authority  of  God,  the  peoples  in  their 
turn  are  prompt  to  hold  lightly  the  authority  of  man.   Certainly 
there  remains   the   usual  expedient   of   suppressing   rebellion   by 
violence;  but  where  is  the  gain?    Violence  may  subdue  the  body, 
it  cannot  conquer  the  will. 

289.  The  double  element  of  cohesion  in  the  body  social,  that  is, 

'^Romans,  XIII,  I. 
22  Romans,  XIII,  5, 
^  I  Peter,  II,  13-14. 
24  Romans,  XIII,  2. 


[290-291]  BENEDICT    XV 

the  union  of  the  members  among  themselves  by  mutual  charity, 
and  the  union  of  the  members  with  the  head  by  obedience  to 
authority,  being  thus  destroyed  or  weakened,  what  wonder,  Vener- 
able Brethren,  that  modern  society  should  show  itself  as  divided 
into  two  opposing  forces  struggling  against  each  other  fiercely,  and 
without  truce?  Over  against  those  who  have  happened  to  receive, 
or  have  industriously  earned  a  certain  amount  of  wealth,  there  are 
ranged  a  number  of  the  indigent  and  of  workers,  inflamed  with 
ill  will,  because,  possessing  the  same  human  nature  as  those  better 
off,  they  do  not  enjoy  equal  fortune.  When  once  they  have  been 
deluded  by  the  sophistries  of  demagogues,  to  whom  they  generally 
show  themselves  most  submissive,  who  shall  persuade  them  that, 
because  men  have  equality  of  nature,  it  does  not  follow  that  they 
must  have  equality  of  rank  in  social  life,  but  that  each  holds  that 
position  which,  not  frustrated  by  circumstances,  he  has  gained 
for  himself?  When,  therefore,  the  poor  assail  the  rich,  as  though 
these  had  appropriated  to  themselves  what  belongs  to  others,  they 
are  acting  not  only  against  justice  and  charity,  but  even  against 
reason,  particularly  because  they  themselves  might  better  their  own 
position  by  force  of  honorable  labor. 

290.  It  would  be  superfluous  to  point  out  the  consequences,  dis- 
astrous alike  to  individuals  and  to  the  community,  that  flow  from 
this  class  hatred.   We  all  know  and  deplore  those  frequent  strikes 
by  which  the  whole  of  public  life,  even  in  its  most  necessary  activ- 
ities, is  suddenly  checked;  and  then  the  riotous  outbreaks  in  which 
recourse  is  frequently  had  to  arms,  and  this  followed  by  bloodshed. 

291.  We  will  not  now  repeat  the  arguments  that  show  the 
.untenableness  of  Socialism  and  similar  errors.  This  has  been  done 
with  supreme  wisdom  by  Our  Predecessor,  Leo  XIII,  in  his  memo- 
rable Encyclicals;  but  We  appeal  to  you,  Venerable  Brethren,  to 
use  your  endeavors  that  that  authoritative  teaching  be  not  forgotten; 
that  by  means  of  Catholic  associations  and  congresses,  of  sermons 
and  the  Catholic  Press,  it  be  adequately  explained  and  enforced, 
as  circumstances  may  require.  But,  above  all,  and  We  do  not  hesi- 
tate to  repeat  it,  let  us  make  it  our  care,  using  every  argument 
supplied  by  the  Gospel,  by  reason  and  by  public  or  private  good, 
to  stimulate  all  men  to  mutual  brotherly  love  in  accordance  with 
the  divine  law  of  charity.   This  brotherly  love  does  not  set  itself 
to  sweep  away  all  differences  of  rank  and  condition — this  is  no 

AD    BEATISSIMI  [292'293] 

more  possible  than  it  is  possible  in  a  living  body  that  all  the  mem- 
bers should  have  the  same  place  and  function — but  it  has  power 
to  make  those  of  a  higher  rank  act  toward  those  of  a  lower,  not 
only  with  justice,  as  is  indeed  imperative,  but  also  with  good- will, 
and  kindness,  and  consideration;  and  it  makes  those  of  a  lower 
rank  to  be  glad  at  the  prosperity  of  others,  and  to  have  confidence 
in  their  readiness  to  help;  just  as  in  the  same  family  the  younger 
trust  to  the  care  and  protection  of  the  elder. 

292.  The  evils  We  have  just  been  deploring  find  their  cause, 
Venerable  Brethren,  in  a  deeper  root,  and  unless  the  good  use  their 
efforts  to  destroy  it,  We  shall  look  in  vain  for  the  realization  of 
Our  desire  for  a  solid  and  lasting  peace  among  men.   What  that 
root  is,  the  Apostle  tells  us:  The  desire  of  money  is  the  root  of  all 
evils?**   And  to  this  root  are  indeed  attributable  all  the  evils  now 
afflicting  the  world.  When  Godless  schools,  moulding  as  wax  the 
tender  hearts  of  the  young,  when  an  unscrupulous  Press,  continually 
playing  upon  the  inexperienced  minds  of  the  multitude,  when  those 
other  agencies  that  form  public  opinion,  have  succeeded  in  propagat- 
ing the  deadly  error  that  man  ought  not  to  look  for  a  happy 
eternity;  that  it  is  only  here  that  happiness  is  to  be  found,  in  the 
riches,  the  honors,  the  pleasures  of  this  life;  it  is  not  surprising 
that  men,  with  their  inextinguishable  desire  of  happiness,  should 
attack  what  stands  in  the  way  of  that  happiness  with  all  the  im- 
pelling force  of  their  desire.  But  since  earthly  goods  are  unequally 
divided,  and  since  it  is  the  office  of  the  State  to  prevent  individuals 
seizing  at  their  own  will  what  belongs  to  others,  it  has  come  about 
that  hatred  has  been  engendered  against  the  public  authority,  that 
envy  of  the  more  fortunate  has  taken  hold  of  the  less  fortunate, 
and  that  the  different  classes  of  fellow-citizens  are  in  open  an- 
tagonism— those  who  have  not,  striving  by  every  means  to  obtain, 
and  the  others,  striving  to  keep  what  they  have  and  to  increase  it. 

293.  Foreseeing  these  things,  Christ  our  Lord,  in  the  divine 
Sermon  on  the  Mount,  thought  it  good  to  explain  what  are  man's 
true  beatitudes  even  here  on  earth,  and  so  to  lay  the  foundations, 
as  it  were,  of  Christian  philosophy.   Men  far  removed  from  the 
Faith  have  yet  seen  in  this  teaching  a  supreme  wisdom,  and  the 
most  perfect  form  of  religious  and  moral  doctrine;  and  indeed,  all 
agree  that  before  Christ,  Who  is  Truth  itself,  no  one  ever  spoke 

25 1  Timothy,  VI,  10. 


[294]  BENEDICT    XV 

of  these  things  as  He  has  spoken,  with  such  dignity,  such  power, 
and  so  exalted  a  sentiment  of  love. 

294.  Now  the  deep  and  underlying  thought  of  this  divine 
philosophy  is  that  the  good  things  of  this  life  have  only  the  appear- 
ance without  the  reality  of  good,  and  so  cannot  bestow  true  happi- 
ness. In  the  truth  of  God's  word,  riches  and  pleasure  are  so  far 
from  bringing  true  happiness,  that  to  secure  true  happiness  we  must 
rather  renounce  these  things  for  the  love  of  God.  Blessed  are  ye 
poor  .  .  .  Blessed  are  ye  that  weep  now  .  .  .  Blessed  shall  you  be 
when  men  shall  hate  you,  and  shall  separate  you,  and  shall  reproach 
you.  and  cast  out  your  name  as  evil?Q  That  is  to  say,  if  we  bear 
patiently,  as  we  ought,  the  sorrows,  hardships  and  miseries  of  this 
life,  we  open  for  ourselves  a  way  to  the  possession  of  those  true  and 
imperishable  goods,  which  God  hath  prepared  for  those  who  love 
Him?1  But  this  important  teaching  of  the  Faith  is  neglected  by 
too  many,  and  by  not  a  few  is  altogether  forgotten.  It  is  for  you, 
Venerable  Brethren,  to  make  this  teaching  live  again  amongst  men; 
without  it  men  and  communities  of  men  will  never  find  peace. 
We  urge,  therefore,  all  who  are  suffering  under  any  kind  of  hard- 
ship, not  to  keep  their  eyes  fixed  on  earth,  which  is  but  a  place  of 
exile,  but  to  lift  them  up  to  heaven,  whither  we  are  tending;  for 
we  have  not  here  a  lasting  city,  but  we  see/^  one  that  is  to  cornel 
In  times  of  adversity,  with  which  God  tries  the  steadiness  of  their 
service,  let  them  often  reflect  on  the  greatness  of  the  reward  when 
they  have  come  victorious  out  of  the  struggle:  For  that  which  is 
at  present  momentary  and  light  of  our  tribulation,  worfyeth  for  us 
above  measure  exceedingly  an  eternal  weight  of  glory.2®  Lastly, 
it  should  be  one  of  your  chief  cares,  Venerable  Brethren,  with  all 
zeal  and  energy  to  make  faith  in  the  supernatural  live  again 
amongst  men,  and  with  faith  the  pursuit,  the  desire  and  the  hope 
of  what  is  eternal;  for  this  work  We  ask  the  co-operation  not  only 
of  the  clergy,  but  of  all  those  Catholics  who,  banded  together  in 
various  societies,  are  laboring  for  God's  honor  and  man's  true  good. 
The  more  this  faith  grows  amongst  men  the  more  will  the  feverish 
pursuit  of  earthly  vanities  cease,  and  as  charity  grows  strong,  social 
conflicts  and  tumults  will  gradually  die  away. 

26  Lu^e,  VI,  20-22. 
27 1  Corinthians,  II,  9. 
28  Hebrews,  XIII,  14. 
29 II  Corinthians,  IV,  17. 


AD    BEATISSIMI  [295'297] 

295 And  now.  Venerable  Brethren,  at  the  close  of 

this  letter,  Our  mind  goes  back  spontaneously  to  the  thought  of 
peace  with  which  We  began;  We  pray  with  unceasing  prayer  for 
the  good  of  men  and  of  the  Church  that  this  disastrous  war  may 
cease;  for  the  good  of  men,  so  that  by  the  bringing  back  of  peace 
they  may  go  forward  on  the  path  of  true  progress;  for  the  good  of 
Christ's  Church,  that  it  may  be  left  unhindered  to  bear  help  and 
salvation  to  every  part  of  the  world.  Too  long  has  the  Church  been 
curtailed  of  its  necessary  freedom  of  action,  ever  since  the  Head 
of  the  Church,  the  Supreme  Pontiff,  began  to  lack  that  defense 
of  his  freedom  which  the  Providence  of  God  had  raised  up  during 
the  course  of  centuries.  The  loss  of  that  protection  has  inevitably 
caused  no  light  anxiety  in  the  Catholic  body;  for  all  the  children 
of  the  Roman  Pontiff,  whether  near  or  living  afar,  have  a  right 
not  to  be  left  in  doubt  concerning  the  possession  by  their  common 
Father  of  a  true  and  undeniable  freedom  in  the  exercise  of  his 
Apostolic  Ministry. 

296.  While  We  pray  for  the  speedy  return  of  peace  to  the  world, 
We  also  pray  that  an  end  be  put  to  the  abnormal  state  in  which 
the  Head  of  the  Church  is  placed— a  'state  which  in  many  ways  is 
an  impediment  to  the  common  tranquillity.  Our  Predecessors  have 
protested,  not  from  self-interest,  but  from  a  sense  of  sacred  duty, 
against  this  state  of  things;  those  protests  We  renew,  and  for  the 
same  reason— to  protect  the  rights  and  dignity  of  the  Apostolic  See. 

297.  It  remains  for  us,  Venerable  Brethren,  to  lift  up  our  voices 
in  prayer  to  God,  in  Whose  hands  are  the  hearts  of  princes,  and 
of  all  responsible  for  the  continuance  of  the  scourges  now  afflicting 
us,  and  to  cry  in  the  name  of  all  mankind:  Give  peace,  0  Lord, 
in  our  days.  And  may  He,  who  said  of  Himself:  I  am  the  Lord  .  .  . 
I  ma\e  peace,30  be  moved  by  our  prayers,  and  speedily  still  the 
tempest  now  tossing  civil  and  religious   society.    And   may  the 
Blessed  Virgin  be  mercifully  at  hand  to  assist  us— she  who  bore 
the  Prince  of  Peace;  may  she  regard  and  protect  with  a  mother's 
love  Us  in  Our  lowliness,  Our  Pontificate,  the  Church,  and  with 
the  Church  the  souls  of  all  men  redeemed  by  the  divine  Blood  of 
her  Son.  .  .  . 


[298]  BENEDICT    XV 



The  Pope  exhorts  Archbishop  Dobrecic  to  care  for  the 
spiritual  and  material  needs  of  the  prisoners  in  his 

November  8,  1914 

298.  Ever  since  We  were  raised  to  the  Pontificate  We  have 
tried,  according  to  the  measure  of  Our  forces,  to  bring  about  some 
alleviation  of  the  troubles  produced  by  this  enormous  war.  With 
this  aim  We,  as  you  know,  recently  sent  to  Our  beloved  son, 
Cardinal  Felix  von  Hartmann,  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  a  letter, 
in  which  We  not  only  paid  him  a  tribute  of  praise  for  having 
asked  and  obtained  from  the  Emperor  of  Germany  that  the  French 
priests  made  prisoners  should  be  treated  according  to  their  dignity, 
but  further  warmly  exhorted  him  to  procure  that  all  prisoners, 
without  distinction  of  religion,  nationality,  or  condition,  and  espe- 
cially the  sick  and  wounded  among  them,  should  be  treated  accord- 
ing to  all  the  dictates  of  chanty.  And  now  We  also  wish  that  you 
do  the  same  with  all  your  strength,  seeing  that  there  opens  before 
you,  Venerable  Brother,  a  field  not  dissimilar  in  which  you  may 
exercise  your  pity.  Following,  then,  the  charity  of  Christ,  Who 
went  about  doing  good  and  healing  all?2  exert  yourself  with  all 
love  to  help  those  soldiers  who  are  being  held  as  prisoners  of  war 
near  you,  and  especially  those  who,  by  reason  of  the  wounds  they 
have  received,  or  their  broken  health,  have  the  best  claim  on  the 
greater  part  of  your  solicitude.  We  have,  indeed,  no  doubt  but 
that  those  at  the  head  of  affairs  in  your  kingdom,  following  the 
law  of  nations  and  at  the  same  time  the  voice  of  humanity,  are 
disposed  to  treat  with  clemency  and  kindness  those  most  unfortunate 
men,  and  when  you,  Venerable  Brother,  add  your  efforts  to  theirs, 
far  better  provision  will  be  made  for  the  grievous  necessities  of 
the  case.  In  order  that  this  desirable  end  may  be  achieved,  and  as 
a  pledge  of  heavenly  favors  and  a  proof  of  Our  affection,  We  impart 
the  Apostolic  Benediction  to  you,  to  your  clergy  and  to  your  people. 

31  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v,  124,  p.  703  (November  21,  1914).   Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  6,  p.  546  (November  9,  1914). 
,  38. 


LETTER    TO    CARDINAL    AMETTE       [299-301] 


Negotiations  for  a  truce  on  Christmas?^ 
November  26,  1914 

299.  The  Holy  Father  intends  to  ask  the  leaders  of  the  belliger- 
ent States  to  suspend  hostilities  at  least  throughout  the  day  of  next 
December  25,  the  Feast  of  Christmas,  as  an  act  of  faith  and  of 
Christian  piety  towards  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  come  into  the  world 
to  give  glory  to  God  and  to  bring  peace  to  men. 

300.  As  is  quite  natural,  before  formulating  such  a  demand, 
His  Holiness  is  desirous  of  knowing  just  in  what  way  such  a 
proposal  would  be  received  by  each  and  every  one  of  the  respective 
Governments.  Consequently,  with  regard  to  your  country,  I  would 
be  grateful  to  Your  Eminence  if  you  would  find  out,  by  whatever 
confidential  way  your  tact  may  suggest,  if  and  to  what  extent  the 
Government  would  be  willing  to  accept  this  noble  proposal  of  the 
Holy  Father,  with  the  understanding,  of  course,  that  it  would  be 
accepted  by  all  the  other  States.  .  .  . 



The  compassion  of  the  Holy  Father  for  those  suffering 
in  Belgium. 

December  8,  1914 

301.  The  fatherly  solicitude  which  We  feel  for  all  the  faithful 
whom  Divine  Providence  has  entrusted  to  Our  care,  causes  Us  to 

33  Original  French,  U Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  31. 

34  This  was  "a  project  that  met  with  sympathy  'in  principle'  from  Great  Britain,  Bel- 

gium and  Germany,  but  refusal  from  France  (for  alleged  military  reasons)  and 
from  Russia  (objecting  the  different  date  of  the  Orthodox  Christmas  and  distrust 
of  Germany)."  Cited  from  Rope,  Benedict  XV,  the  Pope  of  Peace,  p.  70. 
15  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  p.  42  (January  9,  1915).  Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  6,  pp.  668-669  (December  9,  1914).  Similar  documents,  not  included  in 
this  book,  concerning  Belgium  are:  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Apostolic 
Nuncio,  December  10,  1914  (L 'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  198).  Letter  of  Cardinal 
Gasparri  to  Countess  Felice  De  Merode,  June  7,  1915  (op.cit.,  p.  208).  Letter  of 
Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Apostolic  Nuncio,  August  17,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p.  212).  Let- 
ter of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Belgian  Minister,  December  20,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p. 
221).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Duchess  of  Vendome,  December  20,  1915 
(op.  cit.,  p.  222). 


[302-304]  BENEDICT    XV 

share  their  griefs  even  more  fully  than  their  joys.  Could  We,  then, 
fail  to  be  moved  by  keenest  sorrow  at  the  sight  of  the  Belgian 
nation,  which  We  so  dearly  love,  reduced  by  a  most  cruel  and  most 
disastrous  war  to  this  lamentable  state. 

302.  We  behold  the  King  and  his  august  family,  the  members 
of  the  Government,  the  chief  persons  of  the  country,  bishops,  priests, 
and  whole  people  enduring  evils  which  must  fill  with  pity  all  gentle 
hearts,  and  which  Our  own  soul,  in  the  fervor  of  parental  love, 
must  be  the  first  to  compassionate.  Thus,  under  the  burden  of  this 
distress  and  this  mourning,  We  call  in  Our  prayers  for  an  end  to 
such  misfortunes.   May  the  God  of  mercy  hasten  the  day!    Mean- 
while We  strive  to  mitigate,  as  far  as  in  Us  lies,  this  excessive  suffer- 
ing.   Therefore,  the  step  taken  by  Our  dear  son,  Cardinal  Hart- 
mann,  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  at  whose  request  it  was  arranged 
that  French  or  Belgian  priests  detained  in  Germany  should  have 
the  treatment  of  officers,  gave  Us  great  satisfaction,  and  We  have 
expressed  Our  thanks  to  him  for  his  action. 

303.  As  regards  Belgium,  We  have  been  informed  that  the  faith- 
ful of  that  nation,  so  sorely  tried,  did  not  neglect,  in  their  piety,  to 
turn  towards  Us  their  thoughts,  and  that  even  under  the  blow  of 
so  many  calamities  they  proposed  to  gather  this  year,  as  in  all 
preceding  years,  the  offerings  of  St.  Peter,  which  supply  the  neces- 
sities of  the  Apostolic  See.  This  truly  incomparable  proof  of  piety 
and  of  attachment  filled  Us  with  admiration;  We  accept  it  with  all 
the  affection  that  is  due  from  a  grateful  heart;  but  having  regard 
to  the  painful  position  in  which  Our  dear  children  are  placed,  We 
cannot  bring  Ourselves  to  favor  the  fulfillment  of  that  project,  noble 
though  it  is.  If  any  alms  are  to  be  gathered,  Our  wish  is  that  the 
money  should  be  entirely  devoted  to  the  succor  of  the  Belgian 
people,  who  are  as  illustrious  by  reason  of  their  nobility  and  their 
piety  as  they  are  today  worthy  of  all  sympathy.  Amid  the  difficul- 
ties and  anxieties  of  the  present  hour  We  would  remind  the  sons 
who  are  so  dear  to  Us  that  the  Arm  of  God  is  not  shortened,  that 
He  is  ever  able  to  save,  that  His  Ear  is  not  deaj  to  prayer?Q 

304.  Let  the  hope  of  Divine  aid  increase  with  the  approach  of 
the  festival  of  Christmas  and  of  the  mysteries  that  celebrate  the 
birth  of  our  Lord,  and  recall  that  peace  which  God  proclaimed  to 
mankind  by  His  angels.  May  the  souls  of  the  suffering  and  afflicted 

**IsaiaftUX,  I. 



find  comfort  and  consolation  in  the  assurance  of  the  paternal  tender- 
ness that  prompts  Our  prayers.  Yes,  may  God  take  pity  upon  the 
Belgian  people,  and  grant  them  the  abundance  of  all  good.  As  a 
pledge  of  these  prayers  and  good  wishes,  We  now  grant  to  all,  and 
in  the  first  place  to  you,  Our  dear  son,  the  Apostolic  Benediction. 


The  Bishops  and  the  clergy  are  exhorted  to  care  for 
the  spiritual  and  material  welfare  of  war  prisoners  in 
their  countries. 

December  21,  1914 

305.  Our  Holy  Father,  Benedict  XV,  by  Divine  Providence 
Pope,  sharing  keenly  in  the  trials  of  the  unhappy  and  most  numer- 
ous prisoners  of  war,  and  in  the  anxieties  which  weigh  upon  so 
many  families  left  entirely  without  news  of  those  dear  to  them, 
and  desiring  to  render  all  the  aid  and  comfort  he  possibly  can  to 
both  classes,  on  the  report  of  the  Secretary  of  the  S.  Congrega- 
tion of  Extraordinary  Ecclesiastical  Affairs,  confident  that  on  the 
one  hand,  the  episcopate  and  clergy  will  give  generous  and  exact 
effect  to  his  prescriptions,  and  that,  on  the  other,  the  civil  Govern- 
ments will  render  valid  and  efficacious  co-operation  to  his  humane 
and  merciful  undertaking,  prescribes: 

(1)  The  Most  Reverend  Ordinaries  of  the  dioceses  in  which  the 
prisoners  are  shall  designate  immediately  one  or  more  priests,  accord- 
ing to  necessity,  possessing  a  sufficient  knowledge  of  the  prisoners' 
languages,  and  should  there  be  none  such  in  their  own  dioceses, 
shall   ask   them  of  other  Most  Reverend   Ordinaries,   who   shall 
solicitously  hasten  to  supply  them. 

(2)  These  priests  shall  with  all  zeal  seek  the  spiritual  and  mate- 
rial welfare  of  the  prisoners,  doing  everything  in  their  power  to 
comfort  and  assist  them  in  the  various  and  often  painful  necessities 
in  which  they  are. 

(3)  Especially,  the  priests  shall  ascertain  whether  the  prisoners 
entrusted  to  their  care  have  written  or  in  some  way  sent  news  of 

87  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  p.  162  (April  3,  1915).  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  6, 
pp.  710-711  (December  30,  1914). 


[306-307]  BENEDICT    XV 

themselves  to  their  families,  and  if  not  shall  persuade  them  to  do 
so  at  once,  at  least  by  post  cards. 

(4)  When  prisoners  are  unable,  either  through  illiteracy,  or  sick- 
ness, or  for*  any  other  reason,  to  correspond  in  this  way  with  their 
families,  the  priests  themselves,  shall  charitably  undertake  to  do  so 
for  them  and  in  their  name,  and  at  the  same  time  do  what  they 
can  to  ensure  the  safe  delivery  of  the  correspondence. 


In  the  spiritual  and  corporal  care  of  prisoners,  no  dis- 
tinction of  religion,  nationality  or  language  should  be 

December  22,  1914 

306.  The  August  Pontiff,  Benedict  XV,  greatly  afflicted  by  the 
evils  caused  everywhere  by  the  present  enormous  war,  has  been 
graciously  pleased  to  turn  once  more  his  benevolent  and  affectionate 
attention  to  the  prisoners  of  war  and,  in  his  fatherly  charity,  to 
provide  in  some  way  for  their  spiritual  and  corporal  welfare,  issued 
yesterday  through  the  S.  Congregation  of  Extraordinary  Ecclesi- 
astical Affairs  a  decree  some  copies  of  which  I  hasten  to  transmit 
to  Your  Eminence.39 

307.  I  think  it  needless  to  add  that  in  speaking  of  prisoners 
in  the  decree  His  Holiness  wishes  that  no  distinction  be  made 
either  of  religion,  nationality  or  language,  but  if  Your  Eminence 
should  deem  it  opportune,  kindly,  when  transmitting  the  decree 
to  the  different  bishops,  make  known  to  them  the  Holy  Father's 
intention,  so  that  the  good  work  of  the  priests  indicated  in  the 
decree  may  include  all  the  unfortunate  prisoners  with  the  same 
embrace  of  the  charity  of  Jesus  Christ.  .  .  . 

38  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  16,  p.  88  (December  26,  1914).  Original  Italian,  Miiller, 

Das  FriedenstverJ^  der  Kirche,  p.  428. 

39  A  paragraph  of  the  original  Italian,  which  has  no  special  importance,  was  not  trans- 

lated by  the  editor  of  Rome. 


DI    ACCOGLIERE  [3°8"3°9] 


Despite  many  disappointments,  Benedict  XV  will  con- 
tinue to  wor]^  for  peace. 

December  24,  1914 

3°8  .......  We  could  not  forget  that  We  were  come  to  con- 

tinue the  work  of  Jesus  Christ,  Prince  of  Peace,  described  in  the 
prophecies  as  He  in  Whose  days  should  come  at  last  the  sun  of 
justice  and  the  abundance  of  peace.  Remembering,  then,  Our  more 
than  human  mission  both  in  public  and  private,  We  left  no  way 
untried  that  the  counsel,  the  desire,  the  necessity  of  peace  should 
be  fully  recognized.  It  was  indeed  with  this  scope  that  there  came 
to  Our  mind  the  proposal  to  pierce  this  darkness  of  warring  death 
with  at  least  a  ray,  one  single  ray,  of  the  Divine  sun  of  peace,  and 
We  thought  of  suggesting  to  the  fighting  nations  a  truce,  short 
indeed  and  limited,  for  Christmas,  nourishing  the  hope  that  while 
We  could  not  dissipate  the  black  gloom  of  war,  it  might  be  given 
Us  at  least  to  bring  one  healing  balm  to  the  wounds  it  inflicts. 
Ah,  the  dear  hope  that  We  had  cherished  of  consoling  so  many 
mothers  and  so  many  wives  with  the  certainty  that  in  the  few  hours 
consecrated  to  the  memory  of  the  Divine  Birthday  their  dear  ones 
would  not  have  fallen  under  the  enemy's  lead;  ah,  the  dear  illusion 
that  We  held  of  giving  once  more  to  the  world  at  least  a  taste  of 
that  peaceful  quiet  which  for  so  many  months  now  it  has  not 
known!  Our  Christian  initiative  was  not,  however,  crowned  with 
happy  success.  Still,  We  are  not  discouraged  by  this,  and  We  intend 
to  put  forth  every  effort  to  hasten  the  end  of  the  unparalleled 
scourge,  or  at  least  to  alleviate  its  miserable  consequences. 

309.  It  seems  to  Us  that  the  Divine  Spirit  says  to  Us  as  once 
to  the  Prophet:  Clama  ne  cesses,^  Clama  ne  cesses,  and  We  have 
cried,  not  without  hope  of  success,  for  the  exchange  of  prisoners 
rendered  unfit  for  further  military  service.  Clama  ne  cesses,  and 
We  have  asked  that  to  the  poor  prisoners  of  war  should  be  given 
priests  who  know  their  language,  to  bring  them  those  comforts 
of  which  they  have  need,  and  at  the  same  time  offer  themselves 
as  willing  intermediaries  between  them  and  their  families  who 

40  Translation  from  Schaefer,  A  Papal  Peace  Mosaic,  pp.  19-20.  Original  Italian,  A.A.S., 
v.  6,  pp.  695-696  (December  30,  1914)- 
s,  LVIII,  i. 


[310-311]  BENEDICT    XV 

might  be  worn  out  and  afflicted  by  lack  of  news.  Clama  ne  cesses, 
and  We  praise  the  reverend  pastors  and  single  individuals  who  have 
determined  to  promote  or  multiply  public  or  private  prayers  to  do 
sweet  violence  to  the  Most  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus  to  obtain  that 
an  end  may  come  to  the  terrible  scourge  which  now  grips  and 
throttles  such  a  great  part  of  the  world. 

310.  Ah!  may  the  fratricidal  weapons  fall  to  the  ground!    Al- 
ready they  are  too  bloodstained:  let  them  at  last  fall!    And  may 
the  hands  of  those  who  have  had  to  wield  them  return  to  the  labors 
of  industry  and  commerce,  to  the  works  of  civilization  and  peace. 
Ah!  may  at  least  today  the  rulers  and  the  peoples  hear  the  angelic 
voice  which  announces  the  superhuman  gift  of  the  King  Who  is 
born,  "the  Gift  of  Peace,"  and  themselves  too,  by  works  of  justice, 
faith  and  clemency  show  that  "Good  Will"  which  is  laid  down  by 
God  as  the  condition  for  the  enjoyment  of  the  peace 


The  Holy  See  remains  officially  neutral  in  regard  to 
the  war. 

December  24,  1914 

311.  I  have  received  the  letter  which  Your  Eminence  has  done 
me  the  honor  to  send  me  on  November  10,  and  I  hastened  to 
present  it  to  the  Holy  Father.   The  Sovereign  Pontiff  also  could 
not  help  feeling  the  same  unpleasant  impression  on  reading  the 
second  part  of  this  missive,  and  he  charges  me  to  make  known  to 
you  the  pain  it  has  caused  him.   Your  Eminence  is  not  unaware 
that  from  the  beginning  of  the  present  war  the  Holy  See,  embrac- 
ing with  the  same  solicitude  the  pastors  and  the  faithful  of  the 
Universal  Church,  set  itself  to  observe,  and  has  constantly  observed, 
the  strictest  and  most  absolute  impartiality  towards  the  different 
belligerent  nations,  and  has  peremptorily  enjoined  it  on  the  Catholic 
Press,  and  especially  that  of  Rome.    I  can  assure  you  that  this 
direction  and  these  counsels  of  the  Holy  See,  both  by  the  Osserva- 
tore  Romano,  which  is  immediately  under  its  direction,  and  by 

43  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  p.  20  (January  2,  1915).  We  have  been  unable 
to  locate  the  original  of  this  letter. 



the  Corriere  df Italia,  the  principal  organ  of  the  Societa  Editrice, 
have  been  scrupulously  followed.  Meanwhile,  we  are  ready  to  com- 
municate  to  Your  Eminence  all  the  documents  you  may  desire 
proving  this  affirmation.  Your  Eminence  will  dispense  me  from 
citing  the  provincial  papers  which  escape  the  immediate  super- 
intendence of  the  Holy  See,  and  the  responsibility  for  which  can 
in  no  way  be  attributed  to  it.  But  with  regard  to  these,  too,  I  can 
assure  you  that  they  have  not  failed  to  abide  by  the  above-men- 
tioned directions,  especially  after  some  few  instances  in  which  they 
have  been  reminded  of  their  duty.  As  for  the  assertion  that  prelates 
in  Rome  have  not  paid  heed  to  the  recommendations  of  the  Holy 
See,  this  is  not  in  harmony  with  the  truth,  and  it  would  be  very 
difficult  for  Your  Eminence  to  give  us  the  name  of  a  single  prelate 
who  has  published  anything  hostile  to  France.  But  we  know  the 
source  of  the  calumnies  which  are  diffused  in  France,  and  to  which, 
it  is  painful  to  have  to  admit,  too  much  faith  is  given  even  by 
Catholics  themselves.  His  Holiness  earnestly  desires  Your  Eminence 
to  give  the  widest  possible  publicity  to  this  letter  in.  order  to  en- 
lighten and  instruct  the  public  mind  and  Catholic  opinion,  and  to 
dissipate  the  calumnies  and  biased  news  which  have  been  circulated 
in  the  past,  or  may  be  circulated  in  the  future,  as  to  the  attitude 
of  the  Holy  See  in  the  present  grave  contingencies. 


The  Pope  asf(s  the  sovereigns  of  the  belligerent  na- 
tions to  exchange  war  prisoners  incapable  of  further 
military  service. 

December  31,  1914 

312.    Confident  in  the  feelings  of  Christian  charity  which  ani- 
mate Your  Majesty,  We  pray  that  it  may  please  Your  Majesty  to 

43  Original  French,  L'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  42.  Similar  appeals  for  exchange  of 
prisoners  incapable  of  military  service,  not  included  in  this  volume,  are:  Telegram 
of  Benedict  XV  to  Mohammed  V,  Emperor  of  Turkey,  December  31,  1914 
(L'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  45).  Telegram  of  Benedict  XV  to  Nicholas  I,  King 
of  Montenegro,  January  i,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  46).  Telegram  of  Benedict  XV  to 
M.  Raymond  Poincare,  President  of  France,  January  4,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p.  46).  Tele- 
gram of  Benedict  XV  to  Yoshihito,  Emperor  of  Japan,  January  9,  1915  (op.cit., 
p.  47).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri,  Secretary  of  State,  to  the  Ambassador  of 
Austria-Hungary;  December  21,  1914  (op.  cit.,  p.  48). 


[3I3'3I4]  BENEDICT    XV 

close  this  fatal  year  and  to  begin  well  the  new  by  an  act  of  sovereign 
generosity,  in  receiving  Our  proposal  that  the  belligerent  nations 
exchange  prisoners  incapable  of  further  military  service. 

DECREE  La  Santita  di  N.  Signore  OF  CARDINAL  GASPARRI,  SEC- 

The  Holy  Father  composes  a  special  prayer  for  peace. 
January  10,  1915 

313.  His  Holiness,  our  sovereign  Lord,  Pope  Benedict  XV,  in 
deep  affliction  at  the  sight  of  a  war  which  destroys  thousands  of 
young  lives,  brings  misery  to  families  and  cities,  and  rushes  flourish- 
ing nations  to  the  brink  of  ruin,  yet  bearing  in  mind  that  Almighty 
God,  Whose  prerogative  it  is  to  heal  by  chastisement  and  through 
pardon  to  preserve,  is  moved  by  the  prayers  which  spring  from 
contrite  and  humble  hearts,  desires  ardently  that  above  the  clang 
of  arms  may  be  heard  the  voice  of  Faith,  Hope  and  Charity,  alone 
capable  of  welding  together  the  hearts  of  men  in  one  mind  and 
one  spirit.  Therefore,  while  he  exhorts  the  clergy  and  the  faithful 
of  the  whole  world  to  works  of  mortification  and  piety  in  ex- 
piation for  the  sins  by  which  we  have  called  down  upon  ourselves 
the  just  wrath  of  God,  the  Holy  Father  has  ordained  that  through- 
out the  Catholic  Church  solemn  prayers  shall  be  offered  in  order 
to  obtain  from  the  mercy  of  Almighty  God  the  peace  which  all 

314.  The  Special  Prayer  Ordered  by  the  Pope  Is  as  Follows: 

Dismayed,  by  the  horrors  of  a  war  which  is  bringing  ruin  to 
peoples  and  nations,  we  turn,  O  Jesus,  to  Thy  most  loving  Heart 
as  to  our  last  hope.  O  God  of  Mercy,  with  tears  we  invoke  Thee 
to  end  this  fearful  scourge;  O  King  of  Peace,  we  humbly  implore 
the  peace  for  which  we  long.  From  Thy  Sacred  Heart,  Thou 
didst  shed  forth  over  the  world  divine  Charity,  so  that  discord 
might  end  and  love  alone  might  reign  among  men.  During  Thy 
life  on  earth  Thy  Heart  beat  with  tender  compassion  for  the 
sorrows  of  men;  in  this  hour  made  terrible  with  burning  hate,  with 

^Authentic  English  version,  A.A.S.,  v.  7,  pp.  12-14  (January  15,  1915).   Qrigina.1 
Italian,  A.A.S.,  v.  7,  pp.  8-10  (January  15,  1915). 



bloodshed  and  with  slaughter,  once  more  may  Thy  Divine  Heart 
be  moved  to  pity.  Pity  the  countless  mothers  in  anguish  for  the 
fate  of  their  sons;  pity  the  numberless  families  now  bereaved  of 
their  fathers;  pity  Europe  over  which  broods  such  havoc  and  dis- 
aster. Do  Thou  inspire  rulers  and  peoples  with  counsels  of  meek- 
ness; do  Thou  heal  the  discords  that  tear  the  nations  asunder;  Thou 
Who  didst  shed  Thy  Precious  Blood  that  they  might  live  as  brothers, 
bring  men  together  once  more  in  loving  harmony.  And  as  once 
before  to  the  cry  of  the  Apostle,  Peter:  Save  us,  Lord,  we  perish,4* 
Thou  didst  answer  with  words  of  mercy  and  didst  still  the  raging 
waves,  so  now  deign  to  hear  our  trustful  prayer,  and  give  back  to 
the  world  peace  and  tranquillity.  And  do  thou,  O  most  holy  Virgin, 
as  in  other  times  of  sore  distress,  be  now  our  help,  our  protection 
and  our  safeguard.  Amen. 


The  Pope  requests  all  belligerent  nations  to  free  cap- 
tured civilians  unfit  for  military  service. 

January  11,  1915 

315.    The  undersigned  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  has  the  honor 
of  informing  His  Excellency  .  .  .  that  the  Holy  See,  recognizing 

45  Matthew,  VIII,  25. 

46  Original  French,  L 'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  50.   Similar  documents,  not  -included 

in  this  book,  concerning  exchange  of  civilians  between  the  belligerents  are:  Letter 
of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  England,  January  13,  1915  (U Opera  della 
Santa  Sede,  p.  52).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Russia,  February 
1 8,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  56).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Prussia, 
February  22,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  57).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of 
Prussia,  March  2,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  58).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister 
of  England,  March  2,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p.  59).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the 
Minister  of  England,  March  6,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  60).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri 
to  the  Minister  of  England,  May  i,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  61).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gas- 
parri to  the  Minister  of  Prussia,  May  6,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  62).  Letter  of  Cardinal 
Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  England,  May  30,  1915  (op.  tit.,  pp.  64-65).  Letter  of 
Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Prussia,  July  3,  1915  (op.  tit.,  p.  65).  Tele- 
gram of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Prussia,  August  9,  1915  (op.  tit., 
p.  69).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Prussia,  August  25,  1915 
(op.  tit.,  pp.  70-71).  There  are  many  similar  documents  given  in  the  book, 
L 'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  but  these  few  will  suffice  to  illustrate  the  indefatigable 
activity  of  the  Vatican  regarding  the  exchange  of  civilians. 



the  favorable  reception  given  to  its  first  proposal  in  favor  of  mili- 
tary prisoners,  is  confident  that  the  benevolence  of  the  sovereigns 
and  the  chiefs  of  State  will  wish  to  extend  it  equally  to  detained 
civilians.  To  this  end,  the  Holy  See  asks  each  and  every  belligerent 
nation  to  grant  the  following  categories  of  interned  civilians  free- 
dom to  return  to  their  own  country,  save  a  few  exceptions  which 
each  Government  may  believe  necessary: 

(1)  All  women  and  young  girls. 

(2)  All  children  and  young  people  under  the  age  of  seven- 
teen years. 

(3)  All  adults  over  the  age  of  fifty-five  years. 

(4)  All  adults  who  have  not  passed  the  age  of  fifty-five  years 
but  who  are: 

a)  doctors  or  surgeons, 

b)  priests, 

c)  known  to  be  unfit  for  military  service  either  through 
sickness  or  for  any  other  reason. 


Benedict  XV  wishes  the  American  Catholic  Press  to 
co-operate  in  promoting  a  Christian  peace. 

January  18,  1915 

316.  There  will  still  be  vividly  fresh  in  the  soul  of  Your  Rever- 
ence the  sweet  impression,  produced  by  the  sovereign  benevolence, 
with  which  the  Holy  Father,  a  few  days  ago,  vouchsafed  to  receive 
you  in  private  audience  and  to  accede  to  the  desire  manifested  by 
you  for  a  few  encouraging  words  for  the  Catholic  Press  of  the 
United  States  at  the  opening  of  the  new  year. 

317.  This  greeting,  which  Your  Reverence  has  had  the  singular 
good  fortune  to  hear  from  the  very  lips  of  the  August  Pontiff  and 
which  I,  by  the  venerable  charge  entrusted  to  me  by  His  Holiness, 

47 Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  pp.  43-44'  (January  23,  1915).  We  have  been  unable 
to  locate  the  original  of  this  document.  Rev.  Joseph  Thomas  Roche,  a  priest  of  the 
Rockford,  111.  (U.S.A.)  diocese,  was  the  correspondent  of  several  Catholic  journals 
in  this  country.  Knowing  that  the  Catholic  Press  of  the  United  States  heartily  sec- 
onded the  peace  efforts  of  Benedict  XV,  he  asked  the  Pope  to  give  the  Catholic 
Press  a  few  words  of  encouragement  at  the  beginning  of  the  new  year.  This  letter, 
written  by  Cardinal  Gasparri,  was  the  answer  to  his  request, 


CONVOCARE    VOS  [318-321] 

have  today  the  pleasure  of  presenting  to  you,  may  be  summarized 
in  the  expression  of  those  sentiments  of  charity  and  peace,  of  which 
Benedict  XV,  faithful  to  his  Apostolic  mission,  has  made  me  the 

318.  Father  of  all  the  faithful,  supreme  and  loving  head  of  all 
mankind,  the  Pontiff  deplores  the  misfortunes  wrought  by  this 
fearful  struggle  and,  not  being  able  to  quench  at  once  the  fire  which 
is  devouring  the  blinded  brethren,  feels  in  his  heart  all  the  pain  of 
the  orphans,  the  widows,  the  mothers,  the  families  made  desolate; 
he  hears  the  lamentations  of  the  prisoners,   the  groans   of  the 
wounded  and  he,  first  of  all,  bears  on  his  shoulders  the.  sorrows 
of  the  whole  human  race. 

319.  But  all  this  tribulation,  far  from  discouraging,  stimulates 
and  renders  fruitful  the  charitable  action  of  the  August  Pontiff, 
who  does  not  cease  to  try  in  every  way  to  bring  comfort  to  the 

320.  And  if  on  this  earth  so  many  difficulties  oppose  themselves 
to  the  work  of  the  Angel  of  Charity,  he  raises  suppliant  hands  to 
heaven  and  he  earnestly  desires  that  the  eyes  of  all  the  faithful  be 
turned  to  heaven,  praying  that  the  God  of  Mercy,  the  Prince 
of  Peace,  may  renew  in  men's  hearts  the  sentiments  of  fraternal 
charity  and  inspire  in  rulers  an  efficacious  desire  for  peace. 


The  Pope  is  disappointed  at  the  prolongation  of  the 
war.  He  scores  every  violation  of  justice  and  condemns 
all  unnecessary  violence. 

January  22,  1915 

321. But  at  the  outset,  Venerable  Brethren,  in  seeing 

you  assembled  here  who  by  the  special  bond  which  unites  you  to  Us 
have  so  close  a  part  in  Our  thoughts  and  solicitudes,  We  cannot 
refrain  from  again  telling  you  of  the  anguish  which,  as  you  know, 
weighs  so  heavily  upon  Our  heart.    Alas,  month  follows  month 
without  a  gleam  of  even  a  distant  hope  that  we  shall  soon  see  the 
end  of  this  fatal  war,  this  awful  massacre.  If  We  have  not  been  able 

48  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  pp.  156-157  (January  30,  1915)-    Original 
Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  7,  pp.  33-36  (January  22,  1915).    ' 

[322-325]  BENEDICT    XV 

to  hasten  the  end  of  this  dreadful  scourge,  We  have  at  least  been 
able  to  alleviate  its  deplorable  consequences.  We  have,  as  you  are 
aware,  done  all  that  was  in  Our  power  up  till  now,  and  We  shall 
not  fail  to  use  Our  efforts  in  the  future  as  long  as  it  may  be  necessary. 

322.  To  do  more  to-day  is  not  in  the  power  given  Us  by  Our 
Apostolic  charge.   To  proclaim  that  for  no  reason  is  it  allowable 
to  injure  justice  is  assuredly  a  duty  that  belongs  to  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff,  who  is  the  divinely  authorized  supreme  interpreter  of  the 
eternal  law.   And  that  We  proclaim  without  waste  of  words,  de- 
nouncing all  injustice  on  whatever  side  it  has  been  committed. 
But  it  would  be  neither  proper  nor  useful  to  entangle  the  pontifical 
authority  in  the  disputes  between  the  belligerents. 

323.  It  is,  for  every  thinking  man,  abundantly  clear  that  in  this 
frightful  conflict  the  Holy  See,  whilst  unceasingly  watching  it  with 
the  closest  attention,  must  preserve  the  most  absolute  neutrality. 
The  Roman  Pontiff,  as,  on  the  one  hand,  the  Vicar  of  Jesus  Christ 
Who  died  for  all  and  each,  and  on  the  other,  as  the  Common 
Father  of  Catholics,  must  embrace  all  the  combatants  in  the  same 
sentiment  of  charity.  He  has  on  both  the  belligerent  sides  a  great 
number  of  sons  for  whose  salvation  he  must  have  an  equal  solicitude. 
He  must  accordingly  consider  not  the  special  interests  which  divide 
them,  but  the  common  bond  of  faith  that  makes  them  brothers. 
Any  other  attitude  on  his  part  not 'only  would  not  assist  the  cause 
of  peace,  but  would,  what  is  worse,  create  a  lack  of  sympathy  with 
and  hatred  against  religion  and  expose  the  tranquillity  and  internal 
concord  of  the  Church  to  grave  disturbances. 

324.  But,  whilst  not  inclining  to  either  party  in  the  struggle, 
We  occupy  Ourselves  equally  on  behalf  of  both;  and  at  the  same 
time  We  follow  with  anxiety  and  anguish  the  awful  phases  of  this 
war  and  even  fear  that  sometimes  the  violence  of  attack  exceeded 
all  measure.  We  are  struck  with  the  respectful  attachment  to  the 
Common  Father  of  the  faithful;  an  example  of  which  is  seen  in 
regard  to  Our  beloved  people  of  Belgium  in  the  letter  which  We 
recently  addressed  to  the  Cardinal  Archbishop  of  Malines. 

325.  And  We  here  make  an  appeal  to  the  humanity  of  those 
who  have  crossed  the  frontiers  of  adversary  nations  and  beseech 
them  not  to  devastate  invaded  regions  more  than  is  strictly  required 
by  the  necessities  of  military  occupation,  and  what  is  of  even 
greater  importance,  not  to  wound  without  real  necessity  the  in- 



habitants  in  what  they  hold  most  dear,  their  sacred  temples,  the 
ministers  of  God,  the  rights  of  religion  and  of  faith.  We  fully 
understand  how  hard  it  is  for  those  whose  country  is  occupied  by 
the  enemy  to  find  themselves  forced  under  the  yoke  of  the  foreigner, 
but  We  would  not  have  the  ardent  desire  of  recovering  their  inde- 
pendence induce  them  to  disturb  the  maintenance  of  public  order 
and  so  seriously  aggravate  their  own  position. 

326.  For  the  rest,  Venerable  Brethren,  we  ought  not,  in  the 
midst  of  the  great  and  heavy  sorrows  which  press  upon  us,  to  lose 
courage;  the  darker  the  future  seems,  the  greater  should  be  the 
confidence  with  which  we  approach  the  throne  of  grace  to  obtain 
mercy  and  find  grace  in  seasonable  aid?* 

327.  We  must,  therefore,  as  We  have  already  ordered,  address 
instant  and  humble  prayers  to  the  Lord  Who  is  the  Master  and 
Sovereign  Arbiter  of  human  affairs  and  Who  alone  can,  as  He 
thinks  best,  direct  the  wills  of  man.   We  do  not  think  that  peace 
departed  from  the  world  without  the  Will  of  God.   The  nadons 
which  have  placed  all  their  thoughts  on  the  things  of  this  world 
are  permitted  by  God  to  punish  each  other  by  slaughter  for  the 
disrespect  and  negligence  with  which  they  have  treated  Him,  and 
other  happenings  befall  to  compel  men  to  humble  themselves  under 
the  mighty  Hand  of  God.50 

328.  Of  such  a  sort  is  the  catastrophe  of  these  last  days,*  the 
horrible  devastation  of  which  we  all  know.  And  that  is  the  reason, 
since  prayer  in  common  is  the  most  pleasing  to  God  and  the  most 
fruitful,  that  We  call  upon  all  men  of  good  will  to  propitiate  the 
Divine  mercy,  by  personal  prayer,  and,  above  all,  by  taking  part 
in  the  public  prayers  in  the  churches.  In  order  that  an  immense 
chorus  of  suppliant  voices  may  rise  to  heaven,  We  have  prescribed 
two  solemn  ceremonies  of  expiadon,  one  for  the  Catholics  of  Eu- 
rope on  February  7,  and  the  other  for  the  rest  of  the  Catholic  world 
on  March  21.  We  have  decided  to  assist  at  the  first  in  St.  Peter's, 
and  We  are  sure  that  you,  Venerable  Brethren,  will  not  fail  to 
take  part  in  it  along  with  Us. 

329.  May  the  Blessed  Virgin,  the  Help  of  Christians,  hearken  to 
and  strengthen  the  prayers  of  the  Church.    May  her  intercession 
obtain  from  her  Divine  Son  that  men's  minds  may  return  to  the 

49  Hebrews,  IV,  16. 
50 I  Peter,  V,  6. 


worship  of  the  truth,  their  souls  to  that  of  justice,  and  may  the 
peace  of  Christ  return  to  the  world  and  establish  its  dwelling 
amongst  men.  .  .  . 

LETTER  Opinionem  Quam  Habebamus  TO  ARCHBISHOP  LIKOW- 


The  Holy  Father  laments  the  miserable  condition  of 

February  i,  1915 

330.  .  .  .  And  what  you  have  related  to  Us  in  the  aforesaid 
letters  concerning  the  miseries  of  Poland  is  indeed  such  that,  al- 
though it  had  already  been  otherwise  ascertained  by  Us,  it  has 
nevertheless  filled  Our  heart  with  no  common  sadness. 

331.  For,  as  We  have  long  known  that  the  illustrious  citizens 
of  Poland  have  always  been  firm  in  their  adhesion  both  to  the 
Church  of  God  and  to  this  Apostolic  See,  We  have  indeed  extended 
to  them,  as  is  fitting,  Our  benevolence  and  love.  For  this  reason, 
as  joy  and  sadness  are  shared  in  common  by  father  and  sons,  in 
no  wise  can  it  be  that  We,  surrounded  with  griefs  and  difficulties, 
are  not  affected  by  the  greatest  sorrow  owing  to  the  calamities 
whereby,  during  this  most  cruel  war,  the  inhabitants  of  Poland  are 
so  shockingly  tortured.  And,  whilst  We  turn  Our  mind  and  heart 
to  them  with  paternal  charity,  how  many  tears  start  to  Our  eyes! 
All  these  things  so  vehemently  stir  Our  inmost  and  secret  feelings, 
that  We  feel  the  charity  of  the  Father  toward  children  so  griev- 
ously harassed,  increased  in  the  highest  degree.   Therefore,  to  the 
eternal  Author  of  all  consolations  We  commend  exceedingly  the 
citizens  of  Poland,  to  Us  indeed  most  dear,  and  We  earnestly  be- 
seech Him  at  length  to  restrain  the  fury  of  war  and  propitiously 
and  with  good-will  to  grant  the  peace  most  earnestly  desired  and 
the  choicest  fruits  of  peace.   These  Our  desires  may  God  regard 
and  prosper  and  may  He  in  His  highest  clemency  be  pleased  to 
turn  to  good  for  the  Poles  whatsoever  evils  they  have  suffered  and 
are  still  suffering.   But  do  you,  Venerable  Brother,  and  the  other 
Bishops  of  Poland,  continue  to  do  what  pastoral  love  can  devise 

51  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  pp.  140-141    (March  20,   1915).    Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  7,  pp.  91-92  (February  27,  1915). 


QUOD    ERAT  [332] 

and  to  display  all  solicitude  and  care  for  each  one  of  your  flock; 
and  strive  with  all  your  strength  by  your  aid  to  mitigate  the  suffer- 
ings of  your  children,  to  alleviate  their  sorrows,  to  dry  their  tears. 
And  We  are  led  to  cherish  good  hopes  that,  by  the  intercession  of 
the  Blessed  Virgin,  patroness  of  Poland,  the  God  of  all  prosperity 
will  open  to  the  Poles  and  benignantly  pour  out  upon  them  the 
treasures  of  His  gifts.  May  these  be  guaranteed  and  secured  by  the 
Apostolic  Benediction  which  .  .  .  We  impart  very  lovingly  in  the 


Deep  papal  sympathy  for  Belgium. 

February  4,  1915 

332.  What  We  have  already  known  about  the  sad  state  to 
,  which,  in  general^  the  Belgian  hopes  and  Belgian  affairs  have  been 
miserably  reduced  by  the  terrible  and  bitter  war,  has  been  con- 
firmed by  your  recent  official  letters  in  connection  with  a  specific 
case,  namely  the  diocese  of  Namur,  so  dear  to  Us.  What  you  have 
told  Us,  though,  is  enough  to  afflict  anyone  with  the  greatest  sor- 
row. What,  then,  shall  be  said  of  Our  feelings,  of  Us  who  carry 
the  burden  of  fatherhood,  and  by  that  fact  feel  worry  and  care 
for  the  well-being  and  care  of  Our  children?  But  if  the  pity  and 
love  of  a  parent  brings  much  comfort  to  the  children  who  are 
suffering,  then  there  is  reason  for  you  and  your  flock  to  be  com- 
forted and  consoled;  for  We  "have  been,  and  do  not  cease  to  be, 
sharers  of  all  the  hardships  and  difficulties  by  which  We  see  you  so 
grievously  oppressed,  and  We  extend  to  you  Our  special  good  will 
and  love.  Consequently,  nothing  would  be  more  preferable  to  Us 
than  finally  to  see  the  end  of  so  great,  so  terrible  a  scourge.  There- 
fore, We  earnestly  commend  to  God,  Who  alone  is  omnipotent, 
all  these  sons  of  Ours  who  mourn,  especially  the  citizens  of  the 
distinguished  Belgian  nation,  fervently  praying  that  with  His  grace 
the  day  of  that  most  desired  peace  *may  soon  begin  to  break,  and 
that  He  in  His  mercy  will  deign  propitiously  to  give  the  ripest  and 
best  fruit  of  peace  especially  to  you  who  have  endured  so  much.  .  .  . 

52  Original  Latin,  U  Opera  delta  Santa  Sedef  pp.  176-177. 

[333-334]  BENEDICT    XV 


The  Holy  Father  praises  and  congratulates  the  Red 

February  19, 1915 

333.  Amid  the  bitter  pains  which  afflict  the  heart  of  the  August 
Pontiff,   dismayed   at  the   desolating   spectacle   presented   by   the 
present  enormous  war,  one  thing  has  given  him  precious  encourage- 
ment: the  knowledge  that  in  his  apostolic  work,  aimed  at  diminish- 
ing the  immensity  of  the  ruins  caused  by  the  war,  or  at  least 
mitigating  its  disastrous  effects  by  assuaging  the  sorrow  of  families, 
of  the  wounded,  of  the  prisoners,  he  has  had,  and  continues  to 
have,  the  collaboration  of  an  elect  band  of  persons,  especially  abroad 
in  free  Switzerland,  who  are  helping  him  faithfully  and  even 
anticipating  him  in  his  yearnings  of  Christian  charity.    To  this 
band,  instinct  with  a  splendid  spirit  of  Christian  brotherhood  and 
most  noble  pity,  the  Red  Cross  of  Geneva,  so  worthily  presided 
over  by  you,  is  proud  to  belong,  and,  therefore,  to  you  and  to  the 
Red  Cross  go  with  good  right  the  gratitude  of  numberless  unhappy 
ones,  and  the  congratulations  and  praises  of  the  August  Pontiff. 
His  Holiness  hopes  to  have  you  always  as  his  co-operator  in  works 
of  charity,  and  trusts  that  you  will  ever  continue  to  dedicate,  with 
generosity  and  confidence,  all  your  beneficent  activity  to  the  cause 
of  the  afflicted.  And  the  Lord,  Who  counts  every  tear  of  suffering 
that  has  been  pitifully  dried,  will  not  fail  to  reward  every  charitable 
undertaking  with  His  choicest  blessings. 


An  offering  to  relieve  the  distress  in  Poland. 
March  12,  1915 

334.  The  August  Pontiff, ,  instead  of  sending  the  usual  tele- 
graphic reply,  has  charged  me  to  let  you  know  of  the  feelings  of 

53 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  p.  375   (March  6,  1915).    Original  Italian, 

Civilta  Cattolica,  1915,  v.  2,  p.  498  (May  8,  1915). 
54 Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  pp.  169-170   (April  10,  1915).    Original  Italian, 

L 'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  pp.  200-201. 



gratitude  and  fatherly  affection  produced  in  him  by  the  reading 
of  the  telegram,  so  full  of  devotion,  of  the  General  Relief  Com- 
mittee for  the  victims  of  the  war  in  Poland.  You  know  how  deep 
the  Holy  Father's  grief  is  at  the  terrifying  spectacle  of  the  awful 
slaughter  and  ruins  which  are  the  consequences  of  the  present  war. 
As  Vicar  of  that  merciful  God  Who  has  infinitely  loved  all  men 
and  given  for  all  the  price  of  His  Blood,  he  suffers  from  the  pains 
of  all  the  combatants  and  is  in  mourning  for  all  the  families.  His 
affection  goes  out  to  all  his  children  without  distinction  and,  as  he 
said  at  the  last  Consistory,  his  heart  is  especially  touched  at  the 
thought  of  the  pain  of  all  those  sons  of  his  who  are  most  grievously 
tried  by  this  horrible  catastrophe.  I  can  assure  you  truly  that  your 
Committee,  by  relieving  the  victims  of  the  war  in  Poland  and  thus 
carrying  on  a  work  eminently  charitable  and  merciful,  has  pro- 
foundly moved  the  fatherly  heart  of  the  August  Pontiff. 

335.  In  his  beloved  sons  of  Poland  he  sees  not  only  a  people 
plunged  in  terror  and  desolation,  but  he  recognizes  and  loves  in 
them  children  especially  affectionate  and  generous,  who  are  devoted 
to  the  Holy  See  to  the  point  of  sacrifice.  Hence,  as  His  Holiness 
has  already  given  a  proof  of  his  interest  in  Catholic  Belgium  by 
sending  it  a  letter  of  encouragement  with  his  personal  offering  and 
that  of  the  Sacred  College,  so  now  he  is  especially  glad  to  be  able 
to  confer  the  same  privileges  on  his  well-beloved  people  of  Poland, 
by  sending  a  similar  offering  in  his  own  august  name  and  in  that 
of  his  College,  together  with  an  autograph  letter  to  relieve  their 
distress  and  to  comfort  them  in  their  anguish.  And  now  His 
Holiness  congratulates  your  Relief  Committee  on  the  truly  char- 
itable work  which  is  relieving  the  miseries  of  his  most  beloved 
children  of  Catholic  Poland,  and  in  token  of  his  fatherly  affection 
he  bestows  with  all  his  heart  the  Apostolic  Blessing  on  all  the  Polish 
nation,  on  all  who  assist  it,  and  especially  on  you  and  on  the  mem- 
.  bers  of  the  Committee. 

[336-337]  BENEDICT    XV 

DECREE  Annuendo  alia  Pia  Domanda  ISSUED   BY  CARDINAL 

The  Pope  authorizes  another  day  of  prayer  for  peace. 
March  15,  1915 

336.  Our  Most  Holy  Lord,  Pope  Benedict  XV,  assenting  to  the 
pious  request  of  many  of  the  faithful  and  particularly  of  the  Priests 
Adorers  of  Italy,  who,  moved  by  devotion  towards  the  Most  Holy 
Eucharist  and  also  by  the  desire  of  concurring  by  repeated  prayers 
in  obtaining  from  the  Divine  Mercy  the  grace  of  peace,  have  im- 
plored authorization  to  be  empowered  to  repeat  in  the  churches  of 
Europe,  on  the  21  st  of  the  current  month  of  March,  the  sacred 
functions  ordered  by  His  Holiness,  for  that  day,  in  the  dioceses 
outside  of  Europe,  has  been  graciously  pleased  to  acquiesce  in  the 
above  mentioned  request,  according  right  willingly  the  authoriza- 
tion requested  to  all  those  who  wish  freely  to  avail  of  it,  and 
granting  a  plenary  indulgence  to  all  those  who,  having  confessed 
and  communicated,  shall  assist  at  the  sacred  functions  or  shall  pray 
for  some  time  in  the  presence  of  the  Blessed  Sacrament  exposed  for 
the  adoration  of  the  faithful. 



The  Holy  Father  thanks  him  for  the  alms  offered  the 
Mexican  victims  of  the  civil  war. 

March  17,  1915 

337-  We  are  in  constant  receipt  of  information  about  the  efforts 
that  Catholics,  and  especially  the  Catholics  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  are  making  under  the  guidance  of  the  venerable  bishops, 
to  carry  out  Our  wishes  and  to  alleviate  the  sorrow  and  distress 
which  for  so  long  have  been  the  heavy  portion  of  many  of  Our 
brethren  in  Catholic  Mexico,  a  country  sorely  harassed  by  revolu- 

55 Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  pp.  189-190   (April  17,  1915).    Original  Italian, 

A.A.S.,  v.  7,  p.  138  (March  15,  1915). 
56  Translation  from  America,  v.  13,  p.  42  (April  24,  1915).   Original  Latin,  A.A.S,, 

v.  7,  pp.  168-169  (April  20,  1915). 

158    . 

C'EST    AVEC    COULEURS     BIEN    SOMBRES      [338] 

tion.  And  in  particular  We  are  not  unaware  of  the  widespread, 
active  charity,  which  has  manifested  itself  in  so  many  ways :  through 
assistance  given  by  the  Press  and  by  public  meetings,  by  sub- 
scriptions and  collections,  and  the  inauguration  of  good  works 
of  all  kinds.  Different  men  have  helped  on  the  cause  in  various 
ways,  some  by  lending  to  it  the  prestige  of  their  high  position  as 
citizens,  others  by  giving  it  financial  assistance,  and  still  others — 
and  to  these  We  call  especial  attention — by  devoting  to  it  their  best 
qualities  of  head  and  heart;  but  in  every  case  the  motive  power  of 
their  action  has  been  charity.  This  has  made  it  possible  to  shelter 
and  afford  assistance  to  the  exiled  bishops,  priests  and  religious  of 
both  sexes,  and  has  given  Us  the  great  consolation  of  seeing  the 
young  Mexican  aspirants  to  the  priesthood,  notwithstanding  their 
poverty,  continuing  their  education  in  the  seminaries.  The  result 
is  that  here  in  Europe  all  are  beginning  to  recognize  that  the  love, 
care  and  protection  thus  shown  the  exiles,  are  among  the  most 
beautiful  characteristics  of  Christian  and  civil  life  in  Amer- 

ALLOCUTION  C'Est  avec  Couleurs  Bien  S ombres  TO  M.  VAN  DEN 

The  Pope  expresses  compassion  for  Belgium. 
March  17,  1915 

338.  In  very  sombre  colors,  M.  le  Ministre,  you  have  depicted 
for  Us  the  situation  of  your  country.  We,  too,  on  receiving  the 
letter  of  His  Majesty,  the  King  of  the  Belgians,  accrediting  you  as 
his  Envoy  Extraordinary  and  Minister  Plenipotentiary  to  the  Holy 
See,  are  thinking  of  the  misfortunes  which  have  struck  your  noble 
country  in  these  recent  times.  This  sad  memory  constrains  Us  to 
repeat  the  sentiments  which  We  have  expressed  directly  to  the 
Cardinal  Archbishop  of  Malines  and  on  the  solemn  occasion  of  the 
last  Consistory.  At  the  present  moment  We  are  glad  to  welcome 
you  to  Rome,  M.  le  Ministre,  but  We  cannot  do  so  without  express- 
ing the  deep  affliction  which  rends  Our  heart  since  the  beginning 

57 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  p.  441  (April  3,  1915).  We  have  been  unable 
to  locate-the  original  of  this  allocution;  the  Osservatore  Romano,  March  18,  1915, 
carries  an  account  of  this  audience  but  gives  no  direct  quotations. 


[339]  BENEDICT    XV 

of  Our  Pontificate.  Still,  We  think  that  the  Belgians  should  not 
forget  that  after  the  storm  comes  the  sunshine,  with  comfort  for 
those  who  dwell  here  below.  We  desire  for  Our  beloved  children 
of  Belgium  that  it  may  soon  be  given  to  them  to  hail  the  fair  sun 
of  peace  on  the  horizon  of  their  country.  We  even  wish  We  were 
not  obliged  to  confine  Ourself  to  mere  desires.  But  for  the  moment 
We  ask  the  people  of  Belgium  not  to  doubt  the  affection  which 
We  love  to  cherish  for  them.  This  affection  inspires  Us  when  We 
assure  the  new  Minister  of  Belgium  of  die  welcome  he  will  always 
find  from  Us  in  the  fulfillment  of  his  mission  to  strengthen  the 
good  relations  which  exist  between  his  Government  and  the  Holy 
See.  Meanwhile  We  beg  him  to  convey  to  his  August  Sovereign 
the  expression  of  Our  friendly  sentiments,  and  to  accept  for  himself 
the  assurance  of  the  satisfaction  given  Us  by  the  selection  of  a  per- 
sonage who,  having  been  Minister  of  Justice  and  Professor  of  Law 
at  the  University  of  Louvain,  cannot  but  be  inspired  by  love  of 
justice  and  truth. 


Moved  by  the  misfortunes  of  Belgium,  the  Holy  Father 
sends  an  offering  to  help  the  war  victims. 

April  6,  1915 

339.  From  the  beginning  of  his  Pontificate,  His  Holiness,  Bene- 
dict XV,  looking  out  over  the  whole  world,  fixed  his  gaze  chiefly 
on  Europe,  convulsed  by  this  horrible  war,  and  especially  on  Bel- 
gium, where  he  followed  the  painful  events  that  have  taken  place 
there.  Deeply  moved  by  the  misfortunes  of  this  noble  and  generous 
nation,  all  the  more  dear  to  his  heart  in  that  it  has  remained  faithful 
to  the  Church  and  the  Holy  See,  and  desiring  to  contribute  to  the 
relief  of  the  sufferings  of  your  dearly-beloved  people,  the  Holy 
Father  was  most  desirous  to  send  the  offering  of  his  charity  and  of 
his  august  poverty.  Never  ceasing  to  send  up  the  most  ardent 
prayers  to  heaven  to  obtain  from  the  God  of  Mercies  the  end  of  the 
terrible  scourge  of  war,  the  Holy  Father  conjured  Him  especially  to 

58  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  pp.  535-536   (April  24,   1915).    Original 
French,  U Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  pp.  202-203. 


LETTER    TO     BISHOP     SAPIEHA  [340] 

relieve  the  sorrows  of  your  dear  people,  and  wishing  to  give  them 
a  new  proof  of  benevolence  and  love,  His  Holiness  has  decided  to 
join  to  his  prayers  the  offering  of  his  fatherly  charity,  charging 
me  to  send  you,  notwithstanding  the  present  painful  conditions  of 
the  Holy  See,  the  sum  of  twenty-five  thousand  francs,  which  I  am 
glad  to  be  able  to  enclose  in  the  present  letter.  He  cherishes  the 
hope  that  the  example  of  the  Father  of  the  faithful  will  be  gener- 
ously followed  by  his  numerous  children,  and  that  the  offering  of 
their  charity,  united  with  their  prayers,  will  contribute  to  mitigate 
the  sufferings  of  their  brethren  in  Belgium.  The  Sovereign  Pontiff 
has  been  glad  to  learn  that  numerous  Relief  Committees  for  Bel- 
gium have  been  founded,  and  have  obtained  consoling  results,  and 
he  hopes  that  they  will  continue  to  develop  a  salutary  activity  and 
that  all  will  willingly  respond  to  their  urgent  appeals.  As  -a  pledge 
of  heavenly  favors  and  of  his  most  special  predilection,  His  Holiness, 
with  all  the  effusion  of  his  heart,  accords  a  special  blessing  to  Your 
Eminence,  to  the  episcopate,  and  to  the  clergy  and  people  of  Bel- 
gium, blessing  at  the  same  time  all  who  come  to  their  assistance. 


The  Holy  Father  contributes  alms  for  the  suffering 
people  of  Poland. 

April  9,  1915 

340.  The  misery  in  which  languish  all  the  people  of  Poland, 
who  more  than  others  have  had  to  suffer,  and  are  suffering,  the 
sad  consequences  of  the  war,  has  long  since  filled  with  immense 
sorrow  the  fatherly  heart  of  the  August  Pontiff,  and  moved  him  to 
show  by  a  personal  offering  and  an  autograph  letter  all  the  grief 
of  his  soul  and  all  his  fatherly  predilection.  But  the  later  informa- 
tion that  continues  to  arrive  is  so  painfully  grave  that  the  Holy 

59  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  pp.  372-373  (September  18,  1915)-  Original 
Italian,  L'Opera  delta  Santa  Sede,  pp.  203-205.  Similar  documents,  not  included 
in  this  book,  concerning  relief  given  to  Poland  are:  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to 
Bishop  Sapieha  of  Cracow,  March  24,  1915  (L'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  202). 
Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  H.  Sienkiewicz,  President  of  the  Relief  Commission 
for  Poland,  February  5,  ,1916  (op.  cit.,  p.  227).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to 
H.  Sienkiewicz,  February  16,  1916  (op.  cit.,  p.  227).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri 
to  H.  Sienkiewicz,  March  14,  1916  (op.  cit.,  p.  228). 


[34°]  BENEDICT    XV 

Father  cannot  but  hasten  again  to  the  aid  of  the  unhappy  Poles, 
with  the  utmost  desire  to  mitigate  in  some  way  their  immense 
sufferings.  Hence,  His  Holiness,  while  he  never  ceases  to  offer  up 
prayers  to  the  Most  High  that  the  beneficent  beams  of  peace  may 
again  shine  on  the  world,  at  the  same  time  turns  his  most  ardent 
hopes  and  his  fervent  prayers  to  the  special  benefit  of  the  whole 
Polish  people,  that  generous  people  who,  by  ancient  tradition,  are 
so  devoted  to  the  Holy  See,  and  who  are  now  being  so  sorely  tried 
by  the  greatest  misfortunes.  Hence,  together  with  his  good  wishes 
and  prayers,  His  Holiness  is  eager  to  send  a  new  and  tangible 
proof  of  his  interest  in  all  Poland,  belonging  to  the  Austrian,  Ger- 
man and  Russian  Empires.  And  in  view  of  the  urgency  of  the 
need,  His  Holiness,  intending  to  address  himself  to  all  the  Polish 
episcopate,  has  charged  me  to  send  Your  Lordship,  with  whom  the 
Holy  See  can  most  easily  communicate,  the  enclosed  sum  of  twenty- 
five  thousand  crowns,  an  amount  which  is,  of  course,  altogether 
disproportionate  to  the  grave  necessities  of  Poland,  but  which  is 
a  clear  proof  of  the  most  special  solicitude  which  the  Vicar  of  Jesus 
Christ,  in  his  august  poverty,  more  accentuated  than  ever  at  this 
terrible  hour,  cherishes  for  the  whole  of  Poland.  In  communicating 
to  Your  Lordship,  and  through  you  to  the  other  Bishops  of  Poland, 
the  comforting  assurance  of  the  special  prayers  of  the  Holy 
Father,  and  in  sending  you  at  the  same  time  this  offering  of  his 
charity,  which  you  and  the  other  Bishops  of  all  Poland  will  kindly 
distribute,  together  with  words  of  comfort  and  hope,  where  the 
need  is  most  urgent,  I  am  glad  to  add  that  His  Holiness  would 
see  with  satisfaction  all  the  Bishops  of  Austrian,  German,  and 
Russian  Poland  address  a  brotherly  invitation  to  all  Catholics  to 
nave  them  as  co-operators  and  imitators  of  the  Common  Father 
of  the  Faithful  in  his  prayers  and  in  his  offering  The  woes  of 
Poland  can  now  be  alleviated  only  by  the  universal  succor  of  the 
peoples,  and  the  Holy  Father  trusts  that  all  his  children,  respond- 
ing to  the  invitation  of  the  Polish  episcopate,  will  vie  with  one 
another  in  barkening  to  the  appeal  and  in  alleviating  by  their 
united  prayers  and  their  united  offerings  the  calamities  of  that 
noble  people.  And  in  this  hope  the  August  Pontiff,  Vicar  of  that 
merciful  God  who  has  been  pleased  to  count  as  done  to  Himself 
what  is  done  for  those  in  affliction  and  misery,  in  invoking  upon 
all  beloved  Poland  an  abundance  of  heavenly  comfort  and  of  fra- 


MOSSA    DAL    PIO    DESIDERIO  [341'342] 

ternal  charitable  offerings,  imparts  with  all  the  affection  of  his 
heart  a  special  Apostolic  Blessing  to  all  who,  by  their  prayers  and 
their  offerings,  show  themselves  as  merciful  benefactors.  .  .  . 

DECREE  Mossa  dal  Pio  Desiderio  OF  CARDINAL  GASPARRI,  SEC- 

Prayers  for  peace  shall  be  recited  during  the  May  De- 

April  9,  1915 

341.  His  Holiness,  Pope  Benedict  XV,  moved  by  the  pious 
desire  ever  the  more  to  increase  devotion  to  the  Most  Holy  Virgin, 
to  whom  is  consecrated  the  month  of  May,  and  animated  also  by 
the  comforting  confidence  that,  by  means  of  the  powerful  inter- 
cession of  the  Mother  of  God,  who  amongst  her  other  titles  is 
likewise  adorned  with  that  most  noble  title  of  Queen  of  Peace,  the 
end  of  the  present  most  distressing  war  can  be  secured  at  the  earliest 
possible  moment,  has  decreed  that  in  the  whole  Catholic  world  be 
recited  every  day,  during  the  sacred  May  Devotions,  the  prayer 
for  peace,  composed  by  His  Holiness  himself,  to  which  prayer  the 
Holy  Father  has  been  graciously  pleased  to  attach  an  indulgence  of 
300  days  to  be  gained  once  a  day,  and  a  plenary  indulgence  to  be 
gained  in  customary  form  of  the  Church  by  those  of  the  faithful 
who  for  not  less  than  20  days  will  have  taken  part  in  the  recital  of 
the  same  prayer. 


The  Holy  Father  has  tried  to  mitigate  the  disastrous 
consequences  of  the  war  without  distinctions  of  nation- 
ality, party  or  religion. 

April  23,  1915 

342.  You  know  what  a  painful  effect  the  heart  of  the  Holy  Father 
has  experienced  from  the  disasters  caused  by  the  terrible  war  which 
is  spreading  its  ruins  all  over  Europe,  nor  are  you  unaware  that 

60  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  p.  190  (April  17,  1915).    Original  Italian,  A.A.S., 

v.  7,  p.  193  (April  20,  1915). 

61  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  pp.  224-225  (May  8,  1915).  Original  French,  A.AS.r 

v.  7,  pp.  249-250  (May  21,  1915). 


[343-346]  BENEDICT    XV 

His  Holiness  has  made  every  effort  in  his  power  to  mitigate  its 
disastrous  consequences  without  considering  any  distinctions  of 
party,  nationality,  or  religion.  Still  it  is  natural  that  the  solicitude 
of  the  Father  of  all  the  faithful  be  exercised  especially  for  those 
of  his  children  who  show  most  warmly  their  respect  and  affection 
for  him. 

343.  Among  these,  particular  mention  is  due  to  the  children  of 
France,  the  children  of  that  nation  which  with  just  reason  came 
to  be  called  the  "Eldest  Daughter  of  the  Church"  which  has  ever 
given  splendid  proofs  of  its  generosity  towards  Catholic  works, 
and  especially  towards  the  Missions,  and  which  at  this  moment, 
and  for  months  past,  and  from  one  end  to  the  other  of  its  territory, 
in  the  army  as  well  as  in  the  ambulances,  in  the  hospitals  and  even 
in  the  smallest  villages,  presents  splendid  demonstrations  of  faith 
and  piety  that  greatly  console  the  Holy  Father. 

344.  Hence,  His  Holiness,  amid  all  the  great  evils  of  the  hour, 
has  with  good  reason  felt  himself  drawn  with  particular  sympathy 
towards  certain  portions  of  the  French  people  which  have  been 
tried  more  severely  than  the  others  by  the  scourge  of  war — so  much 
so  that,  notwithstanding  the  charitable  efforts  of  the  nation  and 
the  world,  they  are  in  great  need  of  material  and  moral  assistance. 
Most  deeply  touched  by  their  sufferings  the  Supreme  Pontiff,  while 
never  ceasing  to  offer  up  to  the  Most  High  his  prayers  and  suppli- 
cations to  obtain  the  termination  of  this  era  of  bloodshed,  fervently 
entreats  the  Divine  Bounty  to  grant  help  and  comfort  in  their 
sorrows  to  the  most  sorely  afflicted  portions  of  the  French  people. 

345.  To  these  hopes  and  prayers  the  Holy  Father  desires  to  add 
a  tangible  proof  of  the  affectionate  interest  he  takes  in  the  unfor- 
tunate people.    His  Holiness  has,  therefore,  charged  me  to  send 
Your  Eminence  by  this  letter,  that  it  may  be  used  for  their  relief, 
the  sum  of  forty  thousand  francs:  an  offering  small  indeed  when 
compared  with  the  extent  of  the  disasters,  but  one  which  will  at 
least  manifestly  show  the  fatherly  affection  which  the  Vicar  of 
Christ,  in  his  august  poverty,  rendered  more  acute  by  the  difficulties 
of  the  present  times,  wishes  to  testify  to  France,  his  dearly  beloved 

346.  And  as  we  have  learned  that  on  the  Sunday  and  Monday 
of  next  Pentecost  there  is  to  be  a  great  collection  organized  by  a 
committee,  which  has  been  constituted  with  your  concurrence,  on 


LETTER    TO    BISHOP     SCHULTE  [347-348] 

behalf  of  the  occupied  districts,  the  Holy  Father  hopes  his  own 
act  of  liberality  may  serve  as  a  prelude  to  the  generosity  of  all  the 
French  in  favor  of  an  initiative  so  Christian  and  so  patriotic.  The 
August  Pontiff,  happy  in  the  thought  that  he  will  thus  have  as 
co-operators  in  charity,  prayer  and  contributions  all  his  beloved  chil- 
dren of  France  united  under  the  guidance  of  their  venerated  Bishops, 
invokes  upon  them  with  all  his  heart  a  rich  reward  in  heaven.  .  .  . 


The  German  clergy  are  praised  for  treating  their  war 
prisoners  as  brothers  in  Jesus  Christ. 

April  29, 1915 

347.  Your  Excellency,  it  is  my  pleasure  to  answer  your  letter 
of  April  first,  in  which  you  informed  me  of  the  charitable  work 
accomplished  by  you  in  behalf  of  the  war  prisoners,  with  the  precious 
co-operation  of  your  clergy.   In  this  connection  you  informed  me 
thajt  numerous  persons  of  good  will  are  continually  working  in  the 
office  created  for  that  purpose,  devoting  themselves  with  an  admir- 
able spirit  of  self-sacrifice  to  the  task  of  bringing  relief  to  the  prison- 
ers and  their  families;  doing  this  all  the  more  cheerfully  because 
they  realize  that  they  are  carrying  on  the  beneficent  work  initiated 
by  the  Holy  Father,  and  all  the  more  commendably,  because  they 
are  succoring  enemies,  whom  true  evangelical  charity  makes  them 
regard  as  brothers  in  Jesus  Christ,  without  distinctions  of  nationality 
and  religion. 

348.  It  affords  me  great  pleasure,  Your  Excellency,  to  'assure 
you  once  more  that  His  Holiness  looks  with  the  highest  approval 
upon  your  intelligent  and  merciful  work.    Such  activity  finds  a 
worthy  parallel  in  the  eagerness  shown  by  the  other  reverend 
prelates  of  Germany  in  behalf  of  war  and  civilian  prisoners,  and  in 
particular  in  the  work  undertaken  for  the  relief  of  the  imprisoned 
French  clergymen  by  Cardinal  von  Hartmann,  work  for  which  he 
merited  the  solemn  praise  of  His  Holiness  in  the  letter  of  October 
eighteenth  of  the  past  year.63 

62  Original  Italian,  A.A.S.,  v.  7,  pp.  224-225  (May  6,  1915). 

63  See  supra  n,  278. 


[349-35°]  BENEDICT    XV 

349.  It  is,  therefore,  the  wish  of  the  Holy  Father  that  Your 
Excellency  and  all  those  who,  with  exquisite  sense  of  Christian 
charity,  are  striving  and  will  continue  to  strive  to  co-operate  with 
him,  receive  the  expression  of  his  sovereign  approval  and  praise. 
In  the  meanwhile,  to  encourage  even  more  their  holy  fervor,  he 
again  bestows   upon  you  and   all   your   associates,  the   Apostolic 
Blessing,  as  a  sign  of  particular  benevolence.  .  .  . 

LETTER  Communes  Litteras  TO  THE  BAVARIAN  Bisnops.04 

An  exhortation  to  the  faithful  of  Germany  to  be  instant 
in  prayer  for  peace. 

May  3, 1915 

350.  The  common  letter  which  you,  recently  assembled   to- 
gether, have  addressed  to  Us,  We  have  most  gladly  read,  both 
because  of  the  expression  of  your  dutifulness  and  affection,  which 
is  indeed  very  gratifying  to  Us,  and  because  of  the  hope  of  better 
things  which  it  announces  to  Us;  of  which,  as  you  write,  the  wide- 
spread revival  of  popular  piety  in  your  dioceses  also  affords  promise. 
May  it  indeed  come  to  pass  that,  with  God's  assistance,  even  "the 
calamities  of  this  frightful  war  may  co-operate  unto  good;  and  this, 
needless  to  say,  will  come  to  pass  the  more  fruitfully,  in  proportion 
as  your  charity  is  the  more  vigilant.   Meanwhile  you  have  acted 
very  wisely,  as,  in  obedience  to  Our  wishes,  you  have  exhorted  the 
faithful  of  your  dioceses,  to  be  instant  in  prayer  in  the  existing 
grievous  circumstances;  for,  as  you  know,  the  assiduous  supplica- 
tion of  the  just  man  availeth  much:  and  We  trust  that  it  will  come 
to  pass  that  God,  supplicated  by  common  prayer,  will  fulfill  the 
general  desires,  so  bestowing  the  desired  gifts  of  peace,  that  the 
nations  of  afflicted  Europe  may  as  long  as  possible  enjoy  its  pleni- 
tude. Meanwhile,  may  the  Apostolic  Benediction,  which  as  a  token 
of  Our  benevolence  We  very  lovingly  in  the  Lord  bestow  on  all  of 
you,  Our  Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brethren,  and  on  the  clergy 
and  people  committed  to  each  one  of  you,  be  a  harbinger  of  the 
divine  favors.  .  .  . 

64  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  17,  pp.  293-294  (June  19,  1915).  Original  Latin,  A.A.S., 
v.  7,  p.  259  (June  i,  1915). 




The  Pope  promises  that  the  Vatican  Library  will  donate 
its  duplicate  boo\s  and  its  own  publications  to  help 
rebuild  the  destroyed  Louvain  Library. 

May  8, 1915 

351.  The  Holy  Father  has  duly  received  the  letter  of  the  15 
April  last,  whereby  Your  Excellency,  as  member  of  the  General 
Council  of  the  University  of  Louvain,  solicits  the  support  of  the 
Holy  See  for  the  reconstruction  of  the  Library  of  the  University. 

352.  It  affords  me  pleasure  to  announce  to  you  that,  always 
deeply  interested  in  everything  that  concerns  the  well-being  of  his 
dear  children  of  Belgium  and  desiring  that  the  belligerents  in  the 
course  of  the  struggle  be  careful  to  safeguard  the  scientific  and  lit- 
erary treasures  of  every  people,  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  will  be  very 
happy  to  contribute,  by  every  means  in  his  power,  towards  the 
reconstruction  of  that  famous  Library  which  contained  such  precious 
literary  treasures,  of  the  greatest  advantage  to  the  intellectual  cul- 
ture and  civilization  of  Belgium  and  of  the  whole  world. 

353.  In  order  to  encourage  and  favor  from  now  onward  an 
enterprise  so  laudable,  His  Holiness  has  been  pleased  to  order  that 
there  be  destined  thereto  not  only  the  publications  of  the  Vatican 
Library  but  also  all  the  works  therein  disposable,  without  prejudice 
to  other  ways  in  which  the  Holy  Father,  who  has  it  so  much  at 
heart  to  follow  in  this  the  noble  traditions  of  his  Predecessors,  may 
be  able  later  on  to  assist  so  excellent  a  work,  and  thus  manifest  his 
zeal  for  the  increase  of  the  sciences  and  the  preservation  of  the 
literary  patrimony  of  humanity. 

354.  At  present  I  deem  it  opportune  to  advise  Your  Excellency 
that  you  will  at  once  receive  the  catalog  of  the  above  mentioned 
works,  and  that  they  will  be  forwarded  as  soon  as  circumstances 
permit.    .  .  . 

66  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  p.  56  (July  31,  1915).   Original  French,  L'Opera 
della  Santa  Sede,  p.  207. 


[355~356]  BENEDICT  XV 


Cardinal  reports  on  negotiations  with  the  Swiss  Gov- 
ernment to  give  hospital  care  to  the  wounded  of  the 
belligerent  powers. 

May  14,  1915 

355.  The  Sovereign  Pontiff,  Benedict  XV,  always  occupied  with 
lessening,  as  much  as  he  is  able,  the  sad  consequences  of  the  war, 
wishes  in  particular  to  lighten  the  burden  of  the  prisoners  of  war. 
Thus,  he  is  impressed  by  the  desire  expressed  by  the  French  Gov- 
ernment that  the  Helvetic  Republic,  already  so  renowned  for  her 
traditional  hospitality  and  for  the  important  part  which  she  has 
taken  in  the  exchange  of  invalid  prisoners,  receive  on  her   soil 
wounded  or  sick  prisoners  of  war. 

356.  To  this  end  the  Holy  Father  has  sent  a  trustworthy  person 
to  His  Excellency,  the  President  of  the  Swiss  Confederation,  who 
has  graciously  consented  to  this  humanitarian  endeavor,  informing 
the  Holy  See  that  the  Federal  Government  is  disposed  to  hospi- 
talize, at  a  definite  place  on  its  territory,  a  considerable  number  of 

06  Original  French,  U Opera  della  Santa  Sedc,  pp.  99-100.  Similar  documents,  not 
included  in  this  book,  concerning  me  hospitalization  of  sick  and  wounded  prison- 
ers are:  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  Cardinal  Amette,  April  3,  1915  (U Opera 
dclla  Santa  Scde,  p.  95).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Ambassador  of 
Austria-Hungary,  May  14,  1915  (op  cit.,  p.  96-97).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri 
to  the  Ministers  of  Belgium  and  England,  May  14,  1915  (op.  cit.,  pp.  98-99). 
Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Prussia,  June  7,  1915  (op.  cit., 
pp.  102-103).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Prussia,  June 
1 6,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p.  103).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of 
Prussia,  July  31,  1915  (op.  cit.f  pp.  105-106).  Telegram  of  Cardinal  Gasparri 
to  the  Minister  of  Prussia,  January  29,  1916  (op.  cit.,  pp.  106-107).  Tele- 
gram of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Bishop  of  Coira,  January  26,  1916  (op.  cit., 
p.  107).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  England,  July  21,  1916 
(op.  cit.,  p.  109),  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Russia,  January 
7,  1916  (op.  cit.,  p.  in).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister  of  Russia, 
February  14,  1916  (op.  cit.,  p.  112).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Minister 
of  Prussia,  June  7,  1916  (op.  cit.,  pp.  112-113).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to 
the  Charge  d'Affaires  of  Russia,  June  9,  1916  (op.  cit.,  pp.  113-114).  Letter  of 
Cardinal  Gasparri  to  Msgr.  Marchetd-Selvaggiani,  July  13,  1916  (op.  cit.,  p.  117). 
Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Charge  d'Affaires  of  Russia,  July  23,  1916 
(op.  cit.,  pp.  117-118).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  Cardinal  von  Hartmann, 
Archbishop  of  Cologne,  May  19,  1916  (op.  cit.,  pp.  118-119).  Letter  of  Cardinal 
Gasparri  to  Cardinal  Amette,  July  4,  1916  (op.  cit.t  p.  121),.  Letter  of  Cardi- 
nal Gasparri  to  the  Pro-Apostolic  Nuncio  in  Vienna,  July  8,  1916  (op.  cit., 
p.  122).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Charge  d'Affaires  of  Russia,  July  8, 
1916  (op.  cit.,  p.  123). 


LETTER    TO    CARDINAL    AMETTE        [357'359J 

Franco-Anglo-Belgian  wounded  or  sick  prisoners;  and,  at  another 
location,  an  equal  number  of  Austro-German  prisoners  who  are  in 
the  same  condition.  The  Swiss  Government  will  be  able  to  begin 
by  accepting  10,000  prisoners  from  each  side,  without  undue 

357.  The  major  lines  of  this  project  will  be  the  following: 

(1)  Each  Government  is  responsible  to  the  Swiss  Government 
for  the  amount  of  all  the  expenses  occasioned  by  the  prisoners  of 
its  nation. 

(2)  The  Swiss  Government  will  assume  the  responsibility  of 
guarding  the  prisoners  entrusted  to  her;  at  the  same  time,  France 
and  her  allies  on  the  one  hand,  Germany,  Austro-Hungary  and 
Turkey  on  the  other,  must  do  everything  in  their  powerf  in  the  case 
of  the  escape  of  one  of  their  prisoner-subjects,  to  return  him  to  the 
guard  of  the  Federal  Government. 

(3)  Those  men  who  have  recovered  will  be  sent  back  to  the 
Government  which  originally  interned  them  as  prisoners. 

(4)  They  will  successively  provide  for  the  replacement  of  the 
dead  and  of  those  men  who  have  recovered. 

As  to  the  other  phases  of  the  project,  they  will  be  determined 
by  the  Swiss,  in  agreement  with  the  various  belligerents. 

358.  Such  is  the  whole  of  the  project  which  I  have  the  honor 
of  communicating  to  Your  Eminence,  praying  you  to  acquaint  the 
French  Government  in  the  way  you  may  think  best  with  this 
knowledge,  in  order  that  we  may  know  how  the  latter  will  receive 
an  official  proposal  by  the  Holy  See  on  this  matter. 

359.  The  Russian,  Serbian,  Montenegrin  prisoners  held  in  Ger- 
many, in  Austria,  or  in  Turkey,  as  also  the  Austro-German  or 
Turkish  prisoners  held  in  Russia,  Serbia,  Montenegro,  not  being 
able  to  be  hospitalized  in  Switzerland,  will  be  the  object  of  later 
solicitude  on  the  part  of  the  Holy  See;  and  to  this  end  I  shall  not 
fail  to  enter  into  discussions  with  the  respective  Governments.  .  .  . 


[360]  -  BENEDICT    XV 

LETTER  Era  Nostro  Proposito  TO  CARDINAL  S.  VANNUTELLI, 

The  appeals  for  peace  go  unheeded;  now  Italy  enters 
the  war. 

May  25,  1915 

360 But  as  Our  words  cannot  be  addressed  to  all  the 

Sacred  College  together,  We  think  well  to  make  them  known  to 
you,  Lord  Cardinal,  with  the  intention  in  this  way  of  speaking  to 
the  individual  members  of  the  venerable  body  of  which  you  are 
the  worthy  Dean.  In  Our  first  Encyclical,  moved  by  the ,  supreme 
desire  to  see  ended  the  horrible  slaughter  which  is  dishonoring 
Europe,  W^  exhorted  the  Governments  of  the  belligerent  nations 
that,  considering  all  the  tears  and  all  the  blood  that  had  been  so 
far  shed,  they  should  make  haste  to  give  back  to  their  peoples  the 
life-giving  benefits  of  peace:  "We  beg  of  those  who  hold  in  their 
hands  the  destinies  of  peoples,"  We  said,  "to  give  heed  to  that 
voice.  If  their  rights  have  been  violated,  they  can  certainly  find 
other  ways  and  other  means  of  obtaining  a  remedy;  to  these,  lay- 
ing aside  the  weapons  of  war,  let  them  have  recourse  in  sincerity 
of  conscience,  and  good-will.  With  no  view  to  Our  own  self- 
interest  do  We  speak  thus,  but  in  charity  toward  them  and  toward 
all  nations.  Let  them  not  suffer  Our  voice  of  father  and  friend  to 
pass  away  unheeded."  But,  We  say  it  with  a  heart  broken  with 
sorrow,  the  voice  of  the  friend  and  the  father  was  not  listened  to;- 
the  war  continues  to  ensanguine  Europe,  and^  not  even  do  men 
recoil  from  means  of  attack,  on  land  and  on  sea,  contrary  to  the 
laws  of  humanity  and  to  international  law.  And,  as  if  that  were 
not  enough,  the  terrible  conflagration  has  extended  also  to  Our 
beloved  Italy,  giving  ground,  alas,  to  fear  for  her  also  that  sequel 
of  tears  and  disasters  which  is  wont  to  follow  every  war  even  when 
fortunate.  While  Our  heart  bleeds  at  the  sight  of  so  many  mis- 
fortunes, We  have  not  desisted  from  endeavoring  to  alleviate  and 
diminish,  as  far  as  is  possible  for  Us,  the  most  unhappy  conse- 
quences of  the  war.  We  give  thanks  to  God  for  having  crowned 
with  happy  success  the  efforts  We  have  made  to  obtain  from  the 
belligerent  nations  the  exchange  of  the  prisoners  of  war  unfit  for 

67  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  125,  p.  770  (June  12,  1915).    Original  Italian, 
A.A.S.,  v.  7,  pp.  253-255  (June  I,  1915)- 



further  military  service.  In  addition  to  that  We  have  recently  also 
exerted  Ourself  on  behalf  of  wounded  or  invalided  prisoners  of  war 
not  wholly  unfit  for  military  service,  in  order  to  render  their  lot 
less  grave  and  to  facilitate  their  cure.  But  the  needs  of  the  soul,  so 
much  superior  to  those  of  the  body,  have  above  all  engaged  Our 
fatherly  attention.  To  this  end  We  have  furnished  the  military 
chaplains  with  the  most  ample  faculties,  authorizing  them  to  avail 
themselves  for  the  celebration  of  Mass  and  for  the  assistance  of  the 
dying  of  privileges  which  can  be  conceded  only  in  the  most  ex- 
ceptional circumstances.  Those  faculties  and  these  privileges  We 
intend  to  be  used  not  only  by  the  priests  now  called  to  render 
service  as  chaplains  in  the  Italian  army  but  also  by  all  priests  who 
find  themselves  under  any  title  whatever  in  the  ranks  of  the  said 
army.  And  We  conjure  them  all  by  the  bowels  of  the  charity  of 
Jesus  Christ  to  show  themselves  worthy  of  so  holy  a  mission  and  to 
spare  no  care  and  no  labor  so  that  the  soldiers  may  not  be  lacking 
in  the  arduous  fight  of  the  unspeakable  comforts  of  religion.  Pain- 
ful is  the  hour,  and  terrible  is  the  moment  through  which  we  are 
passing;  but  sursum  cor  da.  More  frequent  and  more  fervent  be 
the  prayers  we  send  up  to  Him  in  whose  hands  are  the  destinies 
of  nations.  Let  us  all  turn  with  confidence  to  the  afflicted  and 
Immaculate  Heart  of  Mary,  the  most  gentle  Mother  of  Jesus  and 
our  Mother,  that  she,  by  her  powerful  intercession,  may  obtain  from 
her  Divine  Son  the  speedy  disappearance  of  the  scourge  of  war 
and  the  return  of  peace  and  tranquillity 


The  English  government  consents  to  treat  the  captured 
crews  of  submarines  just  li^e  other  war  prisoners* 

July  3,  1915 

361.  The  Holy  See  has  learned,  with  profound  satisfaction,  that 
the  Government  of  His  Britannic  Majesty  has  agreed  to  treat  the 
commanders  and  crews  of  German  submarines  like  other  prisoners 
of  war,  and  that,  therefore,  the  Imperial  German  Government  has 

68  Original  Italian,  Civiltct  Cattolica,  1918,  v.  2,  p.  307  (May  10,  1918). 


[362-364]  BENEDICT    XV 

consented,  for  its  part,  to  render  to  all  English  officer  prisoners  the 
treatment  which  they  formerly  received. 

362.  Since  the  rumored  method  of  treating  German  submarine 
prisoners  by  England  has  been  the  sole  motive  of  the  German 
Government  for  withdrawing  its  consent,  already  given  because  of 
the  intervention  of  the  Holy  See,  to  the  exchange  of  civilian  prison- 
ers who,  regardless  of  their  age,  are  incapable  of  military  service, 
the  Holy  See  now  hopes  that,  this  obstacle  having  been  removed, 
the  German  Government  will  consent  without  delay  to  carry  out 
the  aforementioned  exchange  of  civilian  prisoners. 


He  rejects  M.  Latapie's  interpretations  of  the  Holy 
Father's  views  on  the  war™  He  explains  precisely  the 
Pope's  ideas,  and  lists  a  number  of  pertinent  documents. 

July  6,  1915 

363.  I  have  not  failed  to  give  my  best  attention  to  the  memoran- 
dum which  Your  Excellency  handed  to  me  with  your  note  of 
June  30,  and  I  now  have  the  honor  of  communicating  to  you  the 
observations  which  it  has  suggested  to  me.    As  Your  Excellency 
is  fully  aware,  the  Holy  See  recognizes  no  authority  in  M.  Latapie's 
account.  As  I  have  already  declared  in  my  interview  with  the  rep- 
resentative of  the  Corriere  d'ltalia,  he  has  in  no  passage  of  his 
article  reproduced  exactly  the  real  views  of  the  Holy  Father;  in 
several  he  has  completely  misrepresented  them,  and  some  others 
are  pure  inventions.    If  the  Holy  Father  denies  all  value  to  M. 
Latapie's  narrative,  it  is  clear  that  this  rejection  applies  all  the  more 
strongly  to  what  he  may  have  said  since  upon  the  same  subject. 

364.  It  cannot  escape  Your  Excellency's  keen  penetration  that 
the  thought  of  the  Holy  Father  ought  to  be  looked  for  in  his  public 
and  official  acts,  and  not  in  publications  or  accounts  given  by 

69  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  126,  pp.  137-138  (July  31,  1915).  Original  French, 

Arnaud,  Benefit  XV  et  le  Conflit  Europeen,  v.  2,  pp.  210-215. 

70  M.  Latapic,  a  correspondent  of  the  French  newspaper,  Liberte,  published  on  June 

22  what  purported  to  be  an  interview  with  Benedict  XV.  M.  Latapie  actually 
interviewed  the  Holy  Father  but  his  newspaper  accounts  entirely  misrepresented 
the  Pope's  mind.  Cf.  Rope,  Benedict  XV,  the  Pope  of  Peace,  pp.  85-86. 


LETTER    TO    J.    VAN    DEN    HEUVEL      [365-368] 

individuals;  political  passion  often  causes  what  is  said  to  be  mis- 
understood, and  this,  passed  on  from  mouth  to  mouth,  ends  by 
taking  on  fantastic  proportions. 

365.  This  general  observation  should  of  itself  constitute  a  com- 
plete reply  to  the  reflections  contained  in  the  memorandum.   But 
out  of  my  special  regard  for  Your  Excellency,  I  have  no  difficulty 
in  discussing  in  detail  the  various  points  raised  in  it. 

366.  (I)    As  regards  the  neutrality  of  Belgium,  I  must  assure 
Your  Excellency  in  the  most  categorical  manner  that  the  Holy 
Father  did  not  give  M.  Latapie  the  reply  which  he  has  dared  to 
imagine  and  state  in  his  article. 

367.  The  truth  on  the  matter  is  as  follows: — 

The  German  Chancellor,  Herr  von  Bethmann-Hollweg,  openly 
declared  on  August  4,  1914,  in  Parliament,  that  in  invading  Belgian 
territory,  Germany  was  violating  the  neutrality  of  Belgium  con- 
trary to  international  law.  As  a  general  rule,  in  present  conflicts, 
one  party  brings  forward  an  accusation  which  the  other  denies; 
and  the  Holy  See,  not  being  able  to  throw  light  upon  it  by  an 
inquiry,  finds  it  impossible  to  pronounce  on  the  matter.  But,  in 
this  case,  the  German  Chancellor  himself  recognized  that  the  in- 
vasion of  Belgium  was  a  violation  of  neutrality  contrary  to  inter- 
national law,  though  he  pleaded  its  justification  by  military 
necessity.  Hence  the  invasion  of  Belgium  was  directly  included  in 
the  words  of  the  Allocution  in  the  Consistory  of  January  22,  by 
which  the  Pope  utterly  condemned  all  injustices  by  whichever  side 
and  with  whatever  motive  committed.  It  is  true  that  since  then 
Germany  has  published  certain  documents  of  the  Belgian  Head- 
quarters Staff,  by  which  she  seeks  to  show  that  Belgium  had,  before 
the  war,  failed  in  her  duty  as  a  neutral,  and  that,  consequently, 
her  neutrality  at  the  moment  of  invasion  Was  no  longer  in  existence. 
It  is  not  for  the  Holy  See  to  decide  this  historical  question,  and  its 
solution  is  not  necessary,  seeing  that  even  if  the  German  view  were 
admitted,  it  would  not  alter  the  fact  that  Germany,  on  the  Chan- 
cellor's own  admission,  invaded  Belgium  with  the  consciousness 
of  thereby  violating  her  neutrality,  and  so  of  committing  an  in- 
justice. This  is  sufficient  for  it  to  be  considered  that  such  action 
is  directly  included  in  the  Pope's  Allocution. 

368.  (II)    Concerning  Cardinal  Mercier,  M.  Latapie  puts  into 
the  mouth  of  the  Holy  Father  these  words:  — "I  shall  astonish 


you,  but  Cardinal  Mercier  was  never  put  under  arrest;  he  can  go 
about  his  diocese  as  he  desires."  Had  M.  Latapie  wished  to  be 
exact,  he  should  have  put  the  matter  somewhat  as  follows: — 

369.  Cardinal  Mercier  has ,  not,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  been  ar- 
rested in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word.   The  Holy  See  was  led  to 
understand  that  he  had,  and  accordingly  hastened  to  protest  by  an 
official  note  to  the  Prussian  Minister  on  January  10.  But  since  then 
it  has  learned  that  this  protest  could  not  be  sustained  as  to  an 
arrest  of  Cardinal  Mercier  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word. 

370.  Was  the  Cardinal  at  least  detained,  confined,  or  under 
guard  in  his  palace?    On  the  morning  of  January  4,  Herr  von 
Strempel,    aide-de-camp    of    the    Governor-General    of    Brussels, 
brought  Cardinal  Mercier  a  letter  from  him,  with  orders  to  wait 
for  a  reply.   Quite  rightly,  the  Cardinal  preferred  to  postpone  his 
reply  till  evening,  in  order  to  have  time  for  consideration.   Not- 
withstanding the  pressing  but  courteous  invitation  made  to  him  by 
the  Cardinal  to  leave  and  return  for  the  reply,  the  officer  remained 
on  the  ground  floor  of  the  archiepiscopal  palace,  and  kept  his 
motorcar  in  the  courtyard.  Towards  lunch-time  he  went  into  the 
town.  Then,  returning  in  the  afternoon,  he  took  the  letter  of  reply 
and  went  off.  That  is  more  or  less  what  happened.  If  it  be  wished 
to  call  that  detention  or  confinement,  the  Holy  See  has  no  objection 
to  make;  but  this  is  certain,  that  the  Holy  See,  on  being  informed 
of  what  had  occurred,  did  not  fail  to  make  its  observations  to  the 
Prussian  Minister. 

371.  It  is  undeniable  that  Cardinal  Mercier  has  not  always  been 
treated  with  the  respect  due  to  a  Prince  of  the  Church,  and  has 
not  always  been  allowed  the  liberty  to  which  he  had  a  right  for 
the  exercise  of  his  episcopal  ministry.   On  each  occasion,  the  Holy 
See,  which  is  the  jealous  guardian  of  the  honor  and  rights  of  the 
episcopate,  and  especially  of  the  Sacred  College,  has  been  instant 
in  drawing  the  attention  of  the  German  Government  to  the  matter, 
in  the  way  best  fitted  to  the  circumstances,  and  the  more  so  in  this 
case  of  a  Cardinal  so  learned  and  holy  as   the  Archbishop   of 

372.  In  this  connection  it  is  opportune  to  recall  that  on  the 
morning  of  January  3,  which  was  a  Sunday,  a  telegram  came  from 
the  Government,  requesting  Cardinal  Mercier  not  to  go  in  the 
afternoon  to  Antwerp,  where  he  was  to  preside  at  a  religious  ccre- 

LETTER    TO    J.    VAN    DEN    HEUVEL      [373-376] 

mony  in  the  cathedral.  His  Eminence  had  already  decided  not  to 
go  to  Antwerp,  but  quite  rightly  regarded  the  message  he  had  re- 
ceived as  an  invasion  of  the  liberty  of  his  pastoral  ministry.  To  the 
remonstrances  of  the  Holy  See,  the  Minister  of  Prussia  replied  that 
the  invitation  or  prohibition  was  grounded  on  reasons  of  public 
order  arising  out  of  the  special  circumstances  of  the  moment. 

373.  It  is  to  be  noted  that  if  all  the  Bishops  of  Belgium,  outside 
the  zone  of  war,  were  free  to  go  about  their  dioceses,  Cardinal 
Mercier  had,  on  account  of  his  high  dignity,  actually  obtained  a 
permit  for  that  purpose  even  outside  his  own  diocese,  except  in 
certain  places  designated  as  being  within  the  zone  of  military  opera- 
tions, and  for  which  all,  members  of  the  diplomatic  corps  included, 
must  have  a  special  permit.    This  permission  having  been  taken 
away  from  him,  the   Holy  See  expostulated  with   the   German 
Government,  which  immediately  restored  to  the  Cardinal  the  privi- 
lege to  go  about  freely  which  he  had  previously  enjoyed. 

374.  And  here  it-  will  not  be  irrelevant  to  recall  that  the  Holy 
See  has  interested  itself  actively  in  the  lot  of  the  suffragans  of  the 
Cardinal,  the  Bishops  of  Belgium.  Without  unduly  extending  the 
limits  of  this  explanation,  it  will  suffice  to  say  that  the  Apostolic 
Nunciature  protested  to  the  Governor-General  against  the  bad  treat- 
ment of  which  the  Bishops  of  Tournai  and  Namur  were  the  object. 
After  the  taking  of  Antwerp,  it  demanded  special  protection  both 
for  the  Cardinal  and  the  Bishops  of  Ghent  and  Bruges;  and  on 
several  occasions  the  personnel  of  the  Nunciature  went  to  different 
towns  to  visit  the  Bishops  and  see  if  they  stood  in  need  of  any- 
thing. These  visits  helped  to  gain  for  the  Bishop  of  Namur,  as  also 
for  the  Bishop  of  Liege  and  his  Vicars-General,  permission  to  go 
about  freely  in  their  dioceses,  to  gain  an  order  for  the  evacuation 
of  the  diocesan  seminary  of  Tournai  by  the  military  ambulance, 
and  to  obtain  other  important  advantages  which  for  the  sake  of 
brevity  we  refrain  from  enumerating. 

375.  (Ill)    Lastly,  as  regards  the  shooting  of  priests,  the  destruc- 
tion of  churches  and  of  buildings  devoted  to  learning,  and  the 
sufferings  of  the  Belgian  people,  the  Holy  See,  far  from  remaining 
indifferent,  has  not  only  deplored  such  acts,  but  what  is  much  more 
to  the  point,  has  employed  every  means  to  prevent  or  at  least 
mitigate  them. 

376.  Amongst  the  many  documents  and  acts  which  could  be 



quoted  to  prove  the  constant  solicitude  of  the  Holy  See  on  this 
matter,  I  will  only  here  mention  the  following: — 

(1)  A  Letter  of  the  Holy  Father  to  Cardinal  Mercier  of  Decem- 
ber 8,  1914,  in  which  the  Holy  Father,  lamenting  the  sad  condition 
of  the  Belgian  nation,  and  praising  their  intention  to  collect  Peter's 
Pence  as  usual,  allocates  the  money  so  obtained  for  the  needs  of 
these  unhappy  people. 

(2)  The  Consistorial  Allocution  of  January  22,  in  which  the 
Holy  Father  appealed  to  the  sentiments  of  humanity  of  those  who 

^invaded  enemies'  country  and  besought  them  to  abstain  from  need- 
less devastation  of  the  invaded  territory,  and  what  is  more  impor- 
tant, from  wounding  the  sentiments  of  the  people  in  what  they 
held  most  dear — their  sacred  temples,  the  ministers  of  God,  the 
rights  of  religion  and  faith. 

(3)  Another  Letter  of  the  Holy  Father  of  January  23,  1915,  to 
Cardinal  Mercier  (and  keenly  appreciated  by  and  very  pleasing 
to  him),  in  which  His  Holiness  expresses  to  him  his  lively  interest 
in  his  person,  and  his  grief  at  the  lack  of  respect  shown  to  him 
and  the  restrictions  placed  upon  his  liberty. 

(4)  A  Letter  of  His  Holiness  on  February  4,  1915,  to  Mgr. 
Thomas  Louis  Heylen,  Bishop  of  Namur,  in  which  the  August 
Pontiff,  affirming  his  paternal  good-will  for  his  beloved  Belgian 
children,  laments  the  misfortunes  with  which  they  are  afflicted. 

(5)  A  Letter  of  the  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  to  Cardinal 
Mercier  of  April  6,  1915,  in  which  he  transmits  an  offering  from 
the  Holy  Father  of  25,000  lire  for  the  relief  of  the  suffering  of  the 
Belgian  people,  and  invites  the  Catholics  of  the  whole  world  to 
follow  his  example.  This  invitation  the  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State 
specially  extended  to  the  United  States  in  his  congratulations  to 
Cardinal  Gibbons,  Archbishop  of  Baltimore,  on  having  accepted 
the  honorary  presidency  of  the  Belgian  Committee  there  formed, 
and  in  his  wishes  that  the  faithful  of  the  great  Republic  would 
contribute  generously  to  the  fund. 

(6)  A  Letter  of  the  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  of  May  8,  1915, 
to  the  General  Council  of  the  Catholic  University  of  Louvain  for 
the  reconstruction  of  the  University,  in  which  the  Holy  See  publicly 
expressed  its  desire  that  the  belligerents,  in  the  heat  of  strife,  would 
do  all  they  could  to  safeguard  the  literary  and  scientific  treasures 
of  the  nations. 

NOUS     AVONS    RE$U  [377"379] 

(7)  A  Letter  of  June  16,  1915,  in  which  the  Secretary  of  State 
conveys  the  blessing  of  the  Holy  Father  to  the  League  for  the 
Restoration  of  Worship  in  Belgium,  and  recommends  the  work 
to  the  Catholics  of  the  whole  world,  and  sends,  as  a  mark  of  His 
Holiness'  paternal  interest,  an  offering  of  10,000  lire. 

(8)  In  addition  to  all  this,  the  Holy  See  has  done  all  it  could, 
both  directly  and  through  the  Nunciatures  of  Brussels  and  Munich, 
to  exert  its  influence  on  behalf  of  religious,  priests,  and  people  of 

377.  For  truly,  the  faith  and  virtues  of  the  Belgian  clergy  and 
people  have  always  marked  them  for  the  paternal  affection  of  the 
Holy  Father,  who  has  keenly  felt  their  sorrows,  as  he  proclaimed 
in  his  Consistorial  Allocution  of  January  22.  And  the  August  Pontiff 
hopes,  as  he  told  Your  Excellency  when  you  presented  your  creden- 
tials on  March  17,  that  his  beloved  sons  of  Belgium  may  soon  be 
able  to  hail  the  bright  sun  of  peace  on  the  horizon  of  their  country. 
He  would  wish  not.  to  have  to  confine  himself  to  mere  prayers, 
but  for  the  moment  he  calls  upon  Belgians  not  to  doubt  the  good- 
will with  which  he  loves  to  surround  them.  .  .  . 


OF   PARIS.71 

His  Holiness  repudiates  the  Latapie  article. 
July  11,  1915 

378.  We  have  received  the  letter  you  addressed  to  Us  on  June  25 
on  the  subject  of  the  well-known  article  published  by  M.  Latapie 
in  the  Liberte.  As  you  know,  We  refuse  all  authority  to  the  inter- 
view. M.  Latapie  has,  in  his  article,  reproduced  neither  Our  thought 
nor  Our  words,  and  he  published  it  without  any  revision  or  author- 
ization on  Our  part,  despite  the  promise  he  made. 

379.  For  the  rest,  it  cannot  have  escaped  your  perspicacity  that 
Our  true  thought  must  be  derived  from  the  public  and  official  acts 
of  the  Holy  See,  and  not  from  individual  accounts  of  conversations 
with  Us.  Political  passion  or  individual  prejudices  often  put  a  gloss 
on  the  words  heard,  and,  passing  from  mouth  to  mouth,  these  take 
on  fantastic  proportions. 

71  Translation  from  Tfie  Tablet,  v.  126,  p.  116  (July  24,  1915)-    Original  French, 
Arnaud,  Bendit  XV,  et  Ic  Conflit  Europeen,  v.  2,  pp.  216-217. 


[380-383]  BENEDICT    XV 

380.  To  Our  declaration,  which  itself  constitutes  a  conclusive 
reply  to  your  letter  and  to  the  many  inaccurate  comments  which 
have  appeared,  especially  in  the  Press,  you  may  give  what  publicity 
you  think  fit. 

381.  In  order  the  better  to  enlighten  your  knowledge  on  the 
various  points  touched  upon  in  M.  Latapie's  letter,  We  have  given 
instructions  that  there  shall  be  sent  with  Our  letter  the  declaration 
made  by  Our  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  to  the  Corriere  d'ltalia, 
and  also  the  letters  addressed  by  the  Cardinal  Secretary  to  the 
British  Minister  and  Belgian  Minister  of  dates  July  i  and  6  re- 
spectively. .  .  . 

382.  With  the  certainty  that  this  expose  is  of  a  nature  further 
to  assure  Our  beloved  children  of  France  of  the  constant  solicitude 
of  Our  heart  in  their  regard,  and  in  the  hope  of  having  fully 
satisfied  your  desire,  We  grant,  with  all  Our  heart,  to  you  and  to 
the  faithful  Our  Apostolic  Benediction. 


ScOZZOLI    OF    RlMINI.72 

The  Pope  demands  respect  for  international  law. 
July  12,  1915 

383.  The  anxiety  which,  in  your  letter  of  the  30th  of  June,  Your 
Lordship,  as  a  watchful  and  loving  pastor,  expressed  on  behalf  of 
your  faithful  grievously  visited  or  threatened  by  the  horrors  of  the 
war,  is  not  only  shared  by  the  other  Bishops  of  the  Adriatic  coast 
who,  exposed  to  the  same  serious  dangers,  have  hastened  to  place 
their  troubles  before  the  Common  Father,  but  also  finds  a  pro- 
found echo  in  the  heart  of  the  August  Pontiff,  who  feels  even  more 
deeply  all  the  sadness  of  human  misfortunes.   From  the  very  be- 
ginning of  his  troubled  Pontificate  His  Holiness  has  had  no  other 
thought  than  to  arrest  the  terrible  conflict  raging  in  Europe  or  at 
least  to  mitigate  its  fearful  consequences,  and  no  sooner  did  he  see 
this  beloved  country  also  invaded  by  war  than  he  looked  with  loving 
anxiety  toward  those  of  his  children  nearest  to  him — anxiety  all 
the  keener  for  the  closeness  of  the  ties  which  unite  their  lot  with 

72 Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  p.  39  (July  24,  1915).    Original  Italian,  L'Opera 
della  Santa  Sede,  pp.  39-40. 


ALLORCHE    FUMMO  [384-385] 

that  of  the  Successors  of  St.  Peter  and  for  the  glory  of  the  monu- 
ments of  religion  and  art  built  on  that  privileged  soil.  So,  faithful 
to  his  mission  of  sovereign  charity,  and  deeply  moved  by  the  trials 
undergone  first  of  all  after  the  outbreak  of  hostilities  by  the  cities 
of  the  Adriatic  coast,  His  Holiness  did  not  delay  a  moment  to 
make  known  to  His  Majesty,  the  Apostolic  Emperor  and  King,  and 
to  the  Imperial  and  Royal  Government  of  Austria-Hungary  his 
keen  desire  that  the  present  unhappy  war  should  be  conducted 
in  conformity  with  international  laws  and  the  principles  of  human- 
ity, and  that  in  consequence  open  and  undefended  cities,  artistic 
monuments  and  sacred  temples  should  be  respected,  particularly 
the  Sanctuary  of  Loreto,  glory  and  guardian  of  the  Marches,  Italy 
and  the  world. 

384.  If  the  Holy  Father's  noble  wish  has  not  been  able  to  be 
carried  fully  into  effect  at  present,  will  Your  Lordship  please  be 
assured  that  the  charity  of  the  Vicar  of  Jesus  Christ  does  not  limit 
itself  to  one  step  only.  Indeed  I  am  in  a  position  to  assure  you  that 
in  the  future  it  will  never  cease,  in  the  firm  hope  that  the  desolat- 
ing cloud  which  hangs  over  the  heads  of  the  beloved  children  of 
those  dioceses  may  pass  away,  to  give  place  to  the  serene  atmosphere 
of  tranquil  life  and,  by  God's  will,  to  change  into  the  glory  of  peace. 
And  may  peace  be  hastened  by  the  prayers  and  penitence  of  the 
priests  and  faithful,  particularly  in  those  same  dioceses,  on  which 
His  Holiness  with  paternal  benevolence  invokes  every  celestial  com- 
fort, imparting  from  his  heart  the  Apostolic  Benediction. 




After  a  year  of  war  the  Pope  invites  the  warring  nations 
to  end  the  conflict  and  to  ma\e  a  just  peace. 

July  28,  1915 

385.  When  We,  though  all  unworthy,  were  called  to  succeed 
on  the  Apostolic  Throne  the  meek  Pius  X,  whose  life  of  holiness 
and  well-doing  was  cut  short  by  grief  at  the  fratricidal  struggle 
that  had  just  burst  forth  in  Europe,  We,  too,  on  turning  a  fearful 

73  Official  English  translation,  A.A.S.,  v.  7,  pp.  375-377-  Original  Italian,  A.A.S.,  v.  7, 
PP-  365-368  (July  31,  1915). 


[386-387]  BENEDICT    XV 

glance  on  the  blood-stained  battlefields,  felt  the  anguish  of  a  father, 
who  sees  his  homestead  devastated  and  in  ruins  before  the  fury 
of  the  hurricane.  And  thinking  with  unspeakable  regret  of  Our 
young  sons,  who  were  being  mown  down  by  death  in  thousands, 
We  opened  Our  heart,  enlarged  by  the  charity  of  Christ,  to  all  the 
crushing  sorrow  of  the  mothers,  and  of  the  wives  made  widows 
before  their  time,  and  to  all  the  inconsolable  laments  of  the  little 
ones,  too  early  bereft  ©f  a  father's  care.  Sharing  in  the  anxious 
fears  of  innumerable  families,  and  fully  conscious  of  the  imperative 
duties  imposed  upon  Us  by  the  sublime  mission  of  peace  and  of 
love,  entrusted  to  Our  care  in  days  of  so  much  sadness,  We  con- 
ceived at  once  the  firm  purpose  of  consecrating  all  Our  energy  and 
all  Our  power  to  the  reconciling  of  the  peoples  at  war:  indeed, 
We  made  it  a  solemn  promise  to  Our  Divine  Saviour,  Who  willed 
to  make  all  men  brothers  at  the  cost  of  His  Blood. 

386,  And  Our  first  words,  as  the  Chief  Shepherd  of  Souls, 
addressed  to  the  nations  and  their  rulers,  were  words  of  peace 
and  of  love.  But  Our  advice,  affectionate  and  insistent  as  that  of  a 
father  an4  a  friend,  remained  unheard.  Our  grief  was  aggravated, 
but  Our  purpose  was  unshaken;  We  turned,  therefore,  in  all  con- 
fidence to  the  Almighty,  Who  holds  in  His  Hands  the  minds  and 
hearts  of  subjects,  as  of  Kings,  begging  of  Him  the  cessation  of 
the  unprecedented  scourge.  We  wished  to  associate  all  the  faithful 
in  Our  fervent  and  humble  prayer,  and  to  make  it  the  more 
efficacious,  We  arranged  that  it  should  be  accompanied  by  works 
of  Christian  penance.  But  today,  on  the  anniversary  of  the  outbreak 
of  the  tremendous  conflict,  more  intense  is  the  desire  of  Our  heart 
for  the  speedy  conclusion  of  the  war;  still  louder  is  Our  fatherly 
cry  for  peace.  May  this  cry,  prevailing  over  the  dreadful  clash  of 
arms,  reach  unto  the  peoples  who  are  now  at  war,  and  unto  their 
rulers,  inclining  both  to  milder  and  more  serene  views. 

387.  In  the  holy  name  of  God,  in  the  name  of  our  heavenly 
Father  and  Lord,  by  the  Blessed  Blood  of  Jesus,  Price  of  man's 
redemption,  We  conjure  you,  whom  Divine  Providence  has  placed 
over  the  nations  at  war,  to  put  an  end  at  last  to  this  horrible 
slaughter,  which  for  a  whole  year  has  dishonored  Europe.  It  is  the 
blood  of  brothers  that  is  being  poured  out  on  land  and  sea.   The 
most  beautiful  regions  of  Europe,  this  garden  of  the  world,  are  sown 
with  corpses  and  with  ruin:  there,  where  but  a  short  time  ago 


ALLORCHE    FUMMO  [388-391] 

flourished  the  industry  of  manufactures  and  the  fruitful  labor  of 
the  fields,  now  thunders  fearfully  the  cannon,  and  in  its  destructive 
fury  it  spares  neither  village  nor  city,  but  spreads  everywhere  havoc 
and  death.  You  bear  before  God  and  man  the  tremendous  respon- 
sibility of  peace  and  war;  give  ear  to  Our  prayer,  to  the  fatherly 
voice  of  the  Vicar  of  the  Eternal  and  Supreme  Judge,  to  Whom 
you  must  render  an  account  as  well  of  your  public  undertakings, 
as  of  your  own  individual  deeds. 

388.  The  abounding  wealth,  with  which  God,  the  Creator,  has 
enriched  the  lands  that  are  subject  to  you,  allow  you  to  go  on 
with  the  struggle;  but  at  what  cost?   Let  the  thousands  of  young 
lives  quenched  every  day  on  the  fields  .of  battle  make  answer: 
answer,  the  ruins  of  so  many  towns  and  villages,  of  so  many  monu- 
ments raised  by  the  piety  and  genius  of  your  ancestors.   And  the 
bitter  tears  shed  in  the  secrecy  of  home,  or  at  the  foot  of  altars  where 
suppliants  beseech — do  not  these  also  repeat  that  the  price  of  the 
long  drawn-out  struggle  is  great — too  great? 

389.  Nor  let  it  be  said  that  the  immense  conflict  cannot  be 
settled  without  the  violence  of  war.   Lay  aside  your  mutual  pur- 
pose of  destruction;  remember  that  nations  do  not  die;  humbled 
and  oppressed,  they  chafe  under  the  yoke  imposed  upon  them, 
preparing  a  renewal  of  the  combat,  and  passing  down  from  gener- 
ation to  generation  a  mournful  heritage  of  hatred  and  revenge. 

390.  Why  not  from  this  moment  weigh  with  serene  mind  the 
rights  and  lawful  aspirations  of  the  peoples  ?  Why  not  initiate  with 
a  good  will  an  exchange  of  views,  directly  or  indirectly,  with  the 
object  of  holding  in  due  account,  within  the  limits  of  possibility, 
those  rights  and  aspirations,  and  thus  succeed  in  putting  an  end 
to  the  monstrous  struggle,  as  has  been  done  under  other  similar 
circumstances  ?   Blessed  be  he  who  will  first  raise  the  olive-branch, 
and  hold  out  his  right  hand  to  the  enemy  with  an  offer  of  reason- 
able terms  of  peace.  The  equilibrium  of  the  world,  and  the  pros- 
perity   and    assured    tranquillity    of   nations   rest   upon    mutual 
benevolence  and  respect  for  the  rights  and  the  dignity  of  others, 
much  more  than  upon  hosts  of  armed  men  and  the  ring  of 
formidable  fortresses. 

391.  This  is  the  cry  of  peace  which  breaks  forth  from  Our  heart 
with  added  vehemence  on  this  mournful  day;  and  We  invite  all, 
whosoever  are  the  friends  of  peace  the  world  over,  to  give  Us  a 


[392"393]  BENEDICT    XV 

helping  hand  in  order  to  hasten  the  termination  of  the  war,  which 
for  a  long  year  has  changed  Europe  into  one  vast  battlefield.  May 
the  merciful  Jesus,  through  the  intercession  of  His  Sorrowful 
Mother,  grant  that  at  last,  after  so  horrible  a  storm,  the  dawn  of 
peace  may  break,  placid  and  radiant,  an  image  of  His  own  Divine 
Countenance.  May  hymns  of  thanksgiving  soon  rise  to  the  Most 
High,  the  Giver  of  all  good  things,  for  the  accomplished  recon- 
ciliation of  the  States;  may  the  peoples,  bound  in  bonds  of  brotherly 
love,  return  to  the  peaceful  rivalry  of  studies,  of  arts,  of  industries, 
and,  with  the  empire  of  right  re-established,  may  they  resolve  from 
now  henceforth  to  entrust  the  settlement  of  their  differences,  not 
to  the  sword's  edge,  but  to  reasons  of  equity  and  justice,  pondered 
with  due  calm  and  deliberation.  This  will  be  their  most  splendid 
and  glorious  conquest! 

392.  In  loving  trust  that  the  tree  of  peace  may  soon  return  to 
rejoice  the  world  with  such  desirable  fruits,  We  impart  the  Apostolic 
Benediction  to  all  who  make  up  the  mystical  flock  confided  to  Us, 
and  also  for  those,  who  do  not  yet  belong  to  the  Church  of  Rome, 
We  pray  the  Lord  to  draw  them  close  to  Us  in  the  bonds  of  per- 
fect charity. 

LETTER  Au  Milieu  dc  Vos  Angoisses  TO  CARDINAL  LU§ON, 

The  Pope  prays  for  the  days  of  peace  when  the  de- 
stroyed city  of  Rheims  can  be  rebuilt. 

August  i,  1915 

393  .......  And  now,  dear  Son,  We  feel  the  need  of  remind- 

ing you  of  Our  desire  that  days  of  peace  and  happiness  will  not  be 
slow  in  rising  upon  your  dear  country,  and  in  particular  upon  your 
diocese  so  sorely  tried;  that  you  may  soon  have  the  consolation 
o£  seeing  your  ruins  rebuilt  and  prosperity  and  joy  reborn  in  the 
midst  of  your  beloved  people.  ... 

Ti  Original  French,  Actcs  de  Bcnoit  XV,  I,  p.  87. 

TESTEM    VESTRAE    IN    NOS  [394-39^] 

LETTER  Test  em  Vestrae  in  Nos  TO  THE  BISHOPS  OF  LoMBARDY.75 

The  Pope  purposes  to  continue  his  wor]^  for  peace. 

August  15,  1915 

394.  Testimony  of  your  homage  to  Us,  We  have  received  the 
letter,  which  you  addressed  to  Us  some  days  ago,  when  you  held 
the  annual  conference  at  Milan.   Therein  undoubtedly  you  recall 
things  that  are  sad;  but  amidst  such  a  clash  of  arms  and  so  many 
and  such  protracted  sorrows,  We  fully  understand  that  there  can 
scarcely  be  anyone  who  does  not  continually  ponder  these  things, 
who  does  not  in  daily  conversation  mention  these  things,  because 
of  which  life  has  been  for  a  long  time  past  lived  in  continual 
solicitude.  What  We  have  done  to  secure  peace  and  to  lessen  the 
calamities  of  the  war,  We  have  done  urged  by  the  charity  of  Christ; 
and  under  the  same  guidance  We  are  resolved  to  continue  what 
We  have  begun,  so  that  the  peoples  so  very  numerous,  having  had 
such  rich  experience  of  the  maternal  providence  of  the  Church, 
may,  again  recovering  their  senses,  love  its  protection  and  guidance 
exceedingly.  .  .  . 

LETTER  Officiosissimis  Utteris  TO  THE  Swiss  Bisnops.76 
The  Pope  suffers  with  the  afflicted  war  victims. 
August  17,  1915 

395.  .  .  .  With  the  afflicted  We  are  afflicted,  and  because  of 
them  We  are  oppressed  with  cares  and  wearied  with  labors  and 
immersed  in  anxious  solicitude  day  and  night.   Whatsoever  meas- 
ures charity  suggests  or  each  day  presents  for  restoring  peace  and 
for  diminishing  the  hardships  of  the  war,  these,  as  you  well  know, 
We  proceed  to  make  trial  of,  confiding  for  the  most  part  in  Him 
Who  ever  assists  good  designs. 

396.  More  than  once,  Venerable  Brethren,  and  not  indeed  un- 
willingly, have  We  turned  Our  thoughts,  amidst  so  great  a  clash 
of  arms,  to  the  Swiss  peoples,  and  with  you  We  have  clearly  per- 

75  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  pL  195  (October  16,  1915).   Original  Latin,  A.A.S., 

v.  7,  p.  458  (October  6,  1915). 

76  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  pp.  136-137  (September  18,  1915).   Original  Latin, 

A.A.S.,  v,  7,  p.  434  (September  4,  1915). 

[397-4°°]  BENEDICT    XV 

ceived  and  understood  how  much  they  owe,  in  regard  to  the  peace 
preserved,  to  the  Divine  benignity  in  the  first  instance,  and  also  to 
the  prudence  of  their  Swiss  rulers  .  .  .  We  acknowledge  how  highly 
rated  amongst  you  and  amongst  your  citizens  are  the  designs  and 
undertakings  of  Our  paternal  solicitude.  .  .  . 


Cardinal  Gasparri  sends  iofooo  francs  for  relief. 
August  17,  1915 

397.  I  have  the  honor  to  inform  Your  Excellency  that  the  Holy 
Father,  in  a  burning  desire  to  hasten  to  the  aid  of  as  many  as  feel 
the  consequences  of  this  frightful  war,  has  expressed  a  desire  to  be 
informed  about  the  present  situation  of  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Luxem- 
bourg, especially  in  the  matter  of  means  of  sustenance. 

398.  Having  learned  to  his  sorrow  how  Luxembourg,  if  pos- 
sibly not  in  the  same  proportions  as  the  other  unfortunate  countries 
involved  in  the  war,  suffered  its  disastrous  consequences,  he  has 
decided  to  turn  to  it  his  paternal  and  solicitous  concern,  and  to 
help  its  wretched  condition  as  much  as  it  is  within  his  power. 

399.  Indeed  while  he  hoped  and  unceasingly  hopes  for  the  end 
of  this  most  sorrowful  misfortune,  and  while  he  raises  to  the  Most 
High  fervent  prayers  of  hope,  His  Holiness  has  deigned  to  grant 
to  Luxembourg,  as  a  proof  of  his  fatherly  and  special  interest,  the 
sum  of  ten  thousand  francs,  and  he  has  commissioned  me  to  send 
it  to  Your  Excellency,  as  the  authority  best  fitted,  in  the  present 
circumstances  of  the  country,  to  receive  the  aforesaid  assistance  and 
to  distribute  it  with  a  real  knowledge  of  the  needs. 

400.  Such  an  offering  is  certainly  not  proportioned  to  the  needs 
of  that  country,  yet  I  am  sure  that  Your  Excellency  will  fittingly 
appreciate  it,  after  considering  the  exceptional  restrictions  under 
which  the  Holy  See  labors  because  of  the  distressing  consequences 
of  the  war.  .  .  . 

77  Original  Italian,  L'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  pp.  212-213.  Other  documents,  not  in- 
cluded in  this  book,  concerning  relief  work  in  Luxembourg,  are:  Letter  of  Cardinal 
Gasparri  to  the  Apostolic  Nuncio  in  Belgium,  January  28,  1915  (L'Opera  della 
Santa  Sede,  pp.  209-210).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Apostolic  Nuncio  in 
Belgium,  August  17,  1915  (0p.  cit.,  p.  212). 




Cardinal  Gasparri  expresses  the  Holy  Father's  desire 
that  all  war  prisoners  should  rest  on  Sundays. 

August  23,  1915 

401.  In  his  persevering  solicitude  to  procure  all  possible  allevia- 
tion of  the  lot  of  war  prisoners,  the  Holy  Father  is  concerned  over 
information  to  the  effect  that  they  are  forced  to  labor  the  entire 
week  without  any  day  of  rest.  Hence,  he  has  thought  it  opportune 
to  address  an  ardent  appeal  to  the  Governments  of  the  belligerent 
nations  so  that,  inspired  with  sentiments  of  religion  and  humanity, 
they  may  agree  in  establishing  in  all  places,  without  exception, 
wherever  prisoners  are  to  be  found,  the  absolute  observance  of 
the  Sunday  rest. 

402.  In  conformity  with  the  instructions  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff, 
the  undersigned  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  makes  known  this 
desire   of  His  Holiness  to  Your   Excellency,   and   appeals   most 
urgently  to  your  noble  and  intelligent  assistance,  in  order  to  obtain 
from  your  Government  ...  the  desired  agreement  to  the  proposi- 
tion formulated  above.  .  .  . 



The  faithful  loo^  to  the  Holy  See  as  the  first  source 
of  peace. 

August  30,  1915 

403.  Writing  to  Us,  who  bewail  the  bitter  lamentations  and 
tears  both  of  those  who  are  dying  in  the  war  and  of  those  who 

78  Original  French,  U  Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  124.  Similar  documents,  not  included 

in  this  book,  concerning  Sunday  rest  for  war  prisoners,  are:  Letter  of  Cardinal 
Gasparri  to  the  Apostolic  Delegate  in  Constantinople,  August  23,  1915  (U Opera 
della  Santa  Sede,  pp.  124-125).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Cardinal  Arch- 
bishop of  Paris,  September  24,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p.  127).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri 
to  the  Ministers  of  Belgium,  England  and  Russia  and  to  the  Delegate  of  Serbia, 
October  28,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p.  132).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the  Apostolic 
Nuncio  in  Vienna,  October  29,  1915  (op.  cit.,  pp.  132-133).  Letter  of  Cardinal 
Gasparri  to  the  Apostolic  Nuncio  in  Bavaria,  October  29,  1915  (op.  cit.,  p.  133). 

79  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  p.  195  (October  23,  1915).   Original  Latin,  A*A.S., 

v.  7,  p.  459  (October  6,  1915). 


[404]  BENEDICT    XV 

mourn  their  loss,  these  things  which  you  recall  linger  in  the  mind: 
and  for  that  reason  We  have  even  very  recently  sought  to  recom- 
mend to  and  urge  upon  kings  and  peoples  alike  peace,  the  work 
of  justice.  You  indeed  add.  Our  Beloved  Son,  that  these  offices  of 
paternal  charity  have  so  stimulated  for  you  and  yours  the  desire 
of  peace  that,  with  expectant  minds,  you  look  to  this  Apostolic  See 
as  to  the  Orient  from  which  the  first  light  of  the  so  long  looked 
for  peace  shall  at  length  shine  upon  the  peoples:  God  grant  that, 
as  wished  for,  this  may  happen  as  speedily  as  possible!  As  mean- 
while Our  every  hope  is  in  God,  We  have,  as  you  well  know, 
exhorted  the  faithful  to  confident  and  humble  prayer  to  Him,  to 
admonish  them,  in  the  first  place,  that  the  best  recommendation 
of  those  who  pray  is  found  in  virtues  and  example  in  keeping  with 
the  Christian  profession.  ... 



Catholics  are   exhorted  to   devote  themselves   to   the 
restoration  of  peace. 

September  6,  1915 

404 Amidst  the  billows  which  buffet  the  nations,  by 

whose  tempestuous  fury  We  behold  the  most  flourishing  States  of 
Europe  thrown  into  disorder  and  almost  rent  asunder,  you  easily 
understand,  Our  Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brother,  Our  state 
of  mind  owing  to  the  daily  slaughter  of  so  many  men  and  the 
calamities  of  so  many  peoples.  The  graver  these  things  become 
with  the  lapse  of  time,  We  also  note,  the  more  ardent  the  desire 
for  peace  becomes  amongst  all.  But  We  should  very  much  wish 
that  all  these  desires  should  amongst  all  pursue  that  royal  road 
which,  in  charity,  patient  and  benign,  lies  open  to  peace;  from 
this  road  would  they  indeed  wander  far,  who  would  deem  it 
allowable  for  them  by  word  or  writing  so  to  find  fault  with  the 
Catholics  of  another  nation  that,  provoking  one  another,  as  the 
Apostle  says,  envying  one  another,  they  would  add  new  fuel  to  those 
feelings  of  wrath  whose  flames  they  are  bound  to  extinguish  with 

80 Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  p.  196  (October  23,  1915).   Original  Latin,  A.A.S., 
v.  7,  pp.  460-461  (October  6,  1915). 


DI    ALTISSIMO    PREGIO  [4°5"4°7] 

kindness  o£  judgment  and  gentleness  of  mind.  Wherefore,  whilst 
with  all  longing  We  desire  peace— and  a  peace  indeed  such  as  is 
needed  by  justice  and  is  consonant  with  the  dignity  of  the  peoples — 
We  exhort  Catholics,  doing  nothing  through  a  spirit  of  contention, 
to  devote  themselves  severally,  with  Christian  brotherly  love,  to 
the  restoration  of  peace.  .  .  . 

LETTER  Di  Altissimo  Pregio  TO  FATHER  BECCI,  O.P.,  DIRECTOR 

There  is  need  of  insistent  and  incessant  prayer  for  peace. 
September  18,  1915 

405.  From  Our  earliest  years  We  have  ever  held  in  highest 
honor,  as  bringing  happiness  and  holiness  to  individuals,  to  families, 
to  society,  the  mystic  Crown  which  the  Christian  people  with  in- 
spired words  of  veneration  and  affection  places  every  day  on  the 
royal  head  of  the  Mother  of  God.  And  now  that  through  Divine 
Providence  We  have  been  raised  to  the  Apostolic  throne  from 
which  height  there  is  a  wider  view  of  human  needs,  while  their 
remedy  is  seen  more  clearly,  We  realize  more  keenly  the  need  of 
Christian  prayers,  and  We  see  that  among  all,  that  of  the  Rosary 
is  more  than  ever  necessary,  for  not  only  is  it  turned  to  her 
through  whom  it  pleased  God  that  all  grace  should  come  to  us, 
but  it  bears  the  impression,  more  than  any  other,  of  the  universal 
character  of  collective  and  domestic  prayer. 

•    406 The  sadness  of  the  grave  time  in  which  we  live, 

the  increasing  weakness  of  spirit,  the  need,  too  long  felt,  of  bring- 
ing back  to  the  convulsed  nations  the  blessings  of  the  peace  they 
have  banished — show  with  the  clearness  innate  in  the  teachings  of 
God  that  to-day  more  than  ever  there  is  need  of  insistent  and  inces- 
sant prayer  to  conjure  of  Divine  Compassion  that  we  may  be  given 
a  truce  in  the  terrible  course  of  avenging  justice. 

407.  After  such  an  outpouring  of  blood,  which  has  not  softened 
but  has  increased  hatred  among  brothers,  the  Month  of  the  Rosary 
comes  ardently  desired  and  propitious  for  humble  prayers  to  the 
Mother  of  Pity  and  Queen  of  Peace.  Therefore,  it  is  Our  desire 

81  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  126,  pp.  500-501   (October  16,  1915)-    Original 
Italian,  Cwiltfr  Cattolica,  1915,  v.  4,  pp.  239-240  (October  6,  1915)- 


[408-409]  BENEDICT    XV 

that  in  the  coming  month  of  October  in  every  sacred  .function  de- 
voted to  the  recital  of  the  Holy  Rosary  there  should  be  added  some 
special  prayer  for  peace.  So  let  all  those  pray  who  treasure  the 
devotion  of  the  Rosary.  Day  and  night  let  them  raise  their  arms 
to  heaven}  imploring  pardon,  brotherhood,  peace.  And  as  once 
when  their  leader  raised  his  arms  in  prayer  the  chosen  people 
conquered,  so  to-day  may  the  Father  of  the  faithful  conquer,  in  his 
unfailing  prayer  for  peace,  supported  by  the  arms  of  the  suppliant 
band  of  those  who  treasure  the  devotion  of  Mary. 

LETTER  Plane  Vidcmus  Te  TO  BISHOP  BERTRAM  OF  BRESLAu.82 
The  evils  of  war  must  not  diminish  the  ardor  of  charity. 
October  10,  1915 

408.  We  clearly  see  that  you  are  laboring  like  a  good  soldier 
of  Christ.  For  scarcely  a  year  having  elapsed  since  your  episcopate 
at  Breslau  began,  although  the  vicissitudes  of  the  time  which  are  so 
grave  make  in  the  highest  degree  a  call  upon  your  solicitude  and  your 
attention,  and  the  need  for  rendering  assistance  is  so  grave  and  so 
urgent,  you  think  of  convening  a  meeting  of  the  seniors  amongst 
your  clergy,  so  that  by  common  counsel  you  may  the  better  provide 
for  the  general  good  of  your  diocese.  This  zeal  of  yours,  Venerable 
Brother,  has  seemed  to  Us  to  promise  the  more  joyous  results  be- 
cause it  has  not  been  dissociated  from  a  wise  choice  of  the  matters 
to  be  dealt  with  at  the  meeting.  Indeed  you  seem  to  have  omitted 
nothing  which  the  times  demand  for  the  fruitful  government  of 
your  diocese:  nothing  which  might  contribute  to  strengthen  and 
defend  Catholic  discipline;  nothing  which  would  stimulate  the 
mind  to  the  daily  study  of  piety. 

409.  From  this,  then,  you  understand  with  what  glad  expec- 
tation and  how  heartily  We,  by  earnest  prayer,  as  you  say  that  you 
desire,  implore  the  assistance  of  heaven  for  your  designs  and  under- 
takings. And  since  you  also  beg  of  Us  to  foster,  by  paternal  exhor- 
tation, a  clear  understanding  and  a  persevering  will  in  those  who 
amongst  you  are  wholly  devoting  themselves  to  alleviating  and 
diminishing  the  calamities  of  the  war,  know  likewise  that  you  have 

**  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  p.  243    (November  20,  1915).    Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  7,  p.  475  (October  27,  1915). 


LETTER    TO    DUCHESS    OF    V  E  N  D  6  M  E  [410-4!!  ] 

easily  obtained  that  from  Us:  in  such  wise,  however,  that  instead 
of  exhortation  it  is  a  pleasure  for  Us  to  bestow  the  most  ample 
commendation  and  praise  on  the  same,  and  in  the  first  place  on 
the  clergy  and  on  the  religious  of  both  sexes.  For  We  prefer  to 
employ  these  rewards  and  encouragements  as  regards  those  who 
have  displayed  so  many  and  such  great  examples  of  Christian  charity 
as  you  yourself  mention  in  your  letter.  Owing  to  the  prolongation 
of  the  war  and  its  resulting  misfortunes  which  are  daily  becoming 
more  grave,  the  ardor  of  a  charity  so  abundant  and  so  active,  so 
far  from  decreasing  in  fervor  should  rather  become  more  and  more 
inflamed;  for  there  is  nothing  arduous  which  is  not  to  be  expected 
from  those  whose  love  of  country  is  fostered  by  the  hope  of 
an  enduring  reward  in  the  better  life.  May  the  Apostolic  Benedic- 
tion, which  very  lovingly  in  the  Lord  We  bestow  on  you,  Venerable 
Brother,  and  on  your  clergy  and  people,  be  a  pledge  of  the  divine 
favors  and  a  token  of  Our  benevolence.  .  .  . 


The  Pope  gives  30,000  francs  to  Belgium. 
October  31,  1915 

410.  In  the  letter  which  the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  Benedict  XV, 
deigned  to  address  to  Your  Royal  Highness  on  the  fourth  of  last 
September,  His  Holiness  informed  you  of  the  decision  which  the 
Bishops  of  Spain  had  taken  to  send  to  the  Holy  See  the  results  of 
collections  made  and  offerings  received  in  their  dioceses  in  favor 
of  the  belligerent  nations,  and  he  assured  you  at  the  same  time  that 
he  would  be  guided,  in  the  apportionment  of  these  offerings,  by 
his  paternal  love  for  Belgium. 

411.  Now  that  these  offerings  have  been  received  by  the  Holy 
See,  His  Holiness  has  charged  me  with  the  task  of  sending  you  the 
greater  part  of  these  offerings— 30,000  francs.   It  is  most  agreeable 
for  me  to  execute  this  august  mission  to  Your  Highness,  and  to 
be  able  to  renew  in  this  manner  the  testimony  of  the  special 
solicitude  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  for  Belgium,  so  sorely  tried  at 
present.  ...  '  * 

83  Original  French,  U Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  pp.  220-221. 

[412-413]  BENEDICT    XV 


Only  through  an  honest  exchange  of  ideas,  clearly  stated 
and  carefully  considered,  can  a  just  peace  be  made. 

December  6,  1915 

412 Immense  ruins  have  been  accumulating  for  full 

sixteen  months:  the  desire  for  peace  increases  in  every  heart  and 
families  innumerable  sigh  for  peace  with  tears.  We  Ourself  have 
used  every  means  that  could  in  any  way  hasten  peace  and  settle 
discords — nevertheless,  this  fatal  war  continues  still  by  land  and  sea, 
and  now,  too,  is  bringing  utter  ruin  on  poor  Armenia.  The  Letter 
which  We  directed  to  the  fighting  peoples  and  their  rulers  on  the 
anniversary  of  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  though  received  indeed 
with  reverence,  still  did  not  produce  the  happy  effects  which  were 
expected  of  it. 

413.  Vicar  on  earth  of  Him  Who  is  the  King  of  Peace  and 
Prince  of  Peace,  We  cannot  but  be  ever  more  deeply  moved  by  the 
misery  of  so  many  of  Our  children,  and  ever  lift  Our  arms  in 
supplication  to  the  God  of  Mercies,  praying  with  all  Our  heart  that 
He  may  deign  at  last  to  put  an  end  with  His  might  to  this  bloody 
conflict.  And  while  We  endeavor  to  alleviate  its  sad  consequences, 
as  far  as  lies  in  Our  power,  by  the  opportune  provisions  which  are 
well  known  to  you,  We  feel  Ourself  urged  by  Our  Apostolic 
Office  to  teaeh  once  again  the  one  and  only  mea^is  which  can  lead 
without  delay  to  the  extinction  of  the  awful  conflagration.  To  pre- 
pare the  way  for  peace,  the  peace  which  is  ardently  desired  by  all 
humanity,  a  peace  that  is  just,  lasting,  and  not  profitable  to  only 
one  of  the  fighting  parties,  the  way  which  can  truly  lead  to  a  happy 
result  is  that  which  has  already  been  tried  and  found  good  in  similar 
circumstances,  and  which  We  pointed  out  in  that  same  Letter:  that 
is  to  say,  that  in  an  exchange  of  ideas,  directly  or  indirectly,  there 
should  be  definitely  and  clearly  put  forward  and  duly  weighed,  with 
good-will  and  serene  conscience,  the  aspirations  of  each  one,  elim- 
inating all  that  is  unjust  and  impossible  and  taking  count  of  all 
that  is  just  and  possible,  with  any  arrangement  and  compensation 
that  may  be  needful.  Naturally,  as  is  the  case  in  all  human  con- 

84 Translation  from  Rome,  v.  18,  pp.  281-282  (December  n?  1915).   Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v,  7,  pp.  510-512  (December  9,  1915). 



troversies  which  are  settled  by  the  contending  parties  themselves, 
it  is  absolutely  necessary  that  on  one  side  and  the  other  of  the 
belligerents  there  should  be  concession  on  some  point  and  renun- 
ciation of  some  hoped  for  gain;  and  each  should  make  such  con- 
cessions willingly,  even  if  it  entail  some  sacrifice,  in  order  not  to 
assume  before  God  and  men  the  enormous  responsibility  of  the 
continuation  of  a  carnage  which  is  without  example,  and  which, 
if  prolonged  still  further,  might  well  be  for  Europe  the  beginning 
of  the  decadence  of  that  degree  of  civil  prosperity  to  which  the 
Christian  religion  had  raised  it. 

414.  These  are  the  feelings  in  Our  mind  regarding  the  war, 
considered  in  relation  to  the  peoples  who  find  themselves  unhappily 
embroiled  in  it.  If,  further,  we  consider  the  inconveniences  which 
the  European  conflict  has  brought  in  its  train  for  the  Catholic 
cause  and  the  Apostolic  See,  it  is  evident  to  all  how  serious  they 
are  and  how  harmful  to  the  dignity  of  the  Roman  Pontiff.  More 
than  once  already,  following  in  the  footsteps  of  Our  Predecessors, 
We  have  lamented  that  the  situation  of  the  Roman  Pontiff  was 
such  as  not  to  grant  him  the  use  of  that  full  liberty  which  is  abso- 
lutely necessary  to  him  for  the  government  of  the  Church.  But 
who  is  there  who  does  not  see  that  this  has  become  far  more  evident 
in  the  present  circumstances?  Certainly  those  who  are  governing 
Italy  have  not  lacked  the  good  intention  to  eliminate  the  incon- 
veniences, but  that  very  thing  shows  clearly  that  the  situation  of 
the  Roman  Pontiff  depends  on  the  civil  powers  and  that,  with  a 
change  of  men  and  circumstances,  it  also  can  be  changed  and  made 
more  difficult.  No  man  of  sense  can  affirm  that  a  situation  which 
is  so  uncertain  and  so  subject  to  the  will  of  others  is  indeed  that 
which  is  suitable  for  the  Apostolic  See.  Neither  was  it  possible, 
through  the  very  force  of  things,  to  prevent  the  occurrence  of  several 
inconveniences  of  evident  gravity.  Not  to  speak  of  others,  We 
limit  Ourself  to  calling  attention  to  the  fact  that  some  of  the 
Ambassadors  or  Ministers  accredited  to  Us  by  their  Sovereigns  were 
constrained  to  go  away  in  order  to  safeguard  their  personal  dignity 
and  the  prerogatives  of  their  office,  which  means*  for  the  Holy  See, 
the  curtailment  of  a  right  proper  and  native  to  it  and  the  weaken- 
ing of  a  necessary  guarantee,  as  well  as  the  deprivation  of  the  ordi- 
nary and  by  far  the  most  suitable  means  it  is  accustomed  to  use 
for  conducting  affairs  with  foreign  governments.  And  in  this  regard 


[415-4*6]  BENEDICT    XV 

We  have  to  point  out  with  regret  how  on  the  other  fighting  side 
it  has  even  been  possible  that  there  should  arise  the  suspicion  that 
We,  through  the  necessity  of  things,  in  conducting  affairs  which 
concern  peoples  at  war,  allow  Ourself  now  to  be  directed  and 
guided  only  by  the  suggestions  of  those  who  can  make  their  voices 
heard  by  Us.  And  what  can  be  said  of  the  increased  difficulty  of 
communications  between  Us  and  the  Catholic  world,  which  makes 
it  so  hard  for  Us  to  form  the  complete  and  exact  judgment  of  events 
which  indeed  would  be  so  useful  to  Us? 

415.  We  think,  Venerable  Brothers,  that  what  We  have  said 
up  to  now  will  suffice  to  show  you  how  Our  grief  grows  from  day 
to  day,  since  while  this  holocaust  of  men,  worthy  of  more  barbarous 
ages,  grows  fearfully,  at  the  same  time  the  situation  of  the  Apostolic 
See  becomes  worse.  We  are  certain  that,  as  you  share  in  the  cares 
and  anxieties  which  the  Apostolic  Office  lays  on  Us,  so  you  par- 
ticipate in  this  Our  double  affliction 

LETTER  Communem  Vestram  TO  THE  BISHOPS  OF  GALiciA.85 

He  comforts  them  in  the  trials  of  war. 
December  10,  1915 

416.  Your  common  letter  is  recommended  to  Us  by  that  ex- 
pression of  devotion  and  homage,  which  We  know  that  not  only 
the  bishops  of  Catholic  Poland,  but  the  clergy  and  people  also, 
have  been  exemplary  in  tendering.   But  do  not  think,  Venerable 
Brothers,  that  We  wish  to  yield  to  you  in  love.   For  an  old  and 
quite  singular  charity  toward  your  nation  resides  in  Our  heart; 
and  how  wonderfully  it  is  now  increased  even  by  those  manifold 
and  grave  calamities  whereby,  owing  to  this  war,  We  see  you  almost 
overwhelmed.  To  these  latter  We  have,  as  you  know,  turned  Our 
paternal  consideration,  grieving  for  one  thing  only,  that  Our  favors 
have  not  gone  as  far  as  have  gone  the  desires  of  a  heart  the  most 
loving.  Never,  however,  do  We  omit  to  pray  God  Who  is  rich  in 
mercy  so  to  be  present  with  you,  Venerable  Brethren,  and  with  all 
Poland,  as  to  temper  the  bitterness  of  these  days  and  to  fulfill  all 
your  lawful  desires.  .  .  . 

85  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  19,  p.  52  (January  29,  1916).   Original  Latin,  A.A.S,, 
v-  7>  PP.  591-592  (December  3i,-i9i5). 

ET    HORRIDA    DOLETIS  [417-418] 



The  Catholics  of  Hungary  promise  to  pray  for  peace. 
December  12,  1915 

417.  You  both  bewail  the  sorrows  of  this  war  and  carefully 
recall  what  We,  urged  by  the  charity  of  Christ,  have  done  to  lessen 
and  mitigate  its  calamities;  and  you  promise  every  day  to  recom- 
mend more  earnestly  to  God  by  devout  prayer  the  common  desires 
for  peace.   In  your  letter  and  courtesies  there  is  nothing  wanting 
of  those  things  which  the  devotion  of  the  most  loving  brothers 
could  desire;  and  these  We  both  accept  with  gratitude  and  with 
like  exchange  of  affection  repay,  bestowing  very  lovingly  in  the 
Lord  on  all  of  you,  Our  Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brothers,  and 
on  the  flocks,  over  whom  your  care  and  zeal  keep  guard,  the 
Apostolic  Benediction,  a  pledge  of  heavenly  gifts  and  a  testimony 
of  Our  benevolence. 



Prayer  is  the  only  hope  for  peace. 
December  24,  1915 

418.  It  is  only  too  true  that  a  cloud  of  sadness  darkens,  this 
year,  the  happy  celebration  of  the  Nativity;  and  you.  Lord  Cardinal, 
expressing  in  the  name  of  the  Sacred  College  the  thoughts  inspired 
by  this  joyous  anniversary,  have  not  been  able  to  suppress  in  your 
words  the  note  of  the  general  mourning.  We  are  confronted  to-day 
again  with  the  savage  spectacle  of  human  slaughter;  and  if,  last 
year,  We  deplored  the  extent,  the  ferocity,  and  all  the  results  of 
this  tremendous  conflict,  We  must  to-day  mourn  over  the  wider 
spread,  the  greater  pertinacity,  the  excess,  which,  with  their  terrible 
consequences,  have  turned  the  world  to  an  ossuary  and  a  hospital, 

86  Translation  from  Rome,  v,  19,  p.  64  (February  5,  1916).   Original  Latin,  A.A.S., 

v.  7,  P-  593  (December  31,  1915). 

87  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  Y.  127,  pp.  6-7  (January  i,  1916).   Original  Italian, 

Civilta  Cattolica,  1916,  v.  i,  pp.  212-214  (January  8,  1916). 


[4I9-422]  BENEDICT    XV 

and  the  progress  of  human  civilization  to  an  anti-Christian  retro- 

419.  All  this  notwithstanding,  you,  Lord  Cardinal,  raising  your 
eyes  to  the  higher  regions  of  faith,  have  found  in  this  festivity  a 
motive  of  good  wishes  for  Our  person,  of  consolation  for  the 
afflicted,  of  hope  for  the  future  of  mankind.    Grateful  for  your 
homage,  thankful  for  the  noble  expression  of  your  good  will,  We 
join  earnestly  and  with  fatherly  accord  in  the  aspirations  of  the 
Sacred  College  toward  a  time  to  come  that  shall  prove  less  fatal 
for  the  Pontiff,  for  the  Church,  for  civilization.   And  We  accept 
the  expression  of  that  hope  all  the  more  joyfully  in  that  We  read 
therein  not  only  a  comforting  increase  of  filial  affection,  but  also 
the  need  of  more  intense  and  urgent  prayer  and  supplication,  up- 
raised in  the  midst  of  tumult  by  the  whole  Sacred  College — keenly 
aware  of  the  extremity  of  our  common  need — to  Him  Who  alone 
is  able  to  quell  the  tempest.  These  prayers,  We  declare  to  you  with 
full  sincerity,  give  Us  more  comfort  than  any  other  testimony  of 
your  devotion. 

420.  And  oh!  how  many  times  in  the  months  past  of  Our 
Pontificate,  months  made  so  weary  by  the  long  delay  of  any  sign 
of  cessation  in  this  human  conflict,  has  Our  heart  sought  refuge 
in  prayer  as  in  the  only  hope  of  safety!  If  God  does  not  give  succor, 
what  is  there  that  We  can  do?   In  truth,  there  is  nothing. 

421.  Called  to  the  government  of  the  Church  in  the  most  ter- 
rible days  in  all  history,  We  fondly  hoped  that  the  love  of  the 
father  might  not  prove  altogether  unfruitful  for  his  unhappy  sons. 
But  ohl  vain  hope!    During  all  the  sixteen  months  of  this  effort 
of  Our  love  We  have  seen  it  to  be  almost  entirely  sterile.  That  voice 
of  Ours,  obedient  to  the  precept,  Clama,  ne  cesses,  We  intended 
should  never  hold  its  peace  until  it  should  find  an  echo  in  softened 
human  hearts;  but  too  often  has  it  fallen  into  vacancy,  a  voice 
clatnantis  in  deserto.  And  what  of  that  good,  of  those  ideals,  which 
We  loved  to  think  We  might  be  the  means  of  furthering  in  the 
civil  and  the  religious  commonwealth?  Far  otherwise!  Every  wish, 
every  hope,  every  project  has  been  shattered.  Indeed  here  also  We 
have  been  compelled  to  confess  Ourself  powerless. 

422.  Yet  Our  faith  is  all  unshaken.  Hearkening  to  those  divine 
words  whereby  in  like  straits  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  showed  His 
followers  that  way  in  which  now  more  than  ever  we,  too,  need  to 


E    PUR    TROPPO    VERO  [423-425] 

be  guided,  We  cherish  at  heart,  as  the  Apostle  of  the  Gentiles 
cherished  it,  one  great  hope  against  all  human  hope.  In  spem  contra 
spem,  and  in  God,  in  God  alone,  do  We  put  Our  whole  trust,  in- 
vincibly sustained  by  the  omnipotent  promise  contained  in  that 
serene  reproof,  Modicae  fidei,  quart  dubitasti?  He,  let  us  be  certain, 
will  glorify  His  Name,  saving  us  ex  hac  hora,  even  if  for  a  time 
He  reply,  as  the  heavens  replied  to  the  words  of  Jesus,  with  light- 
nings and  thunder,  and  if  for  a  time  He  repeat,  Nunc  judicium 
est  mundi. 

423.  This  faith,  alive  in  Our  heart  every  day  of  the  year,  is 
stronger  and  more  certain  when  a  dear  anniversary  brings  vividly 
to  Our  thoughts  the  reassuring  sight  of  that  which  took  place  in 
the  cave  of  Bethlehem.   For  Us  it  is  not  a  vain  record,  an  empty 
recollection,  but  a  real  and  true  renewal  of  the  ineffable  Mystery, 
and  thus  a  source  of  hope  infallible;  for  here  is  a  return  of  that 
date  when — even  the  barbaric  pagan  world  being  at  peace — the 
King  of  Peace  Himself  came  among  men  in  the  most  peaceful  of 
all  forms.  Oh,  with  what  good  cause  may  We  now  rehearse,  even 
in  the  distraction  of  the  present  hour,  the  words  of  Pope  St.  Leo, 
Neque  enim  fas  est  locum  esse  tristitiae  ubi  natalis  est  vitae! 

424.  The  sight  of  Christ,  born  for  us,  is  made  complete,  more- 
over, by  the  sight  of  Mary,  in  whom  the  faith  of  believers  and  the 
love  of  sons  recognize,  not  only   Mediatrix  of  Peace,  but  also 
Mediatrix  between  rebellious  man  and  merciful  God.   She  is  the 
aurora  pads  rutilans  across  the  darkness  of  this  world.   She  fails 
not  in  her  plea  to  her  Son,  albeit  nondum  venerit  hora  ejus.  And 
she  who  has  not  failed  to  plead  for  suffering  mankind  in  the  hour 
of  peril  will  surely  hasten  to  meet  our  supplications,  Mother  of  so 
many  orphans,  Advocate  for  us  all  in  our  tremendous  ruin. 

425.  Therefore,  with  this  great  purpose,  not  less  than  with  the 
intention  of  guiding  Christian  thought  and  Christian  faith  to  the 
prevailing  ministry  of,  the  Mother  of  God,  We,  echoing  the  sigh  of 
many  of  Our  children  far  and  near,  permit  that  to  the  Litany 
of  Loreto  be  added  the  invocation,  "Queen  of  Peace."   Will  Mary, 
who  is  queen  not  of  wars  and  slaughter,  but  of  the  kingdom  of 
peace,  disappoint  the  trust  and  the  prayers  of  her  faithful  children? 
Will  she,  in  the  most  blessed  night  when,  fulfilling  prophecies  'and 
promises  of  happy  and  golden  days,  she  gave  us  the  Celestial  Babe 
who  is  the  Author  o£  all  peace,  not  smile  upon  the  prayers  of  chil- 

[426-428]  BENEDICT    XV 

dren  called  by  the  episcopate  and  by  Ourself  to  the  holy  Eucharistic 
Table  to  honor  this  most  beloved  festival  ?  When  man  has  hardened 
his  own  heart,  and  his  hates  have  overrun  the  earth;  when  fire  and 
sword  are  raging,  and  when  the  world  rings  with  the  sound  of 
weeping  and  the  noise  of  arms;  when  human  reason  is  found  at 
fault,  and  all  civilized  rights  are  scattered  like  thistledown,  faith 
and  history  alike  point  us  to  the  one  succor,  to  the  omnipotence 
of  prayer,  to  the  Mediatrix,  to  Mary.  In  all  security  and  trust  we 
cry,  Regina  pads,  or  a  pro  no  bis. 

426.  It  is  this  confidence  that  inspires  Us  in  returning  the  mes- 
sage of  the  Sacred  College  and  in  wishing  you,  Lord  Cardinal,  and 
all  your  eminent  colleagues  a  speedy  and  an  ample  possession  of 
the  fruits  of  that  peace  which  We  hope  to  obtain  through  the  inter- 
cession of  the  Virgin.  Oh,  may  this  blessed  Jesus,  Who  at  the  prayer 
of  His  Mother  did  the  first  of  His  miracles,  accept  to-day  once 
more  the  intercession  of  the  heavenly  Mediatrix,  and  comfort  His 
Christian  family  with  that  abundance  of  graces,  a  pledge  whereof 
We  desire  to  give  by  this  Apostolic  Benediction.  We  here  bestow 
it  with  fatherly  affection  upon  the  Sacred  College,  upon  the  bishops 
and  prelates  here  present,  and  upon  all,  clergy  and  laity,  who  have 
proved  to  Us  that  dear  sons  are  not  far  in  heart  from  the  father  in 
the  hour  of  mourning  and  of  grief. 

MINISTER  OF  RussiA.88 

Cardinal  Gasparri  sends  money  to  be  distributed  to 
the  German  prisoners  in  Russia. 

December  25,  1915 

427.  At  the  invitation  of  and  following  upon  the  appeal  of  the 
German  Bishops,  collections  have  been  made  in  all  their  dioceses 
in  behalf  of  the  prisoners  who  are  interned  there. 

428.  Certainly  in  these  offerings  the  German  Catholics  have 
not  been  able  to  forget  their  fellow  countrymen  who  are  captives 

88  Original  French,  UOpera  delta  Santa  Sede,  p.  225.  Similar  documents,  not  included 
in  this  book,  concerning  relief  for  Germany,  are:  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  the 
Apostolic  Nuncio  in  Bavaria,  July  21,  1915  (L 'Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  216). 
Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  Bishop  Bludau  of  Warmia,  September  u,  1915 
(op.  cit,,  pp.  218-219).  Letter  of  Cardinal  Gasparri  to  Bishop  Cieplak  of  Mohilew, 
December  21,  1915  (op.  cit.,  pp.  224-225). 


LETTER    TO    BISHOP    ORTYNSKY        [429-432] 


in  Russia.  And  so  I  have  the  honor  and  the  pleasure  of  sending 
to  Your  Excellency  the  enclosed  sum  of  28,800  Italian  lire  destined 
for  the  relief  of  all  German  prisoners  who  are  interned  in  Russia, 
without  distinction  of  religion. 

429.  Begging  Your  Excellency   to   see,   with  your  customary 
kindness,  that  the  aforesaid  sum  reaches  His  Lordship,  John  Baptist 
Cieplak,  Suffragan  Bishop  of  Mohilew,  together  with  my  letter 
which  accompanies  this  communication,  I  offer  you  my  anticipated 
thanks,  and  I  beg  Your  Excellency  to  accept  the  assurance  of  my 
highest  esteem. 


Cardinal  Gasparri  tells  of  papal  solicitude  for  the  suf- 
fering Ruthenian  Catholics. 

January  29,  1916 

430.  The  Holy  Father  has  received  from  His  Eminence,  Car- 
dinal Falconio,  the  letter  wherein  Your  Excellency  implored  the 
intervention  of  the  Holy  See  in  behalf  of  the  Ruthenians  so  harshly 
tried  by  the  war,  and  the  three  thousand  lire  which  Your  Excellency 
and  Your  faithful  have  offered  for  Peter's  Pence. 

431.  His  Holiness,  who  entertains  a  special  and  most  ardent 
affection  for  the  Ruthenian  Catholics,  has  vouchsafed  to  accept  with 
pleasure  the  aforesaid  offering.   He  has  shown  paternal  gratifica- 
tion with  the  zeal  with  which  Your  Excellency  and  the  faithful 
entrusted  to  your  care  undertook  the  collection  of  funds  necessary 
for  alleviating  the  miseries  and  the  sufferings  of  their  brethren  in 
Europe.   So,  in  order  to  console  Your  Excellency  and  your  flock 
and  in  order  that  your  flock  may  be  further  stimulated  in  its  chosen 
work  of  truly  fraternal  Christian  charity,  the  Holy  Father  has 
ordered  me  to  inform  Your  Excellency  that  the  Holy  See,  an- 
ticipating the  requests  now  submitted  to  her,  has  not  hesitated  to 
do  everything  in  her  power  to  come  to  the  aid  of  her  suffering 
Ruthenian  children. 

432.  In  fact,  through  the  agency  of  the  Cardinal  Apostolic  Pro- 

89  Original  Italian,  L'Opera  ddla  Santa  Sede,  p.  226. 


[433-435]  BENEDICT    XV 

Nuncio  of  Vienna,  she  has  already  distributed  ten  thousand  crowns 
in  behalf  of  those  Ruthenians  who  have  been  more  sharply  hit  by 
the  vicissitudes  of  the  war.  In  itself,  this  is  only  a  small  amount; 
but,  in  view  of  the  current  economic  conditions  and  of  the  countless 
staggering  necessities  which  she  has  to  take  care  of  especially  in 
the  present  circumstances,  the  sum  is  large. 

433.  The  Holy  See  did  not  fail  to  take  an  active  and  eager 
interest  in  the  lot  of  Msgr.  Szeptysky,  the  Greek-Ruthenian  Arch- 
bishop of  Leopolis.  She  interceded  for  him  repeatedly  and  sought 
in  vain  to  get  him  a  permit  to  go  to  Canada  to  exercise  his  ministry 
among  the  faithful  of  his  rite  residing  there. 

434.  Besides  this,  she  has  not  missed  an  opportunity  to  remon- 
strate against  the  war-time  occupation  by  non-Catholics  of  churches 
belonging  to  the  Ruthenian  Catholics.    Lastly,  she  has  provided 
spiritual  assistance  for  the  faithful  of  this  rite  who  are  refugees 
from  Galicia  and  Bucovina  and  are  now  scattered  throughout  the 
Austrian  Empire,  assigning  them  as  Apostolic  Administrator  the 
Most  Reverend  Father  Platonide  Filas,  Provincial  of  the  Basilian 
Order  in  Galicia 


The  principles  of  the  natural  law  must  be  observed  in 
the  case  of  the  Jews  as  well  as  of  all  others. 

February  9,  1916 

435.  The  Supreme  Pontiff  has  with  interest  taken  cognizance 
of  the  letter  you  have  been  pleased  to  address  to  him,  dated  Decem- 
ber 30,  1915.  In  the  name  of  three  million  Israelite  citizens  of  the 
United  States  of  America,  you  turn  to  His  Holiness  to  complain 
in  general  of  the  ill-treatment  your  co-religionists  in  various  coun- 
tries complain  they  are  exposed  to,  and  at  the  same  time  you  beg 
him  to  intervene  "with  the  weight  of  his  supreme  moral  and 
spiritual  power,  for  the  purpose  of  putting  an  end  at  last  to  these 

90  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  127,  p.  565  (April  29,  1916).  Original  Italian, 
Civiltb  Cattolica,  1916,  v.  2,  pp.  358-359  (April  28,  1916).  This  petition  of  the 
American  Jewish  Committee  besought  the  Holy  Father  to  use  his  great  moral  and 
spiritual  influence  in  behalf  of  the  Jews  of  Poland,  who  were  suffering  unnecessary 
cruelties  due  to  the  war. 

LETTER    TO    ARCHBISHOP    MORGANTI        [436] 

sufferings  by  an  act  of  that  humanity  to  which  the  Holy  Father 
is  so  passionately  devoted."  The  Supreme  Pontiff  is  not  in  a<  posi- 
tion to  pronounce  on  the  specific  facts  mentioned  in  the  memoran- 
dum attached  to  your  letter;  but,  on  principle,  as  Head  of  the 
Catholic  Church,  which,  faithful  to  its  divine  doctrine  and  to  its 
most  glorious  traditions,  considers  all  men  as  brothers  and  teaches 
them  to  love  one  another,  he  never  ceases  to  inculcate  among  in- 
dividuals, as  well  as  among  peoples,  the  observance  of  the  princi- 
ples of  the  natural  law  and  to  condemn  everything  which  violates 
them.  This  law  must  be  observed  and  respected  in  the  case  of  the 
children  of  Israel,  as  well  as  of  all  others,  because  it  would  not 
be  conformable  to  justice  or  to  religion  itself  to  derogate  from  it 
solely  on  account  of  divergence  of  religious  confessions.  The  Su- 
preme Pontiff  at  this  moment  feels  in  his  fatherly  heart,  torn  by  the 
spectacle  of  the  present  horrible  war,  more  painfully  than  ever 
the  necessity  for  all  men  of  remembering  that  they  are  brothers, 
and  that  their  salvation  lies  in  their  return  to  the  law  of  love  which 
is  the  law  of  the  Gospel.  Hence,  he  desires  to  interest  with  himself 
in  this  noble  purpose  all  those  who,  especially  by  reason  of  the 
sacred  attributions  of  their  pastoral  ministry,  are  in  a  position  to 
render  efficacious  help  in  attaining  this  important  result.  Mean- 
while His  Holiness  rejoices  in  the  harmony  which  reigns  in  the 
United  States  in  the  civil  relations  between  the  members  of  the  vari- 
ous religious  confessions,  and  which  contributes  so  powerfully  to 
the  peaceful  prosperity  of  your  great  country.  His  Holiness  prays 
God  that  peace  may  at  last  return  for  the  happiness  of  that  humanity 
of  which,  as  you  have  with  good  reason  said,  His  Holiness  is  always 
the  loving  guardian.  .  .  . 


The  Holy  Father  protests  against  the  bombing  of  open 
and  undefended  cities. 

February  17,  1916 

436.    I  have  not  failed  to  make  known  to  the  August  Pontiff 
the  accurate  report  sent  to  me  by  Your  Grace  on  the  1401  of  this 

91  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  127,  p.  309  (March  4,  1916).   Original  Italian, 
U Opera  ddla  Santa  Sede,  p.  41. 

[437]  BENEDICT    XV 

month,  concerning  the  recent  bombardment  of  your  city  by  enemy 
aviators.  This  fresh  incursion  has  not  only  brought  grief  to  many 
families  and  to  a  whole  city,  but  has  caused  keen  sorrow  to  the 
heart  of  the  Holy  Father,  who  feels  deep  sympathy  for  the  innocent 
victims,  and  at  the  same  time  is  afflicted  for  the  dangers  and  damages 
which  your  famous  monuments  have  incurred.  His  Holiness,  as 
vigilant  guardian  of  the  supreme  interests  of  religion,  of  history 
and  of  the  arts,  has  not  failed  to  repeat  his  paternal  and  insistent 
recommendations  to  the  Imperial  and  Royal  Austro-Hungarian 
Government  that  the  war  be  conducted  in  conformity  with  the 
recognized  principles,  by  virtue  of  which  open  and  undefended 
cities  are  to  be  respected,  and  the  monuments  and  churches  which 
form  their  precious  treasure  are  to  be  safeguarded  from  all  harm. 
The  Holy  Father  would  have  liked  to  do  more:  he  would  have 
desired  that  in  the  Italo-Austrian  War  the  throwing  of  bombs  from 
areoplanes  should  have  been  suppressed  altogether,  and  if  it  has 
not  been  possible  to  attain  this  noble  aim,  I  can  assure  Your  Grace 
that  this  has  not  been  at  all  due  to  want  of  warm  interest  on  the 
part  of  the  Common  Father  of  all  the  faithful,  but  to  reasons  which 
I  shall  be  able  to  explain  orally  to  Your  Grace  when  the  opportunity 
offers.  Kindly  make  known  in  the  name  of  the  Holy  Father  all 
the  affectionate  condolence  which  His  Holiness  cherishes  for  the 
unhappy  families  of  the  poor  victims  and  the  fervent  prayers  which 
His  Holiness  offers  up  for  the  deceased.  .  .  . 

LETTER  Al  Trcmendo  Conflitto  TO  CARDINAL  POMPILI,  VICAR 

OF    ROME.92 

The  Pope  as%s  the  -faithful  to  offer  prayers,  sacrifices 
and  alms  during  Lent  for  the  return  of  peace. 

March  4,  1916 

*  437.  To  the  tremendous  conflict  now  rending  Europe  asunder, 
We,  as  the  universal  Shepherd  of  Souls,  cannot,  without  failing  in 
the  duty  imposed  upon  Us  by  the  sublime  mission  of  peace  and 
love  entrusted  to  Us  by  God,  remain  indifferent,  nor  can  We  wit- 
ness it  in  silence.  Thus,  from  the  earliest  days  of  Our  pontificate, 

U2  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  127,  p.  335  (March  n,  1916).    Original  Italian, 
A.A.S.,  v.  8,  pp.  58-60  (March  4,  1916). 


AL    TREMENDO    CONFLITTO  [43^439] 

in  the  anguish  of  Our  heart  before  this  cruel  spectacle,  We  urged 
repeatedly  Our  exhortations  and  Our  counsels  upon  the  contend- 
ing nations,  in  order  to  induce  them  to  lay  down  their  arms,  and 
to  settle  their  dissensions,  according  to  the  requirements  of  human 
dignity,  by  pacific  consultation.  Throwing  Ourself  as  it  were  among 
the  belligerents,  as  a  father  might  do  between  sons  at  strife,  We 
have  entreated  them,  in  the  name  of  that  God  Who  is  Himself  Love 
Infinite,  to  renounce  the  purpose  of  mutual  destruction,  to  declare 
clearly  once  for  all,  whether  directly  or  indirectly,  what  are  the 
aims  and  objects  of  each  nation,  bearing  in  mind,  as  far  as  is  just 
and  practicable,  the  several  national  aspirations,  but  accepting,  where 
need  is,  for  the  sake  of  equal  good  in  the  general  commonwealth 
of  nations,  whatever  sacrifice  of  self-love  or  selfish  interest  may  be 
demanded.  That  was,  that  is,  the  only  way  to  calm  this  monstrous 
conflict  according  to  the  dictates  of  justice,  and  to  reach  a  peace 
profitable  not  to  one  alone  of  the  contending  parties,  but  to  all,  and 
thus  a  peace  equitable  and  lasting. 

438.  It  is  too  true  that  Our  paternal  counsels  have  hitherto  been 
unheeded,  and  the  war  with  all  its  horrors  rages  on.  Nevertheless, 
Lord  Cardinal,  We  may  not,  We  must  not,  be  silent.  It  is  not  per- 
mitted to  a  father  whose  sons  are  in  deadly  conflict,  to  cease,  because 
they  resist  his  entreaty  and  reject  his  tears,  from  calling  upon  them. 
You  are  aware,  however,  that  if  Our  repeated  cry  for  peace  has 
been  ineffectual,  it  has  not  been  without  a  soothing  echo  deep  in 
the  hearts  of  the  people  of  the  belligerent  countries,  and  indeed 
of  the  whole  world,  and  has  aroused  an  acute  and  instant  desire 
for  the  speedy  ending  of  this  sanguinary  strife.  Therefore,  it  is  not 
possible  for  Us  to  abstain  from  raising  Our  voice  yet  once  more 
against  a  war  which  seems  to  Us  to  be  the  suicide  of  civilized 
Europe.  We  must  not  cease,  when  occasion  serves,  from  pointing 
to  any  means  whatsoever  that  may  be  within  reach,  in  the  hope  of 
attaining  to  the  much-desired  end. 

439.  And  occasion  is  provided  Us  to-day  by  certain  religious 
women,  who  have  informed  Us  of  their  intention  of  joining  in 
spiritual  union  for  prayer  and  self-denial,  with  the  hope  of  obtain- 
ing from  the  infinite  mercy  of  God  the  withdrawal  of  this  scourge. 
Such  a  project  could  not  but  be  most  acceptable  to  Us,  who  have 
ever  insisted  upon  diligent  prayer  and  Christian  penance  as  the 
only  refuge  for  Our  own  heart  and  for  every  human  heart  in  the 


[440-441]  BENEDICT    XV 

time  of  this  horrible  fratricidal  war,  and  as  the  one  effectual  means 
for  obtaining  from  God  the  peace  for  which  We  sigh.  We  have, 
therefore,  blessed  this  enterprise  with  all  the  warmth  of  Our  fatherly 
heart,  and  We  give  it  public  praise,  wishing  that  all  the  faithful 
may  make  it  their  own.  We  trust  that  not  only  in  Rome,  but  in 
the  whole  of  Italy  and  in  the  belligerent  countries,  Catholic  families, 
especially  in  the  time  consecrated  by  the  Church  to  Christian 
penance,  will  withdraw  themselves  from  worldly  shows  and  amuse- 
ments, and  join  in  such  an  increase  of  fervent  prayer  and  of  the 
practice  of-  Christian  mortification  as  may  commend  to  Our  Lord 
the  desires  of  His  children,  and  express  at  such  a  time  as  this  the 
longing  of  every  honest  heart.  We  make  a  special  appeal  to  all 
women  who  are  mothers,  wives,  .daughters,  sisters  of  combatants, 
and  whose  tender  and  gentle  souls,  more  truly  than  those  of  any 
others,  feel  the  extent  and  the  calamity  of  the  present  terrific  war, 
so  that  their  example  and  their  sweet  influence  in  the  home  may 
induce  all  members  of  their  families  to  raise  to  God  in  this  "accept- 
able time"  and  in  this  "day  of  salvation"  one  urgent  and  continuous 
prayer,  and  to  lay  at  the  foot  of  His  heavenly  throne  an  offering 
of  voluntary  sacrifices  that  shall  turn  aside  the  most  just  anger  of 
God.  It  would  be  greatly  pleasing  to  Us  that  such  families  among 
all  combatant  nations  should  unite  in  this  undertaking  on  the  day 
that  is  held  sacred  to  the  sublime  Sacrifice  of  Him  Who  was  God 
and  Man,  and  who  by  His  own  suffering  drew  together  in  brother- 
hood all  the  sons  of  Adam;  that  they  should,  in  those  hours  made 
eternally  memorable  by  His  infinite  love,  beseech  of  Him,  through 
the  intercession  of  the  suffering  but  unconquered  Mother,  Queen 
of  Martyrs,  the  grace  to  endure  with  fortitude  and  Christian  resig- 
nation the  anguish  of  loss  brought  about  by  the  war,  and  that  they 
should  implore  of  His  mercy  the  end  of  this  long  and  terrible  trial. 

440.  And   since   through   almsgiving   sins    are   expiated    and 
heaven  is  propitiated,  We  desire  that  each  family  should  offer,  in 
proportion  to  its  possessions,  the  alms  of  charity  in  favor  of  the 
poor  and  the  afflicted,  so  dear  to  Jesus,  our  Redeemer,  and  more  par- 
ticularly for  the  relief  of  the  unhappy  children  of  those  fallen  in 
this  horrible  war. 

441.  In  the  hope,, finally, "that  to  this  enterprise  of  Christian 
piety  may  be  gathered — urged  thereto  by  human  compassion,  and 
yet  more  strongly  by  the  supernatural  charity  that  must  unite  the 


TO    PRO-NUNCIO    IN    VIENNA  [442-444] 

children  of  one  Heavenly  Father— the  families  also  of  neutral  States, 
We  bestow  upon  you.  Lord  Cardinal,  and  upon  all  these  Catholic 
women  and  their  families,  Our  Apostolic  Benediction. 

The  Holy  Father  sends  relief  to  the  Serbian  people. 
March  13,  1916 

442.  The  Holy  Father,  grieved  by  the  extremely  sad  plight  of 
the  Serbian  people,  has  vouchsafed  to  send  to  them  a  charitable 
subsidy  of  ten  thousand  lire.   Will  Your  Eminence  be  so  good  as 
to  distribute  this  sum  in  behalf  of  the  aforesaid  people  in  the  name 
of  His  Holiness?    Do  it  in  whatever  way  Your  Eminence  thinks 


The  Pope  sends  relief  to  the  suffering  people  of 

March  13,  1916 

443.  The  Holy  Father,  upon  learning  of  the  sad  conditions  in 
which  the  inhabitants  of  Lithuania  are  now  living,  has  vouchsafed 
to  send  them  a  charitable  subsidy  of  ten  thousand  lire.  Will  Your 
Eminence  be  so  good  as  to  distribute  this  sum  in  behalf  of  the 
Lithuanian  people  in  the  name  of  His  Holiness?    Do  it  in  what- 
ever way  Your  Eminence  thinks  best 


Benedict  XV  as\s  permission  of  the  British  Govern- 
ment for  the  transportation  of  food  from  America  to 
the  starving  inhabitants  of  Poland. 

March  24,  1916 

444.  We  are  well  acquainted  with  the  generous  work  under- 
taken in  favor  of  Belgium  by  the  American  Commission  for  Relief 

93  Original  Italian,  U  Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  228. 

94  Original  Italian,  L'Opera  della  Santa  Sedet  p.  229. 

95  Original  French,  UOpera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  138. 


[445-448]  BENEDICT    XV 

in  Belgium,  with  the  mutual  consent  of  England  and  Germany. 
The  noteworthy  services  rendered  by  this  Committee  and  which 
it  still  continues  to  render  to  the  Belgian  people  in  the  present  dis- 
tressing circumstances  are  matters  of  public  knowledge* 

445.  No  less  sad  is  the  present  situation  in  Poland,  where  the 
extreme  penury  of  food  supplies  of  absolute  necessity  exposes  the 
civilian  population  of  this  country  to  the  most  terrible  sufferings. 
That  is  why  the  Polish  hierarchy  and  the  General  Committee  for 
Aid  to  War-Victims  in  Poland  have  addressed  the  most  insistent 
and  moving  pleas  to  the  Holy  See  so  that  the  Holy  Father  is  ex- 
tremely anxious  of  intervening  in  some  way  in  favor  of  this  unfor- 
tunate nation. 

446.  The  Sovereign  Pontiff,  whose  heart  is  open  to  all  unfor- 
tunates, has  not  been  able  to  remain  deaf  to  the  pleas  of  his  sons, 
the  inhabitants  of  this  very  noble  country.   Consequently,  he  has 
deigned  to  charge  the  undersigned  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  to 
make  an  ardent  appeal,  through  the  gracious  intermediation  of  Your 
Excellency,  to  the  Government  of  His 'Britannic  Majesty,  confident 
that  the  latter,  inspired  by  his  lofty  sentiments  of  humanity,  will 
presently  allow,  as  has  been  so  successfully  done  with  regard  to 
Belgium,  the  purchase  and  transportation  from  America  to  Poland 
of  all  that  is  necessary  for  the  subsistence  of  these  people.  .  .  . 


He  urges  them  to  visit  the  Austro-Hungarian  prison- 
ers in  their  dioceses. 

March  31,  1916 

447.  His  Holiness,  with  burning  and  unceasing  concern,  de- 
sires, as  much  as  circumstances  permit,  to  soothe  the  wounds  and 
the  sufferings  caused  by  this  horrible  war.  Hence,  he  has  a  fatherly 
interest  in  the  poor  Austro-Hungarian  prisoners  detained  in  Italy 
and  wishes  to  reach  them  with  an  august  word  of  comfort. 

448.  Therefore,  supposing  that  in  these  dioceses  there  may  be 
quartered  groups  of  captured  prisoners,  the  Holy  Father  entrusts 
to  Your  Eminence  (and  to  Your  Excellencies)  the  charitable  mis- 

U6  Original  Italian,  U Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  pp.  240-241. 


LETTER    TO    BISHOP    LONGHIN          [449-451] 

sion  to  visit  them  in  his  name  in  order  to  comfort  them  and  to 
make  manifest  to  them  the  affectionate  solicitude  of  his  heart. 
449.  His  Holiness  asks  that,  after  you  have  fulfilled  this  pon- 
tifical mission,  you  will  send  me  a  short  account  to  submit  to  His 
Holiness  about  the  material  and  moral  conditions  of  the  prison- 


The  Holy  Father  protests  against  the  airplane  bomb- 
ing of  T  revise. 

April  26,  1916 

450.  His  Holiness,  who  has  raised  his  august  voice  more  than 
once  against  the  use  which  is  being  made  in  this  horrible  war  of 
means  of  offense  so  harmful  to  the  pacific  and  innocent  part  of 
the  belligerent  nations,  deplores  that  his  fatherly  exhortations  find 
the  hearts  of  his  children  hardened,  and  are  broken  against  the 
dominant  calculations  of  this  terrible  conflict.  Sharing,  then,  in  the 
bitter  grief  of  your  beloved  city,  and  especially  in  the  affliction 
which  fills  the  heart  of  its  bishop,  His  Holiness  sorrowfully  laments 
the  unhappy  victims  who  have  been  hurled  into  eternity  in  such 
a  tragic  way,  and  for  them  he  prays  God  for  that  peace  which  the 
world  cannot  give,  offering  at  the  same  time  words  of  comfort 
and  hope  for  the  poor  wounded,  for  whom  he  implores  from 
heaven  the  recovery  they  desire  and  that  strength  which  only  the 
Christian  can  know  amid  the  most  sorrowful  trials.  .  .  . 

LETTER  Epistola  Quam  Mediolani  TO  CARDINAL  FERRARI  OF 

The  practice  of  Christian  social  action  must  prepare 
the  way  for  a  lasting  peace. 

May  22, 1916 

451.  The  letter  which  you  sent  Us  when  you  were  recently 
gathered  at  Milan  not  only  carried  your  words  and  wishes  but  ex- 

97  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  127,  pp.  597-598  (May  6,  1916).   We  have  been 

unable  to  locate  the  original  of  this  document. 

98  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  8,  p.  261  (August  i,  1916). 


[452-453]  BENEDICT    XV 

pressed  your  mind  in  such  a  way  that  it  showed  that  you  were 
most  united  with  Us  in  zeal  and  obedience  and  every  kind  of  duty. 
Your  wishes  are  the  wishes  of  peace,  and  you  write  that  you  will 
beg  this  peace  from  God  so  that  with  the  auspices  and  help  of  the 
Apostolic  See  it  may  as  soon  as  possible  be  consecrated  by  the  kiss 
of  justice  and  charity.  There  is  scarcely  anything  which  in  the  midst 
of  such  troubled  affairs  may  be  more  hoped  for  by  those  who  are 
dominated  by  the  related  love  of  religion  and  country;  and  be 
assured  that  you  will  act  with  very  great  wisdom  if,  as  is  your  plan, 
you  with  particular  care  embrace  social  action  in  a  Christian  way. 
For  even  now  the  masses  must  be  won  over  to  it;  our  forces  must 
be  united  and  strengthened  by  the  discipline  of  religion  in  such  a 
way  that  Catholics  themselves  may  be  able  to  enjoy  with  greater 
security  the  benefits  of  peace  when  it  has  been  won.  .  .  . 


The  papacy  has  always  championed  the  cause  of  peace. 
June,  1916 

452.  Our  Holy  Father,  Pope  Benedict  XV,  has  been  deeply 
touched  by  the  sentiments  so  nobly  expressed  in  your  collective 
letter  of  March  20  last.  You  have  been  moved  at  the  thought  of 
the  anxieties  and  heart  sorrows  of  the  August  Pontiff  before  the 
immensity  of  the  catastrophies  of  the  terrible  war.    You  express 
your  gratitude  to  the  Pope,  God's  minister  of  peace,  for  having 
seized  every  opportunity  to  plead  the  cause  of  the  pacification  of 
the  world  by  a  peace  founded  on  justice  and  right.    It  is  with 
reason  that  you  recall  the  secular  role  of  the  Roman  Pontiff,  medi- 
ator between  peoples,  born  defender  of  just  causes,  guardian  of 
morality,  law  and  civilization.  As  Universal  Pastor  of  Souls  the  Pope 
has  received  in  deposit  the  evangelical  doctrine  of  peace  and  justice, 
and  history  bears  eloquent  testimony  to  the  sovereign  prestige,  to 
the  moderating  and  pacifying  action  of  the  Papacy  along  the  ages. 

453.  So,  too,  Our  Holy  Father,  Pope  Benedict  XV,  has  assumed 
with  a  great  heart  this  traditional  role  and  obeying  that  precept 

99  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  19,  p.  302  (June  24,  1916).  Unfortunately  we  have  been 
unable  to  find  the  original  text  of  this  letter  nor  do  we  know  its  exact  date, 


TO    CARDINAL    VON    HARTMANN       [454'457] 

of  the  Bible,  Clama  ne  cesses fm  he  desires  to  render  possible  a  peace 
which  may  solve  with  equity  and  wisdom  the  formidable  complex- 
ity of  problems  which  have  been  raised  up  in  the  world.  While 
guiding  souls  towards  their  heavenly  home  he  considers  it  a  duty 
of  his  charge  to  work  and  pray  that  quarrels,  hatred  and  sanguinary 
rivalries  may  cease  and  peace  and  concord  be  restored  to  the  city 
of  nations. 

454.  Making  myself  the  interpreter  of  the  gratitude  of  His 
Holiness  for  your  action  so  generously  and  so  loftily  inspired  I  beg 
you  to  accept  the  expression  of  my  devoted  sentiments.  .  .  . 


Transfer  of  French  children  into  Germany  protested. 
June  7,  1916 

455.  According  to  certain  reports  recently  communicated  to  the 
Holy  Se'e,  the  Imperial  German  Authorities  of  the  occupied  regions 
of  France  are  supposed  to  have  deported  into  Germany  during 
these  last  few  months  various  groups  of  young  people  of  both 
sexes  mixed  together,  with  no  regard  for  the  norms  of  justice  and 
morality,  thus  causing  grief  to  parents  and  the  whole  people. 

456.  Even  though  the  Holy  See  has  no  proof  of  such  a  fact, 
which  would  be  a  very  serious  accusation  against  the  administration 
of  these  same  Authorities,  yet  desiring  to  possess  some  more  posi- 
tive facts  with  which  to  respond  to  the  above  mentioned  informers, 
I  ...  beg  you  to  gather  precise  news  of  this  matter  and  kindly  to 
send  it  to  me.  ... 


European  children  are  as\ed  to  receive  Communion 
for  the  Holy  Father's  intention — i.e.,  peace. 

June  26, 1916 

457.  His  Holiness,  Benedict  XV,  by  Divine  Providence  Pope, 
who  has  greatly  at  heart  the  devout  and  rigorous  observance  of  the 

™°Isaias,  LVIII,  I. 

101  Original  Italian,  L' Opera  della  Santa  Sede,  p.  250. 

102  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  128,  p.  49  (July  8,  1916).   Original  Latin, 

v.  8,  p.  217  (July  7,  1916). 


[458-459]  BENEDICT    XV 

Decrees,  Sacra  Tridentina  Synodus  and  Quam  Singulari,  of  his 
Predecessor,  Pius  X,  of  happy  memory,  on  the  report  of  me,  the  un- 
dersigned Secretary  of  State,  has  been  pleased  to  ordain,  on  the  ap- 
proach of  the  second  anniversary  of  the  great  calamity,  as  follows : — 
All  the  Ordinaries  of  places  in  Europe  are  to  provide  with  all 
solicitude  that  on  July  30th  this  year,  which  falls  on  a  Sunday,  in 
all  the  churches  and  oratories  under  their  respective  jurisdiction, 
the  children  of  both  sexes  shall,  in  the  most  solemn  form  possible, 
approach  the  Holy  Table  for  the  intention  of  the  Holy  Father.  .  .  . 


The  Bis fiops  of  Haiti  have  appreciated  the  papal  efforts 
for  peace. 

July  4, 1916 

458.  In  your  letter  which  you  sent  to  Us  after  a  recent  assem- 
bly, We  see,  as  it  were,  an  expressed  image  of  your  filial  devotion 
toward  the  Holy  See.   We  understand  how  We  stand  with  you, 
for  you  are  striving  to  guard  and  to  strengthen  the  bonds  of  friend- 
ship which  bind  Us;  you  gratefully  recall  the  charity  We  have 
expended  upon  you  and  your  nation;  and  you  acknowledge  what 
We  did  in  Apostolic  solicitude  to  promote  peace  and  to  remove  the 
terrors  of  war 

ADDRESS  Era  Ben  Giusto  TO  THE  CHILDREN  OF  RoME.104 

The  Holy  Father  places  unbounded  trust  in  their  pray- 
ers for  peace. 

July  30,  1916 

459.  It  is  indeed  both  just  and  natural  that  to  the  appeal  sent 
out  by  Us  to  all  the  children  of  Europe  that  on  this  day,  the  anni- 
versary of  an  unhappy  event,   they   should  approach  the  Holy 
Eucharisdc  Table  both  in  great  numbers  and  with  great  fervor, 
the  children  of  this  Our  Rome  should  be  the  first  to  correspond. 

108  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  8,  p.  308  (September  i,  1916). 

104  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  128,  p.  216  (August  12,  1916).   Original  Italian, 
Civiltb  Cattolica,  1916,  v.  3,  pp.  395-396  (August  10,  1916). 


ERA    BEN    GIUSTO  [460-461] 

Nearest  to  the  heart  of  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  they  see  his  needs  from 
close  at  hand,  they  best  know  his  aspirations,  his  sorrows;  born 
citizens  of  Rome  they  feel,  even  at  their  tender  age,  the  pulsations 
of  that  heart  of  the  world,  the  Papal  See;  descendants  of  their 
glorious  ancestors  in  our  Faith,  they  have  in  their  veins  the  blood 
of  Tarcisius,  which  lifts  their  hearts  to  the  Sacrament  of  the  Altar 
in  which  lives  all  reason  of  their  faith  and  of  their  life  as  Romans. 
So  We  are  grateful  to  you,  Lord  Cardinal,  for  having  given  Us 
the  pleasure  of  being  able  to  see  this  elect  and  numerous  band  of 
children  who  from  the  Altar  and  Table  of  the  invisible  God  have 
come  to  Us,  who  perpetuate  visibly  the  Authority  and  the  Person 
of  Christ;  and  We  see  them  here,  breathing  sincerity  and  love, 
bringing  to  Us  their  simple  hearts  still  warm  with  divine  affection; 
We  hear  them  open  in  salutation  to  Us  their  pure  young  lips,  still 
resonant  with  that  supreme  prayer  which  We  desired  should  ac- 
company the  universal  Communion. 

460.  Often  have  We  asked  Ourselves,  sadly,  if  perchance  the 
life  which  human  society  is  today  living,  far  indeed  from  the  field 
of  battle  but  not  far  from  the  consequent  horrors  of  the  war,  is  not 
utterly  out  of  keeping  with  the  spirit  of  Christian  mortification 
which  is  so  imperiously  suggested  by  the  conditions  of  the  times. 
And,  indeed,  We  have  had  to  reply  that  the  desolation,  which  a 
second  time,  according  to  the  words  of  Scripture,  is  laying  desolate 
every  land,  does  not  appear  depicted  on  men's  faces;  and,  indeed, 
notwithstanding  calls  to  recollection  and  penitence  arising  from  so 
many  disasters,  grown-up  people  cannot  separate  themselves  from 
the  pleasures  o£  modern  life. 

461.  Trembling,  therefore,  for  the  salvation  of  the  human  race, 
but  yet  not  despairing  of  the  pity  of  Him  Who  made  the  peoples 
so  that  they  could  be  healed,  We  take  refuge  in  the  thought  and 
hope  that  it  may  please  the  infinite  goodness  of  the  Divine  Father 
to  consider  not  so  much  the  penitence  of  the  adults  as  the  innocence 
of  the  little  ones.  So  We  have  turned  to  you,  children,  who  just 
as  you  hold  *all  the  affection  of  your  parents,  you  assuage  their 
sufferings,  you  are  their  future,  so  you  hold,  too,  the  very  special 
affection  of  the  Father  of  the  faithful;  you  sweeten  his  bitternesses, 
in  you  lie  his  hopes 


[462-463]  BENEDICT  XV 


Energetic  protest  against  the  confiscation  of  the  Palazzo 
di  Venezia,  the  residence  of  the  Austrian  Ambassador 
to  the  Vatican. 

August  30, 1916 

462.  The  undersigned,  Secretary  of  State  of  His  Holiness,  begs 
to  call  the  attention  of  Your  Excellency  to  the  Decree  by  which  the 
Italian  Government  has  established  that  on  the  date  of  publication 
of  said  Decree  (August  25,  1916)  the  Palazzo  di  Venezia,  in  Rome, 
becomes  the  property  of  the  State.   The  polemics  on  the  subject 
which  had  appeared  in  the  Press  by  license  of  the  said  Government 
during  the  preceding  days  were  an  indication  of  the  imminence  of 
this  serious  determination,  inasmuch  as,  although  the  Government 
could  have  checked  them,  it  did  not  do  so.   Only  on  August  26, 
at  about  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  was  the  information  brought 
— on  behalf  of  the  Italian  Government — to  the  Holy  Father,  and 
he  has  lost  no  time  in  expressing  his  disapproval  of  the  fact  already 
accomplished.   The  Holy  See  does  not  intend  at  the  present  mo- 
ment to  consider  whether  the  motives  given  in  the  Decree  are  suffi- 
cient to  justify  the  taking  possession  of  the  Palazzo  di  Venezia,  either 
in  respect  to  moral  law  or  international  right.  Similarly,  the  Holy 
See  abstains  from  any  consideration  as  to  whether  that  taking  pos- 
session is  prudent,  as  it  might  provoke  grave  reprisals  on  the  part 
of  the  adversary,  and  as  to  whether  it  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  political 
act  of  a  nature  to  increase  or  diminish  the  good  name  and  prestige 
of  Italy  before  peaceful  and  impartial  men  of  any  country  and 
before  history.  But  the  Holy  See  cannot  fail  to  point  out  the  viola- 
tion of  its  most  sacred  rights  resulting  from  this  measure. 

463.  The  Palazzo  di  Venezia  is  in  fact  the  habitual  residence 
of  the  Ambassador  of  His  Imperial  and  Royal  Apostolic  Majesty  to 
the  Holy  See,  and  his  actual  absence  does  not  take  from  the  palace 
this  character,  inasmuch  as  it  is  only  temporary,  and  caused  simply 
by  the  abnormal  circumstances  due  to  the  war.  ... 

105 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  128,  pp.  505-506  (October  14,  1916).    Original 
Italian,  Ctvilta  Cattolica>  1916,  v.  4,  pp.  237-238  (October  13,  1916). 



LETTER  Commisso  Divinitus  Nobis  TO  CARDINAL  BEGIN,  ARCH- 

The    Pope    urgently    recommends    mutual    concord 
among  the  faithful  in  Canada. 

•September  8,  1916 

464.  The  office  divinely  entrusted  to  Us  of  feeding  the  Lord's 
flock  strongly  impels  Us  to  endeavor  with  all  Our  strength  to  com- 
pose any  differences  among  the  children  of  the  Church  which  en- 
danger peace  and  union  among  them.  For  what  could  be  more 
hurtful  to  the  Catholic  name,  or  what  more  foreign  to  the  divine 
precepts  and  to  the  principles  of  the  Church  than  that  factions 
should  exist  among  the  faithful  of  Christ?  .  .  . 

465.,  Wherefore,  Venerable  Brothers,  We  are  very  deeply  con- 
cerned by  the  disputes  which  have  been  raging  for  some  years  back 
among  the  Catholics  of  your  country,  whose  faith  and  piety  in  other 
respects  is  a  matter  of  common  knowledge.  That  these  disputes 
are  daily  becoming  more  acute  and  that  they  are  publicly  known, 
We  learn  in  numerous  and  sure  ways,  as  well  as  from  what  you 
have  told  Us. 

466.  The  cause  of  the  trouble  is  evident.  Among  the  Catholics 
of  Canada  some  are  descended  from  the  French  and  use  the  French 
language,  others  though  descended  from  various  nationalities  use 
English,  and  this  has  produced  disputes  and  contentions  among 

467.  Would  that  all  these  points  were  being  debated  calmly  and 
peaceably!  But,  as  though  the  cause  of  nationality  or  religion  were 
at  stake,  they  are  agitated  with  such  bitterness  in  newspapers  and 
periodicals,  in  bpoks  and  pamphlets,  in  private  conversations  and  in 
public  speeches,  that  opinions  have  grown  more  and  more  inflamed 
and  excited,  and  the  dissension  between  both  sides  is  becoming 
daily  mpre  irremediable. 

468.  To  provide  suitable  remedies  for  this  great  inconvenience, 
We  are  pleased  to  communicate  Our  design  to  you,  Venerable 
Brothers,  whom  We  know  to, be  most  closely  united  to  Us.  Take 
it  for  certain  that  you  will  be  acting  in  accordance  with  Our  dearest 

10S Translation  from  Rome,  v.  20,  pp,  239-241  (November  18,  1916).  Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  8,  pp.  389-393  (November  3,  1916). 


[469-472]  BENEDICT    XV 

wishes  if  you  put  forth  every  effort  to  restore,  with  the  gifts  of 
peace  and  charity,  harmony  and  union  among  the  faithful  entrusted 
to  your  charge.  .  .  . 

469.  And  if  the  faithful  in  your  country  are  divided  in  opinion 
by  reason  of  race  and  nationality,  and  "the  vessels  of  flesh  are 
straightened,"  it  is  necessary,  so  Augustine ,  argues,  that  "the  spaces 
of  charity  be  widened."107   And  if  it  is  not  possible  to  reach  an 
agreement  on  all  points  according  to  what  is  good  and  fair  and  by 
means  of  the  law  of  charity  alone,  there  are  those  in  the  Church, 
placed  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  to  judge  and  whose  decisions  the  faithful 
ought  to  obey  if  they  wish  to  be  of  Christ  and  not  to  be  regarded 
as  the  heathen  and  the  publican. 

470.  To  settle,  therefore,  the  controversies  which  exist  among 
Canadian  Catholics  on  the  rights  of  the  two  languages  and  their 
use  in  the  churches  and  the  Catholic  schools,  is  a  matter  belonging 
to  the  bishops,  and  especially  to  those  who  are  at  the  head  of  dio- 
ceses in  which  the  dispute  is  most  warmly  carried  on.  Hence,  We 
exhort  them  to  meet  together,  to  consider  and  weigh  carefully  this 
most  important  subject,  and,  having  in  view  only  the  cause  of 
Christ  and  the  salvation  of  souls,  to  lay  down  and  decree  such 
decisions  as  shall  seem  just  and  opportune.  Should  it  happen,  for 
any  reason,  that  the  question  cannot  be  settled  and  finished  by  their 
sentence,  they  are  to  bring  it  before  this  Apostolic  See,  which  will 
so  solve  the  case  according  to  the  law  of  justice  and  charity  that 
the  faithful  may  for  the  future  observe  peace  and  mutual  affection, 
as  becometh  saints. 

471.  In  the  meanwhile,  newspapers  and  periodicals  which  glory 
in  the  name  of  Catholic  must  not  foster  discord  among  the  faith- 
ful or  anticipate  the  judgment  of  the  Church;  those  who  write  for 
them  will  be  acting  in  a  manner  worthy  of  their  profession  by 
remaining  patiently  and  modestly  silent,  and  by  dedicating  them- 
selves to  the  work  of  soothing  animosities.   Let  the  faithful  also 
refrain  from  treating  this  question  in  public  meetings,  in  speeches, 
and  in  Catholic  gatherings;  for  otherwise  it  is  almost  inevitable  that 
speakers  will  be  carried  away  by  party  zeal  and  only  add  new  fuel 
to  flames  already  burning  so  fiercely. 

472.  What  We  prescribe  for  all  in  a  fatherly  spirit,  the  clergy 
will  remember  that  they  should  be  the  first  to  follow.   For  since 

107  Sermon  LXIX,  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  38,  c.  440. 


LEGENTES    VESTRAM  [473'474] 

priests  ought  to  become  and  to  be  from  the  heart  the  pattern  of 
the  flock,  it  is  evidently  unbecoming  for  them  to  allow  themselves 
to  be  tossed  about  by  such  storms  of  rivalry  and  animosity.  Hence, 
We  exhort  them  most  affectionately  to  excel  the  rest  of  the  people, 
in  moderation  and  kindness,  in  reverence  for  the  bishops  especially 
in  all  things  relating  to  justice  and  ecclesiastical  discipline  and  on 
which  the  Church  decides  of  its  own  right.  It  will  certainly  be  for 
the  spiritual  good  and  the  concord  of  Catholics  of  both  languages 
if  all  the  priests  know  the  two  languages.  Hence,  We  were  wonder- 
fully pleased  when  We  learned  that  in  some  seminaries  it  has  been 
made  the  rule  that  the  clerics  learn  to  speak  both  French  and 
English — an  example  which  We  would  wish  to  be  followed  by  the 
others.  Meanwhile  let  the  priests  engaged  in  the  Sacred  Ministry 
endeavor  to  acquire  skill  and  practice  in  both  languages,  and  setting 
aside  all  animosity  use  one  or  the  other  as  the  needs  of  the  faithful 


473.  For  the  rest,  Venerable  Brothers,  We  have  such  reliance 
on  your  faithfulness  and  skill,  and  We  know  you  to  be  so  mindful 
of  your  office  and  so  solicitous  about  the  account  you  must  render 
before  the  Divine  Judge,  that  We  take  it  for  certain  that  you  will 
leave  nothing  undone  which  may  help  to  remove  the  harm  and  to 
restore  peace.  Give  all  your  thought  and  care,  therefore,  to  ensure 
that  all  may  be  one  and  be  consummated  in  one,  as  the  Divine 
Master  taught  and  prayed  shortly  before  seeking  death  on  the  cross 
for  us 


The  Pope  urges  the  practice  of  Christian  charity  during 
the  war. 

September  8,  1916 

474.  .  .  .  For  indeed,  while  Our  heart  still  bleeds  at  the  sight 
of  this  long  and  cruel  slaughter  of  Our  children,  Our  grief  is  the 
more  increased  at  seeing  how  Our  incessant  appeals  for  peace  have 
given  rise  to  unworthy  suspicions  among  some  people,  and  have 
provoked  expressions  of  discontent  among  others,  almost  as  if  Our 

108  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  128,  p.  538  (October  21,  1916).  Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  8,  pp.  356-357  (October  5,  1916). 


[475-476]  BENEDICT    XV 

exhortations  were  not  prompted  by  a  wish  for  the  public  good,  but 
by  some  design  for  Our  own  interests,  or  as  if  We  wished  that 
the  war  might  finish  in  a  peace  not  founded  on  the  principles  of 
equity  and  justice.  Truly,  if  passion  had  not  clouded  understand- 
ing, this  thing  could  not  be  obscure — this  thing  which  in  itself  is 
supremely  evident — that  the  Supreme  Pontiff,  Vicar  of  the  King  of 
Peace  and  Father  of  all  Christians,  cannot,  through  his  high  duty 
of  conscience,  counsel,  suggest,  teach  aught  else  but  peace;  and  that 
in  doing  so  He  does  not  favor  the  cause  of  any  men,  but  of  hu- 
manity, and  that  especially  in  a  war  so  murderous  that,  if  anyone 
could  shorten  it  even  for  a  single  day,  he  would  deserve  the  grati- 
tude of  the  human  race. 

475.  Waiting  meanwhile  for  the  peace  which  We  invoke,  We 
shall  continue  to  alleviate,  at  least  in  part,  by  every  possible  means, 
the  awful  load  of  misery,  the  unhappy  consequence  of  the  war. 
And  it  is  in  this  field  of  charity  that  We  see  you  distinguishing 
yourselves   with   works   of   enlightened   zeal   both   in   federating 
all    the    Catholic    societies    in    Germany    devoted   to    charity    in 
order  to  bring  more  ready  and  efficacious  succor  to  the  innumer- 
able miseries  of  the  unfortunate,  and  in  establishing  those  beneficent 
undertakings  in  Paderborn  which  have  the  scope  of  improving  the 
conditions  of  all  the  prisoners  in  the  Empire.   Wherefore,  while 
We  praise  this  effort  of  Christian  charity,  We,  in  that,  are  praising 
both  the  unfailing  kindness  of  the  Bishop  and  clergy  of  Paderborn 
and  the  liberality  of  all  the  Catholics  of  Germany.   But  in  truth 
to-day  the  highest  duty  of  charity  (which  you  are  doing,  and  in 
which  We  exhort  you  to  persevere),  is  this: — That  each  man  should 
strive  to  again  make  brothers  the  peoples  whom  the  war  has  divided, 
not  making  hatred  more  acute,  but  softening  it  little  by  little  in 
mutual  works  of  pity. 

476.  So,  almost  naturally,  the  way  will  be  prepared  for  the 
peace  which  is,  in  the  aspirations  of  every  honest  man,  a  peace 
which  will  be  the  more  lasting  in  that  it  will  have  roots  deep  down 
in  men's  hearts.  Cease  not,  then,  to  implore,  as  you  are  doing,  the 
divine  aid  with  new  expiatory  prayers  and  by  calling  the  children 
frequently  to  the  Eucharistic  Table,  for  none  can  estimate  the  value 
before  the  Lord  of  humble  and  suppliant  prayers,  especially  when 
they  are  strengthened  by  penance  and  innocence 


SINGULARS    TUUM  [477'4?8] 


Nothing  is  more  befitting  the  Apostolic  See  than  to 
labor  jor  peace. 

September  10,  1916 

477.  The  exceptional  ardor  of  your  piety  and  obedience  towards 
Us  shines  forth  from  the  most  friendly  letter  which  you  have  sent 
to  Us  on  the  second  anniversary  of  Our  Pontificate.  For  We  learn 
not  only  that  the  grief  which  We  feel  from  this  bitterness  of  the 
times  is  common  to  Us  with  you,  but  that  you  also  are  laboring 
likewise  to  lessen  it  in  Us.  You  write  that,  although  We  were  not 
able  to  bring  about  peace.  We  have  striven  up  to  the  present  to 
mitigate  so  great  and  such  varied  sorrows  of  war.  This  We  cer- 
tainly have  tried  to  do  with  all  Our  strength  during  the  past  two 
years,  and  nothing,  furthermore,  is  more  fitting  to  Apostolic  duty. 
If  We  have  accomplished  anything  in  this  work,  all  is  to  be  attrib- 
uted to  the  favor  of  God.  No  despair  is  now  to  be  felt  about  com- 
mon safety,  especially  if  we  properly  use  as  our  intercessor  with 
God  His  own  great  Mother,  whom  recently  We  have  ordered  all 
Christians  to  invoke  as  "Queen  of  Peace."  Bavaria  should  do  this 
with  even  greater  zeal,  as  We  have  recently  declared  her  its  special 
patron.  .  .  . 



Benedict  XV  deplores  the  bombing  of  Venice. 
September  16, 1916 

478.  The  new  cause  for  sorrow  over  the  unhappy  lot  of  Venice 
moves  Us  to  a  new  expression  of  sympathy.  Carrying  out  in  your 
letter  of  the  i3th  inst,  your  intention  of  letting  the  Head  of  the 
Church  share  in  the  vicissitudes,  already  truly  unhappy,  of  your 
Patriarchate,  you  tell  Us  of  the  air  raid  of  the  previous  night  over 
your  city,  so  dear  to  Our  heart  and  so  precious  for  religion,  history 

109  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  8,  p.  394  (November  3,  1916). 

110  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.   128,  p.  438   (September  30,   1916).    Original 

Italian,  Civilta  Cattolica,  1916,  v.  4,  p.  102  (September  30,  1916). 


[479]  BENEDICT    XV 

and  art,  and  you  give  Us  notice  that  the  church  of  SS.  John  and 
Paul  has  not  escaped  damage  but  that,  fortunately,  it  is  not  ir- 
reparable. The  new  disaster,  preceded  only  a  few  days  before  by 
the  fall  of  a  bomb  quite  close  to  the  fafade  of  St.  Mark's— a  bomb 
which  Providence  did  not  allow  to  remain  of  unhappy  memory — 
brings  back  to  Our  mind  the  disaster  of  the  church  of  Santa  Maria 
Formosa,  which,  in  its  turn,  re-opens  in  Our  heart  the  bitter  wound 
of  the  church  of  the  ScalzL  Indeed,  the  paternal  solicitude,  which, 
as  you  know,  We  have  not  failed  to  interpose  in  order  to  prevent 
such  disasters,  has  not  had  the  effect  which  Our  heart  so  keenly 
hoped.  So,  as  it  is  not  given  Us  to  ward  off  the  heavy  blows  from 
the  heads  of  Our  children,  We,  without  seeking  into  the  reasons, 
must  limit  Ourself  to  deploring  once  again  this  new  kind  of  calam- 
ity, which  for  Us  is  not  the  least  grave  among  the  consequences  of 
the  war.  Meanwhile,  We  take  pleasure  in  assuring  the  beloved 
Venetians  that  as  We  are  with  them  in  all  their  sufferings,  so  We 
are  and  shall  be  near  them  with  sympathy,  comfort,  and  with  help, 
too,  according  to  Our  power,  and  We  pray  earnestly  to  the  Lord 
that  He  may  put  an  end  to  their  troubles  which  are  a  grievous 
sorrow  to  all.  ... 


Mankind  is  not  yet  worthy  of  peace. 
September  25,  1916 

479.  More  than  thirty  thousand  boys  and  girls  of  the  city  and 
archdiocese  of  Bologna  have  signed  their  names  in  the  precious 
album  which  Your  Eminence  had  the  noble  and  delicate  thought 
of  lately  presenting  at  the  Throne  of  the  August  Pontiff,  offering 
him  the  devout  homage,  which  the  beloved  sons  of  St.  Petronius 
have  rendered  to  the  Holy  Father,  by  approaching  in  great  num- 
bers the  Eucharistic  Banquet  of  Peace  on  Sunday,  the  30th  of  last 
July,  when,  at  the  invitation  of  the  Pontiff,  all  their  little  brethren 
in  other  churches,  cities  and  districts  at  the  same  hour  and  with 
the  same  intention  advanced  to  the  same  Table. 

111  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  20,  pp.  168-169  (October  6,  1916).   Original  Italian, 
Civiltb  Cattolicat  1916,  v.  4,  pp.  234-235  (October  13,  1916). 


LETTER    TO    CARDINAL    GUSMINI       [480-485] 

480.  On  that  day,  memorable  for  the  whole  world,  while  inno- 
cence on  earth,  receiving  into  virgin  hearts  the  flesh  of  the  Immacu- 
late Lamb,  were  united  in  mystic  wedlock   with   innocence  in 
heaven,  multitudes  of  angels,  as  in  the  cave  of  Bethlehem  of  old, 
repeated  the  glad  tidings  of  peace.  But  mankind,  forgetful  of  love 
and  blinded  by  sin,  was  not  yet  worthy  of  peace,  and  the  close  of  a 
second  year  of  hatred  and  slaughter  was  followed,  alas,  by  the  still 
sadder  dawn  of  a  third  year  of  war. 

481.  This  was  a  fresh  wound  reserved  for  the  sorrowing  heart 
of  His  Holiness,  but  it  has  found  a  very  sweet  balm  in  the  comfort 
which  his  little  angel  consolers,  the  children  of  the  whole  world  and 
especially  of  your  archdiocese,  have  piously  afforded  him  by  the 
offering  of  their  Communions  and  their  prayers. 

482.  The  prayer  of  children,  who  have  become  the  living  and 
real  temple  of  Jesus,  ascends  like  fragrant  incense  to  the  Throne  of 
the  Most  High,  and  if  it  cannot  be  spread  thence  over  this  barren 
vale,  like  mystic  dew,  to  restore  peace  and  benediction,  it  is  still 
destined  for  that  most  lofty  end  of  assuaging  the  sorrows  which 
surround  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  with  whose  fervent  and  constant 
aspirations  it  is  in  harmony. 

483.  Such  has  been,  in  -reality,  the  beneficent  fruit  of  the  hom- 
age of  the  children  of  the  archdiocese  of  Bologna,  and  His  Holiness 
has  been  happy  to  welcome  it,  all  the  more  so  as  He  has  been  able 
to  run  over  the  signatures  contained  in  the  imposing  volume  and 
recollect,  in  the  great  majority  of  the  names,  the  boys  and  girls  who 
have  received  from  his  hands  the  sacred  chrism  of  the  soldiers  of 

484.  To  each  one  of  them,  therefore,  and  to  their  households, 
as  well  as  to  the  good  priests  who  carefully  prepared  them  to  ap- 
proach worthily  the  Heavenly  Banquet,  His  Holiness  wishes  to 
express,  through  Your  Eminence,  his  sovereign  and  ever  paternal 
satisfaction,  and  he  desires  moreover,  in  return  for  their  filial  hom- 
age, to  wish  them  that  profound  peace  of  soul  and  that  special 
protection  of  God,  which  are  the  symbol  and  source  of  every  higher 

485.  Of  this  peace  and  of  this  protection  the  Apostolic  Benedic- 
tion will  be  an  affectionate  pledge,  which  die  August  Pontiff,  with 
all  fatherly  benevolence,  has  deigned  to  impart  to  Your  Eminence, 
to  the  clergy  and  people  of  the  archdiocese,  and  especially  to  the 


[486-488]  BENEDICT    XV 

beloved  children,  reserved  in  the  wishes  of  the  Supreme  Pastor  for 
the  vision  of  a  most  happy  existence 



American  children  are  exhorted  to  contribute  alms  for 
the  starving  Belgian  youth. 

October  28,  1916 

486.  Profound  compassion  of  a  father  has  again  moved  Our 
heart,  when  We  read  an  important  letter  recently  sent  to  Us-  by  the 
distinguished  chairman113  of  the  praiseworthy  Commission  for  Re- 
lief in  Belgium,  describing  in  few  words  yet  showing  proof  of 
most  terrible  reality,  the  pitiable  situation  of  numerous  Belgian 
children  who,  during  two  sad  years,  have  been  suffering  from  the 
lack  of  that  proper  nourishment  necessary  to  sustain  the  tender 
existence  of  budding  childhood.  In  most  moving  terms  the  chair- 
man has  described  how  so  many  desolate  families,  after  having 
given  everything  humanly  possible  to  give,  now  find  themselves 
with  nothing  left  with  which  to  appease  the  hunger  of  their  little 

487.  He  has  made  Us  see,  almost  as  if  they  were  passing  before 
these  very  eyes,  dimmed  with  tears,  the  long  file,  continuously 
increasing,  of  Belgian  infants  waiting  for  their  daily  distribution 
of  bread;  unhappy  little  ones  whose  bodies,  emaciated  by  lack  of 
proper  nutrition,  bear  not  infrequently  the  impress  of  some  deadly 
sickness  brought  about  by  their  failure  to  receive  the  food  which 
children  of  their  age  require.  .  .  . 

488.  In  this  emergency  the  worthy  chairman  has  turned  his 
thought  and  his  heart  to  the  millions  of  children  of  your  happy, 
noble  America,  who,  in  the  abundance  with  which  they  are  now 
surrounded,  could  they  be  given  an  exact  idea  of  the  pitiable  and 
unfortunate  condition  of  their  little  fellow-creatures  in  Belgium 
.  .  .  would  not  hesitate  a  moment  to  co-operate  heartily  in  accord- 
ance with  some  prearranged  plan,  to  come  promptly  to  the  relief  of 
these  needy  Belgian  babies. 

112  Translation  from  America,  v.  16,  p.  218  (December  16,  \$i 6).   Original  Italian, 

A.A.S.,  v.  9,  pp.  lo-n  (January  10,  1917). 

113  Mr.  Herbert  C.  Hoover. 


TELEGRAM    TO    BISHOP    PELLIZZO     [489-491] 

489.  In  view  of  this  condition  of  affairs,  We  have  considered 
the  work  indicated  so  humanitarian  and  so  holy  that,  in  prompt 
compliance  with  the  appeal  addressed  to  Us  ...  We  have  de- 
cided to  approve  and  recommend  it,  as  We  hereby  do  indorse  it 
most  heartily  by  these  words  to  you,  My  Lord  Cardinal,  and,  through 
you,  to  the  illustrious  members  of  the  American  Episcopate,  to  the 
clergy  and  to  every  generous  heart;  but  particularly  to  those  chil- 
dren of  America  upon  whom  is  based  every  hope  of  success  for  the 
plan  devised  by  this  beneficent  institution. 

490.  Neither  do  We  doubt,  in  truth,  that  the  happy  children 
of  America,  without  distinction  of  faith  or  of  class,  at  this  approach 
of  another  winter  .  .  .  will  vie,  in  their  innocent  pride,  with  each 
other  to  be  able  to  extend  to  their  little  brothers  and  sisters  of  the 
Belgian  nation,  even  though  across  the  immense  ocean,  the  helping 
hand  and  the  offerings  of  that  charity  which  knows  no  distance. 
The  words  of  our  Divine  Redeemer,  As  long  as  you  did  it  to  one  of 
these  My  least  brethren,  you  did  it  to  Me,114  so  appropriately 
brought  to  mind  in  these  circumstances,  are  a  sure  pledge   of 
heavenly  pleasure  and  reward;  while  We  feel  likewise,  how  greatly 
are  ennobled,  even  in  the  eyes  of  the  world  in  this  period  of  atro- 
cious fratricidal  carnage,  the  people  of  more  fortunate  lands  by  the 
performance  of  true  and  loving  deeds  and  by  the  pouring  of  a  little 
balm  upon  the  wounds  of  those  less  fortunate  ....... 


The  bombing  of  open  cities  is  condemned. 
November,  1916 

491.  The  Holy  Father,  deploring  and  condemning  aerial  bom- 
bardments of  inoffensive  open  towns,  by  whomsoever  they  be  per- 
petrated, sends  for  the  families  in  your  city  who  have  just  been 
visited  by  so  great  a  misfortune,  the  sum  of  10,000  lire,  and  comforts 
you  and  your  diocesans  with  the  Apostolic  Benediction. 

115  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  20,  p.  237  (November  18,  1916).  We  have  been  un- 
able to  find  the  original  text  of  this  message.  UOsservatore  Romano,  November 
16,  1916,  carries  an  editorial  entitled:  "LSopera  e  la  parola  del  Papa  contro^  i  bom- 
b&rdamenti  aerei"  in  which  a  few  words  from  this  telegram  are  cited. 


[49>494]  BENEDICT  XV 


The  Holy  Father  endeavors  to  persuade  the  German 
Government  to  return  Belgian  youths  deported  into  the 

November  29,  1916 

492.  The  Holy  Father  has  received  the  letter  of  Your  Eminence, 
dated  the  i2th  of  this  month,  with  the  accompanying  documents 
concerning  the  deportation  of  Belgian  youths  into  Germany. 

493.  The  August  Pontiff,  in  whose  paternal  heart  all  the  sor- 
rows of  his  beloved  Belgian  people  find  a  profound  echo,  has  or- 
dered me  to  inform  Your  Eminence  that  he  has  already  interceded 
most  earnestly  with  the  Imperial  German  Government  in  favor 
of  those  populations  so  sorely  tried,  and  will  do  all  in  his  power 
to  bring  about  a  cessation  of  the  aforesaid  deportations  and  the 
return  of  the  young  men,  already  sent  far  away  from  their  country, 
into  the  bosom  of  their  afflicted  families.    His  Holiness  has  also 
given  me  the  agreeable  charge  of  transmitting  to  Your  Eminence 
and  the  faithful  of  Belgium  his  very  special  Blessing.  .  .  . 


Prosperity  and  peace  reign  where  the  observance  of  law 

December  4,  1916 

494 It  is  a  well-known  fact  in  every  human  society, 

and  in  the  international  domain  itself,  that  where  observance  of  law 
flourishes,  prosperity  and  peace  reign ;  while,  on  the  other  hand, 
when  the  authority  of  the  law  is  neglected  or  depised  and  discord 
and  caprice  prevail,  all  public  and  private  right  is  thrown  into  con- 
fusion. This  is  confirmed,  were  confirmation  needed,  in  a  most 
striking  way  by  what  is  happening  today.  The  horrible  madness 
of  the  conflict  which  is  devastating  Europe  shows  too  clearly  to 
what  slaughter  and  ruin  disrespect  for  the  supreme  laws,  which 

116  Original  Italian,  Civiltb  Cattolica,  1917,  v.  i,  p.  348  (January  27, 1917). 

117  Translation  from  Schaefer,  A  Papal  Peace  Mosaic,  pp.  27-28.  Original  Latin,  A.A.S., 

v.  8,  pp.  467-468  (December  9,  1916). 


ANGORA    UNA    VOLTA  [495] 

regulate  the  mutual  relations  of  States,  may  lead.  In  this  general 
convulsion  of  peoples,  we  behold  the  desecration  of  sacred  things, 
and  the  vile  treatment  meted  out  to  ministers  of  worship,  even 
those  of  high  dignity,  although  inviolable  by  divine  law  and  by  the 
law  of  nations;  numerous  peaceable  citizens  are  taken  away  from 
their  homes,  amid  the  tears  of  mothers,  wives,  children;  open  cities 
and  undefended  populations  are  being  molested,  especially  by  aerial 
raids;  everywhere,  by  land  and  sea,  such  misdeeds  are  perpetrated 
as  fill  the  soul  with  horror  and  anguish.  While  deploring  this  mass 
of  evils,  and  while  again  condemning  the  injustices  that  are  com- 
mitted in  this  war,  wherever  and  by  whomsoever  perpetrated,  We 
fondly  entertain  the  hope,  confiding  in  God  for  its  accomplishment, 
that  as  with  the  promulgation  of  the  new  Code  a  happier  and  more 
tranquil  era  will,  as  We  trust,  dawn  for  the  Church;  so,  too,  may 
States  soon  enjoy  the  blessings  of  long  expected  peace,  founded  on 
reverence  for  right  and  justice,  and  bringing  to  all  nations,  once 
more  united  by  the  bonds  of  friendship,  an  abundance  of  all  pros- 

ALLOCUTION   Ancora   Una  Volta  TO  THE   COLLEGE   OF   CAR- 


Christmas  appeal  for  peace. 

December  24,  1916 

495 How,  indeed,  could  Our  children  aspire  with  Us 

to  peace,  to  that  just  and  lasting  peace  which  is  to  put  an  end  to  the 
horrors  of  the  present  war,  if  no  conditioned  good  has  ever  been 
attained  without  fulfillment  of  the  condition,  and  the  pax  hominibus 
bonce  voluntatis  rings  out  to-day  as  a  conditional  promise  neither  more 
nor  less  than  when  it  echoed  for  the  first  time  round  the  crib  of  the 
newly-born  Redeemer.  Time  and  again  during  the  fearful  course 
of  the  horrible  storm  which  devastates  so  large  a  part  of  the  world, 
while  reading  the  petitions  of  mothers,  wives,  fathers,  children,  and 
measuring  with  the  eye  and  the  heart  the  social  and  domestic  ruins 
of  the  immense  cataclysm,  We  have  thought  of  the  tears  shed  by 
Jesus  at  the  sight  of  Jerusalem,  sinful,  unbelieving,  wayward.  But 

118  Translation  from  Schaefer,  A  Papal  Peace  Mosaic,  pp.  28-29.    Original  Italian, 
Civiltd,  Cattolica,  1917,  v,  i,  pp.  10-12  (December  28,  1916). 


[496]  BENEDICT    XV 

more  than  me  tears,  eloquent  as  they  are,  it  is  the  sorrowful  words 
of  Our  Lord  that  terrify  Us  most:  Hadst  thou  but  known  the  things 
that  are  to  thy  peace,  but  now  they  are  hidden  from  thine  eyes,  be- 
cause thou  hast  not  known  the  time  of  thy  visitation^  Oh!  let 
the  world  know  now,  amid  the  angelic  singing  and  the  sweet  attrac- 
tion of  the  Babe  of  Peace,  the  things  which  are  for  its  peace;  let 
those  who  wield  powers  second  the  voice  of  this  illustrious  Senate 
to  arrest  the  course  of  the  destruction  of  the  peoples;  let  the  nations 
reflect  that  the  Church,  by  the  light  of  the  Faith  and  through  the 
assistance  of  Him  Who  is  the  Way,  the  Truth  and  the  Life,  sees, 
nay,  sees  much  farther  than  the  eyes  of  human  frailty;  let  the  con- 
tending parties  yield  at  last  to  the  repeated  admonitions  and  pray- 
ers of  the  Father  of  the  Christian  family. 


Peace  will  not  return  until  men  ma\e  reparation  to 
Divine  Justice  for  their  iniquity. 

January  5,  1917 

496 We  keep  fixed  in  mind  the  thought  that,  just 

as  this  dreadful  scourge  of  war  was  roused  by  the  iniquities  of 
mankind,  neither  can  it  abate  before  men  have  rendered  to  Divine 
Justice  due  reparation  for  their  iniquities.  The  manifold  and 
varied  practice  of  charity  carried  on  by  you,  O  beloved  sons,  proves 
that  you  are  just  as  apprehensive  of  the  calamity  as  We  are,  and 
just  as  confident  in  the  efficacy  of  the  remedy:  wherefore  it  is  but 
Our  duty  to  confirm  you  in  this  loving  trust,  in  order  that  the  labors 
of  your  charity  be  multiplied  more  and  more,  and  that  they  may 
secure  the  desired  result.  To  charity  let  there  be  united,  in  turn,  the 
care  of  making  ready  the  ways  of  peace  by  means  of  a  better  adjust- 
ment of  men's  hearts.  Let  that  which  was  the  prey  of  disorder 
come  back  to  uprightness :  let  him  who  wandered  along  the  crooked 
byway  retake  the  straight  road.  And,  since  it  is  necessary  that  every 
example  descend  from  higher  up,  so  also  should  the  incitement  to 
virtue  start  with  the  Patricians  and  with  the  Nobles  of 

™Lu\c,  XIX,  42-44- 

120 Original  Italian,  Ch'iltd,  Cattolica,  1917,  v.  i,  p.  227  (January  19,  1917). 



LETTER  Communi  Vestra  Epistola  TO  THE  BISHOPS  OF  HUN- 


Attempts  to  establish  peace  must  nou)  be  redoubled. 
January  10,  1917 

497 As  regards  the  calamitous  conditions  so  gener- 
ally prevalent.  We  clearly  see  that  your  views  agree  with  Ours  and 
the  same  care  which  torments  Us,  keeps  you  also  vehemently 
anxious.  Hence,  it  naturally  results  that  you  both  grieve  at  the 
length  of  the  war  and  beg  from  God  the  longed-for  peace,  with 
desire  more  ardent  and  prayer  more  instant  as  the  day  is  longer 
delayed.  And  matters  indeed  have  come  to  this  that  counsels  must 
be  matured  and  attempts  redoubled  for  the  procuring  of  peace.  May 
those,  in  whose  hands  are  the  destinies  of  so  many  peoples,  quickly 
discover  and  courageously  follow  the  way  of  peace!  .  .  . 


The  Holy  Father  authorizes  a  collection  for  the  war- 
stricken  Lithuanians. 

February  10, 1917 

498.  The  Holy  Father  was  painfully  aware  that,  in  the  violence 
of  the  European  conflict,  the  most  pitiful  fate  had  befallen  the 
Lithuanian  people,  so  that  the  flourishing  country  and  the  rich 
cities  of  that  stricken  land  are  today  reduced  to  poverty  and  ruins. 

499.  But  what  shocked  the  compassionate  heart  of  our  Com- 
mon Father  even  more  was  the  message  sent  by  the  Central  Lithu- 
anian Committee  to  the  effect  that  the  charity  of  their  brothers  in 
the  whole  world,  which  has  already  been  conspicuous  towards  so 
many  war-victims  and  particularly  towards  the  Belgians  and  the 
Poles,  has  not  yet  reached  the  hapless  inhabitants  of  noble  Lithu- 
ania who  have  been  languishing  so  long  in  privation  and  sorrow. 

500.  Deeply  sensitive  to  the  groans  of  so  many  of  his  sons,  who 
have  the  worthy  claim  of  having  always  remained  faithful  to  re- 
ligion and  to  the  Church,  the  August  Pontiff  does  not  cease  to  offer 

121  Translation  from  Rome,  v.  21,  p.  5  (January,  191?)-  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  9, 

p.  81  (February  i,  1917). 

122  Original  Italian,  A.A3.,  v.  9,  pp.  155-156  (March  i,  1917)- 


[501-504]  BENEDICT    XV 

special  and  fervent  prayers  that  the  comforting  effects  of  Divine 
Mercy  may  the  sooner  descend  upon  them. 

501.  Meanwhile,  wishing  to  contribute  personally,  in  the  meas- 
ure permitted  by  his  present  difficulties  and  the  ever-increasing 
number  of  urgent  obligations,  in  order  to  relieve  the  lot  of  the 
suffering  Lithuanians,  His  Holiness  has  deigned  to  assign  for  their 
benefit  the  enclosed  sum  of  twenty  thousand  francs,  thereby  indi- 
cating, if  not  wealth,  at  least  the  love  of  the  Father  of  the  poor. 

502.  Knowing  well,  however,  from  the  hard  experience  of  no 
less  than  thirty  months  of  war,  how  necessary  it  is  that  for  the 
relief  of  the  Lithuanian  population,  a  world-wide  contribution  be 
sent  by  all  those  who  have  not  yet  been  subjected  to  the  painful 
ordeal  of  war,  even  though  they  have  felt  the  repercussions  of  the 
huge  conflict,  the  Holy  Father  has  deigned,  as  he  formerly  did  in 
the  case  of  the  Polish  people,  to  authorize  Your  Excellency  and  the 
other  Lithuanian  Bishops  to  invite  the  Bishops  of  the  entire  world 
to  set  a  holyday  of  the  current  year  (such  as  the  Sunday  within 
the  Octave  of  the  Ascension)  on  which  in  all  Catholic  churches 
there  will  be  public  prayers  and  a  collection  of  funds  for  the  relief 
of  the  poor  Lithuanians. 

503.  The  August  Pontiff  is  confident  that  the  charity  of  all  those 
who  feel  the  bonds  of  Christian  brotherhood  will  meet  his  paternal 
appeal  with  a  generosity  proportionate  to  your  misfortunes,  and  he 
trusts  that  the  fruits  of  the  merciful  alms  will  afford  to  your  deso- 
late multitudes  lasting  economic  help  no  less  than  moral  com- 


Cardinal  Gasparri  presents  the  answer  of  Count  Hert- 
ling,  Foreign  Minister  of  Bavaria,  concerning  the 
deportation  of  Belgian  laborers  into  Germany. 

March  30,  1917 

504.  The  undersigned  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  of  His  Holi- 
ness hastens  with  pleasure  to  communicate  to  Your  Excellency  the 
following  note  which  Count  Hertling,  President  of  the  Council  of 

12S  Original  Italian,  Civiltd,  Cattolica,  1917,  v.  2,  pp.  221-222  (April  13,  1917). 


IL    27    APRILE     1915  [5°5-5°8] 

Ministers  and  Foreign  Minister  of  the  Kingdom  of  Bavaria,  has 
recently  sent  to  Monsignor  Aversa,  Apostolic  Nuncio  in  Munich: 

505.  "In  reply  to  the  esteemed  note  of  the  26th  of  last  month, 
I  have  the  honor  to  make  known  to  Your  Excellency  that  the  solici- 
tude which  the  Holy  See  manifested  for  a  satisfactory  solution  of 
the  question  of  the  Belgian  workers  has  not  been  without  results. 

506.  "According  to  very  reliable  information,  which  I  have  re- 
cently received  from  Berlin,  the  competent  authorities  are  disposed, 
first  of  all,  to  abstain  from  all  further  forced  deportation  of  workers 
from  Belgium  into  Germany,  and  to  allow  the  return  to  their  coun- 
try of  all  those  who,  through  some  possible  error,  were  unjustly 
deported.   I  am  especially  pleased  that  in  this  way  is  fulfilled  the 
desire  of  His  Holiness,  the  Pope,  so  often  made  known  to  me  by 
Your  Excellency  and  which  I  have  taken  care  to  communicate  most 
earnestly  to  the  Authority  of  the  Reich.  .  .  ." 



Peace  must  be  sought  from  Jesus  Christ  by  -frequent 
prayers  through  the  intercession  of  the  Blessed  Virgin. 

May  5,  1917 

507 We  were  encouraged  at  that  time  by  the  vivid 

and  serene  hope  that  the  Divine  Redeemer  would  prepare  all  souls 
to  receive  Our  paternal  invitation  to  peace  which  We  were  prepar- 
ing to  address,  in  His  August  Name,  to  the  belligerent  peoples  and 
their  leaders,  on  the  first  anniversary  of  the  breaking  out  of  the 
present  terrible  war.  The  ardor  with  which  Christian  families  and 
even  the  soldiers  of  the  various  fighting  armies  offered  to  Christ 
on  that  day  the  homage  of  loving  submission  which  is  so  acceptable 
to  His  Divine  Sacred  Heart,  increased  Our  hope  and  encouraged 
Us  to  raise  higher  Our  paternal  cry  for  peace. 

508.  We  pointed  out  to  the  people  then  the  only  way  to  con- 
ciliate their  dissensions — in  a  way  honorable  and  favorable  to  all — 
and,  tracing  the  foundations  on  which  the  future  order  of  States 
would  have  to  rest  in  order  to  be  enduring,  We  conjured  them,  in 
the  name  of  God  and  of  humanity,  to  abandon  their  designs  for 

124  Original  Italian,  A.A.S.,  v.  9,  pp.  265-266  (June  i,  1917). 


[509-512]  BENEDICT    XV 

mutual  destruction  and  to  come  to  a  just  and  equitable  accord. 

509.  But  Our  troubled  voice,  calling  for  the  cessation  of  the 
cruel  war,  the  suicide  of  Europe,  remained  unheeded  that  day  and 
later!  It  seemed  that  the  dark  tide  of  hatred  gathering  strength 
among  the  belligerent  nations  rose  even  higher,  and  that  the  war, 
sweeping  other  countries  into  its  frightful  vortex,  increased  its 
slaughter  and  destruction. 

510.-  Nevertheless,  Our  faith  did  not  fail!  You,  my  Lord 
Cardinal,  who  have  lived  and  are  still  living  with  Us  in  the  anxious 
expectation  of  the  longed-for  peace,  well  know  this.  In  the  un- 
speakable torture  of  Our  soul  and  amidst  the  most  bitter  tears  shed 
on  account  of  the  atrocious  evils  which  have  been  heaped  upon  the 
warring  peoples  by  this  horrible  tempest,  We  like  to  hope  that  the 
auspicious  day  is  not  now  far  distant  when  all  men,  sons  of  the 
same  Heavenly  Father,  will  again  look  upon  one  another  as 
brothers.  The  sufferings  of  the  peoples,  which  have  become  almost 
intolerable,  have  rendered  the  general  desire  for  peace  more  acute 
and  intense.  May  the  Divine  Redeemer,  in  the  infinite  goodness  of 
His  Heart,  bring  about  that,  in  the  hearts  of  the  rulers  also,  mildness 
may  prevail,  and  that,  conscious  of  their  own  responsibility  before 
God  and  humanity,  they  may  no  longer  resist  the  voice  of  the 
peoples  begging  for  peace! 

511.  Therefore,  there  ascends  to  Christ,  especially  in  the  month 
dedicated  to  His  Sacred  Heart,  prayers  more  frequent,  humble  and 
confident,  from  the  whole  unhappy  human  family,  imploring  of 
Him  the  cessation  of  the  terrible  scourge.  .  .  .  And  since  all  the 
graces  which  God  deigns  to  bestow  in  pity  upon  men  are  dispensed 
through  Mary,  We  urge  that  in  this  terrible  hour,  the  trusting  peti- 
tions of  her  most  afflicted  children  be  directed  to  her! 

LETTER  Communem  Vestram  Epistolam  TO  ARCHBISHOP  Rossi 

The  war  has  deprived  many  parishes  of  their  pastors. 
May  8, 1917 

512 The  last  part  of  your  letter  refers  Us  to  those 

clerics  whom  more  holy  functions  and  higher  aspirations  have 

125  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  9,  p.  326  (July  2,  1917). 



long  ago  withdrawn  to  a  more  noble  camp.  We  have  the  same 
opinion  as  yourselves  and  We  frequently  turn  over  silently  in  Our 
mind  and  with  great  sadness  what  you  relate  with  sorrow.  We 
fear,  and  not  rashly,  that  the  hearts  of  those  men  may  be  soiled 
with  human  dust  whose  virtue  ought  first  to  shine  before  all  others. 
And  vehemently  and  solicitously.  We  turn  Our  thought  particularly 
to  those  parishes  without  number  which,  because  of  the  removal  of 
their  pastors,  have  no  priest  to  impart  the  nourishment  of  holy 
doctrine  and  administer  the  Sacraments.  Oh,  that  even  these  adver- 
sities may  work  together  unto  good! . . . 


The  Bishops  must  explain  to  their  flocks  the  efforts  the 
Holy  See  has  undertaken  for  peace. 

May  12,  1917 

513 So  far  as  We  are  concerned,  We  think  that  the 

attitude  and  mind  with  which  We  regard  these  adversities  of  the 
times,  what  We  give  to  the  present,  what  promise  We  make  to  the 
future,  is  made  clear  from  what  We  have  often  said  and  done  when 
time  and  necessity  seemed  to  demand.  However  that  may  be,  your 
cares  must  be  bent  in  this  direction,  to  this  your  labors  must  be 
especially  directed,  that,  whatever  the  Apostolic  See  performs  either 
to  lessen  the  calamities  of  war  or  to  bring  about  peace,  all  may 
know  this  and  esteem  it  as  just.  For  the  result  will  be  that  the  truth 
will  recall  men  to  better  plans.  .  .  . 


The  Swiss  are  praised  for  their  marvelous  charity  dur- 
ing the  war. 

July  25,  1917 

514.    Childlike  reverence  marked  the  letter  which  the  convention 
of    the    Christian    Social    Labor    Organizations    of    Switzerland, 

126  Original  Latin,  A,A.S.f  v.  9,  P-  327  (July  2,  1917)-. 

127  Original  German,  Mutter,  Das  "Priedenswer\  der  Kirche,  pp.  462-463. 



gathered  at  Zurich,  sent  to  the  Holy  Father.    Through  it  they  pre- 
sented him  a  solemn  testimony  of  their  loyalty,  gratitude  and  love. 

515.  Besides  the  merit  of  the  letter  as  an  acknowledgment;  of 
the  gratitude  of  true  and  loyal  sons,  these  lofty  and  noble  words 
of  the  Swiss  workers  seemed,  to  the  Holy  Father,  to  have  the  char- 
acteristics of  an  impressive  invitation  from  a  fortunate  island  to 
the  countless  poor  shipwrecked  souls  who  are  hopelessly  battling 
the  surging  waves  of  a  monstrous  war,  that  has  now  rocked  the 
human  family  for  three  years  and  swallows  up  its  most  hopeful 

516.  To  these  poor  shipwrecked  is  offered  the  plank  of  safety; 
and  the  longed-for  shore  of  peace  comes  into  sight.   This  is  the 
sincere  and  absolute  return  to  God  of  both  individual  and  social, 
private  and  public  life.  It  is  the  recognition  of  the  supreme  author- 
ity of  Him,  Whose  teaching  never  changes,  because  it  is  Truth 
itself,  Whose  reign  has  gloriously  withstood  the  centuries,  because 
it  is  a  clear  embodiment  of  Love  and  Wisdom,  Whose  power, 
diffusing  peace  and  benevolence,  because  it  is  the  power  of  God,  of 
Love  and  Peace  itself,  reaches  from  one  end  of  the  earth  to  the  other. 

517.  The  reading  of  the  letter  of  devotedness  awakened  in  the 
heart  of  the  Holy  Father  sentiments  of  tender  love  with  feelings 
of  lively  gratitude.  These  occasioned  his  ardent  wish  that  no  one 
might  remain  deaf  to  the  convincing  voice  of  Swiss  Catholic  labor, 
just  as  no  one  has  rejected  the  fraternal  hand  of  the  Swiss  people, 
as  it  was  extended  to  all,  to  assuage  their  painful  fears,  and  to  heal 
their  sick  and  wounded  in  its  own  hospitable  land. 

518.  May  the  august  Queen  of  Peace,  unceasingly  implored  by 
the  suppliant  voices  of  her  children,  hear  the  sighs  of  all  those  who 
suffer  and  love;  may  she,  in  motherly  solicitude,  settle  the  rending 
conflicts,  after  the  consuming  flames  of  hate  have  been  permanently 
extinguished  in  human  society;  -may  she  soon  bring  the  refreshing 
dew  and  consoling  dawn  of  peace,  so  ardently  desired.   In  these 
sentiments  His  Holiness  renews  his  thanks  to  the  Swiss  laborers 
and  bestows  on  them  with  paternal  benevolence  the  desired  Apos- 
tolic Blessing. 


DESLE    DEBUT  .         [519-522] 



Benedict  XV  submits  concrete  proposals  for  peace. 
August  i,  1917 

519.  Since  the  beginning  of  Our  Pontificate,  in  the  midst  of  the 
horrors  of  the  terrible  war  which  has  burst  upon  Europe,  We  have 
considered  three  things  among  others: 

To  maintain  an  absolute  impartiality  towards  all  belliger- 
ents, as  becomes  him  who  is  the  Common  Father,  and  who 
loves  all  his  children  with  an  equal  affection; 

To  endeavor  continually  to  do  the  utmost  good  to  all  with- 
out distinction  of  persons,  nationality  or  religion,  in  accordance 
not  only  with  the  universal  law  of  charity,  but  also  with  the 
supreme  spiritual  duty  laid  upon  Us  by  Christ;  and 

Finally,  as  is  demanded  by  Our  pacific  mission  to  omit 
nothing,  as  far  as  in  Our  power  lies,  to  contribute  to  hasten  the 
end  of  this  calamity  by  trying  to  bring  the  peoples  and  their 
leaders  to  more  moderate  resolutions  in  the  discussion  of  means 
that  will  secure  a  "just  and  lasting  peace." 

520.  Whoever  has  followed  Our  work  during  these  three  sor- 
rowful years  that  have  just  ended  has  been  able  easily  to  recognize, 
that,  as  We  remained  ever  faithful  to  Our  resolution  of  absolute 
impartiality  and  Our  work  of  well-doing,  so,  We  have  not  ceased  to 
exhort  the  belligerent  peoples  and  Governments  to  become  once 
again  brothers,  even  though  publicity  was  not  given  to  all  that  We 
have  done  in  order  to  attain  this  noble  end. 

521.  Toward  the  end  of  the  first  year  of  war  We  addressed  to 
the  nations  who  are  at  grips  the  most  earnest  exhortations,  and, 
further,  We  indicated  the  road  to  be  followed  in  order  to  reach  a 
peace  which  would  be  stable  and  honorable  for  all.  Unhappily,  Our 
appeal  was  not  heard  and  the  war  continued  desperately  for  another 
two  years  with  all  its  horrors. 

522.  It  became  even  more  cruel,  and  spread  upon  the  face  of  the 
earth,  upon  the  sea,  and  even  into  the  sky;  and  on  defenseless  cities, 
on  tranquil  villages,  on  their  innocent  populations,  were  seen  to 
descend  desolation  and  death. 

128  Translation  from  Eppstein,  The  Catholic  Tradition  of  the  Law  of  Nations,  pp.  215- 
218.  Original  French,  A.A.S.,  v.  9,  pp.  417-420  (September  I,  1917). 


[523-526]  BENEDICT    XV 

523.  And  now  anyone  can  imagine  how  the  sufferings  o£  all 
would  be  multiplied  and  aggravated  if  yet  more  months,  or  worse 
still,  more  years,  were  to  be  added  to  this  blood-stained  time.  Must 
the  civilized  world  be  nothing  more  than  a  field  of  death,  and 
shall  Europe,  so  glorious  and  flourishing,  rush  to  the  abyss,  as  if 
dragged  by  some  universal  madness,  and  lend  a  hand  in  her  own 
destruction  ? 

524.  In  a  situation  of  so  much  anguish,  in  presence  of  so  ter- 
ribly serious  a  situation,  We— who  have  no  private  political  aim, 
who  listen  not  to  the  suggestions  or  interests  of  any  of  the  belliger- 
ents, but  are  influenced  only  by  the  sentiment  of  Our  supreme  duty 
as  the  Father  of  the  faithful,  by  the  solicitations  of  Our  children  who 
beg  for  Our  intervention  and  Our  mediatory  word,  and  for  the 
voice  of  humanity  and  reason — now  again  throw  out  a  cry  for 
peace,  and  We  renew  Our  pressing  appeal  to  those  who  hold  in 
their  hands  the  destinies  of  nations. 

525.  But  that  We  may  no  longer  limit  Ourselves  to  general 
terms,  as  circumstances  counseled  Us  in  the  past,  We  desire  now 
to  put  forward  some  more  concrete  and  practical  propositions,  and 
invite  the  Governments  of  the  belligerents  to  come  to  some  agree- 
ment on  the  following  points,  which  seem  to  offer  the  bases  of  a 
just  and  lasting  peace,  though  leaving  to  them  the  duty  of  adjust- 
ing and  completing  them:  First  of  all,  the  fundamental  point  must 
be  that  the  moral  force  of  right  shall  be  substituted  for  the  material 
force  of  arms;  thence  must  follow  a  just  agreement  of  all  for  the 
simultaneous  and  reciprocal  diminution  of  armaments,  in  accord- 
ance with  rules  and  guarantees  to  be  established  hereafter,  in  a 
measure  sufficient  and  necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  public 
order  in  each  State;  next,  as  a  substitute  for  armies,  the  institution 
of  arbitration,  with  its  high  peace-making  function,   subject   to 
regulations  to  be  agreed  on  and  sanctions  to  be  determined  against 
the  State  which  should  refuse  either  to  submit  international  ques- 
tions to  arbitration  or  to  accept  its  decision. 

526.  Once  the  supremacy  of  right  is  thus  established,  let  all 
obstacles  to  the  free  intercourse  of  people  be  swept  aside,  in  assur- 
ing, by  means  of  rules,  to  be  fixed  in  the  same  way,  the  true  liberty 
of  and  common  rights  over  the  sea,  which  on  the  one  hand  would 
eliminate  numerous  causes  of  conflict,  and,  on  the  other,  would 
open  to  all  new  sources  of  prosperity  and  progress. 


DES    LE    DEBUT  [527'532] 

527.  As  to  the  damage  to  be  made  good  and  the  cost  of  the 
war.  We  see  no  other  way  of  solying  the  question  but  to  lay  down, 
as  a  general  principle,  an  entire  and  reciprocal  condonation,  justified 
moreover  by  the  immense  benefits  which  will  accrue  from  disarma- 
ment— the  more  so  as  the  continuation  of  such  carnage  solely  for 
economic  reasons  would  be  inconceivable.  If  in  certain  cases  there 
are,  on  the  other  hand,  particular  reasons,  let  them  be  weighed 
justly  and  equitably. 

528.  But  these  peaceful  agreements,  with  the  immense  advan- 
tages which  flow  from  them,  are  not  possible  without  the  reciprocal 
restitution  of  territories  at  the  moment  occupied — consequently,  on 
the  part  of  Germany,  a  total  evacuation  of  Belgium,  with  a  guar- 
antee of  her  complete  political,  military  and  economic  independence, 
as  against  any  other  Power  whatever;  similar  evacuation  of  French 
territory;  on  the  part  of  other  belligerent  Powers  a  similar  restitu- 
tion of  the  German  Colonies. 

529.  As  regards  territorial  questions  —  as,  for  instance,  those 
pending  between  Italy  and  Austria,  and  between  Germany  and 
France — there  is  ground  for  hope  that  in  view  of  the  immense 
advantages  of  a  permanent  peace  with  disarmament,  the  disputants 
would  feel  disposed  to  examine  them  in  a  conciliatory  spirit,  giving 
due  weight,  within  the  limits  of  justice  and  feasibility,  as  We  have 
said  previously,  to  the  aspirations  of  the  populations,  and,  on  occa- 
sion, bringing  their  particular  interests  into  harmony  with  the  gen- 
eral welfare  of  the  great  community  of  mankind. 

530.  The  same  spirit  of  equity  and  justice  must  direct  the  ex- 
amination of  the  remaining  territorial  and  political  questions,  and 
particularly  those  which  concern  Armenia,  the  Balkan  States,  and 
the  territories  which  form  part  of  the  former  kingdom  of  Poland, 
which  in  particular,  by  reason  of  her  noble  historical  traditions  and 
the  sufferings  endured,  specially  during  the  present  war,  has  a  just 
claim  on  the  sympathies  of  all  nations. 

531.  Such  are  the  principal  foundations  on  which  We  believe 
that  the  future  reorganization  of  the  peoples  must  be  built.  They 
are  of  a  nature  to  make  impossible  the  return  of  similar  conflicts, 
and  to  prepare  the  solution  of  the  economic  question,  which  is  so 
important  for  the  material  well-being  of  all  the  belligerent  States. 

532.  In  laying  these  proposals  before  you,  who  at  this  tragic 
hour  are  guiding  the  destinies  of  the  belligerent  nations,  We  are 


[533-535]  BENEDICT    XV 

animated  by  a  sweet  hope — that  of  seeing  them  accepted,  and  thus 
of  witnessing  the  speedy  end  of  the  terrible  struggle  which  more 
and  more  seems  to  be  a  useless  slaughter.  The  whole  world,  on  the 
other  hand,  recognizes  that  on  one  side  as  well  as  on  the  other  the 
honor  of  their  arms  has  been  amply  vindicated. 

533.  Lend  an  ear,  therefore,  to  Our  prayers;  accept  the  paternal 
invitation  which  We  address  to  you  in  the  name  of  the  Divine 
Redeemer,  the  Prince  of  Peace.  Reflect  on  your  very  grave  respon- 
sibility before  God  and  before  men;  on  your  decision  depend  the 
repose  and  joy  of  unnumbered  families,  the  lives  of  thousands  of 
young  men,  the  happiness,  in  a  word,  of  the  peoples,  to  secure  whose 
welfare  is  your  absolute  duty. 

534.  May  God  inspire  you  with  a  decision  in  harmony  with 
His  most  holy  will.   Heaven  grant  that  in  meriting  the  applause 
of  your  contemporaries  you  may  assure  to  yourselves,  in  the  sight 
of  future  generations,  the  noble  name  of  peace-makers.  For  Us,  in 
close  communion  in  prayer  and  penitence  with  all  the  faithful  souls 
who  are  sighing  for  peace,  We  implore  for  you  from  the  Divine 
Spirit  enlightenment  and  counsel. 

LETTER  Graves  inter  Amaritudines  TO  CARDINAL  VON  HART- 

The  German  Bishops  offered  the  Pope  their  -felicita- 
tions for  his  intervention  in  behalf  of  peace. 

September  7,  1917 

535.  .  .  .  And  in  the  first  place  it  pleased  you,  Beloved  Son 
and  Venerable  Brethren,  to  give  approval  to  Our  letters  by  which 
We  vehemently  urged  the  leaders  of  the  peoples  waging  war  to  put 
aside  arms  and  to  discuss  and  enter  upon  a  just  and  lasting  peace, 
and  at  the  same  time  you  promised  that  with  all  your  power  and 
especially  by  your  prayers  and  the  prayers  of  your  faithful  you 
would  aid  Us  in  Our  attempts  at  peace  .  .  .  We  rejoice  at  the  same 
time  when  We  notice  that  this  slight  gift  has  furnished  you  with 
a  cause  of  pouring  forth  prayers  to  God  that  He  may  bestow  upon 
Us  the  oil  of  consolation  and  strength  to  alleviate  the  wounds  of 
129 Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  9,  pp.  485-486  (October  r,  1917). 

LETTER    TO    BISHOP    DE    GIBERGUES    [536-537] 

Our  heart  and  give  Us  courage  in  adversity.  You  will  easily  per- 
ceive from  what  source  We  expect  the  greatest  consolation  in  these 
times.  Wherefore,  proceed  together  with  your  peoples  by  penance 
and  prayers  to  lessen  the  Divine  Wrath  and  to  pray  with  Us  that 
Almighty  God  may  hasten  to  send  down  at  length  from  heaven 
upon  the  whole  world  swallowed  up  in  a  monstrous  war,  as  though 
in  a  whirlpool  of  fire  and  blood,  a  snowy  dove  bearing  the  olive 
branch  in  her  mouth.  .  .  . 


Cardinal  Gasparri  explains  how  the  papal  peace  pro- 
posal of  August  i  applies  to  France. 

September  10,  1917 

536 In  considering  the  various  points  which  the  Holy 

Father  regards  as  the  main  conditions  of  the  peace  which  he  desires 
to  be  just  and  lasting,  it  certainly  is  not  France  that  can  consider 
herself  as  hardly  treated  by  the  first  and  second,  which  concern 
mutual  and  simultaneous  disarmament,  and  as  a  consequence  the 
establishment  of  a  court  of  compulsory  arbitration  and  of  the  free- 
dom of  the  seas. 

537.  As  to  the  compensation  for  the  damage  done  and  the  cost 
of  the  war,,  the  Holy  Father,  in  the  third  point,  proposes  reciprocal 
condonation  as  a  general  principle,  adding,  however,  that  if  in  cer- 
tain cases  there  are  special  reasons  in  the  way  of  it  (as  in  the  case 
of  Belgium),  they  must  be  considered  with  justice  and  equity.  Your 
Excellency  must  certainly  remember  that  M.  Ribot,  in  accord  with 
the  Provisory  Government  of  Russia,  has  admitted  that  in  the 
eventual  peace  conferences  there  must  be  no  demand  for  a  war  in- 
demnity; but  he  reserved  for  France  the  right  of  demanding  com- 
pensation for  the  damage  caused  by  the  ill-feeling  of  military 
commanders  without  any  military  necessity.  Conceived  as  it  was  in 
general  terms,  the  Papal  Note  does  not  stand  in  the  way  of  com- 
pensation for  such  damage  being  included  hi  the  exception  above 
mentioned.  But  even  apart  from  the  enormous  difficulty  of  esti- 

130  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  130,  p.  459  (September  27, 1917).  Original  French, 
Documentation  Catholique,  v.  32,  cc.  1334-1335  (December  29,  1934). 


[53^539]  BENEDICT    XV 

mating  on  the  various  sectors  the  damage  needlessly  caused  by  the 
fault  of  the  military  commanders,  it  is  for  France  to  determine  if  it 
will  be  worth  her  while,  even  on  the  supposition  that  she  will  be 
victorious,  to  prolong  the  war  for  even  a  year  in  order  to  demand 
reparation  for  such  damage  of  the  enemy,  taking  into  account  the 
losses  in  money  and  the  still  greater  losses  in  men,  and  the  heaps  of 
ruins  which  the  war  would  leave  in  Belgium  and  in  the  occupied 
districts  in  France. 

538.  In  his  fourth  point,  the  Holy  Father  means  that  the  French 
territory  now  in  the  occupation  of  the  German  armies  shall  be 
immediately  and  completely  evacuated.   That  certainly  cannot  be 
displeasing  to  France,  which  for  more  than  three  years  has  been 
shedding  the  best  blood  of  her  sons  without  having  achieved  the 
liberation  of  those  districts.  And  lastly,  in  his  fifth  point,  the  Holy 
Father  does  not,  and  could  not,  propose  any  solution  of  the  ques- 
tion of  Alsace-Lorraine.  But  he  expresses  a  wish  that  France  and 
Germany  may  examine  it  in  a  conciliatory  disposition,  and  have 
regard,  so  far  as  may  be  just  and  possible,  to  the  aspirations  of  the 
people  concerned.  It  is,  therefore,  hard  to  see  how  such  desires  and 
hopes  could  be  offensive  to  French  patriotism;  on  the  contrary,  if 
this  question,  which  is  the  apple  of  discord  between  two  great  na- 
tions, could  be  solved  peaceably  and  in  a  way  satisfactory  to  both 
parties  (and  no  one  will  say  that  this  is  impossible),  would  it  not 
be  better,  not  only  for  Germany  and  France,  but  for  all  mankind  ? 
It  is,  then,  clear  that  while  the  Papal  Note  is  on  many  points  favor- 
able to  France,  it  is  offensive  in  none,  which  encourages  the  hope 
that  when  the  first  hasty  impression  has  passed,  France  will  give 
the  Papal  Note  a  fairer  and  more  favorable  appreciation. 


His  Holiness  praises   the   Swiss  for   their   abundant 
charity  during  the  war. 

September  10,  1917 

539.  Your  common  letters  have  been  given  to  Us,  and  when 
We  read  them  We  felt  that  your  love  towards  Us  was  being  in- 

131  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  9,  p.  486  (October  i,  1917). 

LETTER    TO    LLOYD    GEORGE  [540-542] 

creased,  that  your  former  intentions  of  pleasing  Us  were  being 
strengthened  more  and  more,  and  finally  that  even  greater  hope 
was  being  nourished  that  in  the  future  so  many  of  Our  unhappy 
sons  in  Christ  would  receive  by  Our  aid  and  industry  a  harvest  of 
benefits.  In  thanking  Us  for  the  manifold  care  which  during  the 
whole  war  We  have  given  captive  soldiers,  it  has  pleased  you  to 
call  Switzerland,  which  is  free  from  slaughter,  "an  isle  of  peace," 
truly  a  beautiful  appellation  and  one  most  deserved. 

540.  We  prefer  to  call  your  hospitable  land  "a  most  beautiful 
theatre  of  charity,"  and  We  bestow  this  same  praise  all  the  more 
willingly  because  We  know  that  the  kindly  virtue  of  the  Swiss 
people  has  made  itself  a  companion  to  Our  paternal  char- 


To  have  international  -peace  there  must  be  a  simultane- 
ous and  reciprocal  suppression  of  compulsory  military 

September  28,  1917 

541 As  for  the  reciprocal  and  simultaneous  disarma- 
ment universally  desired,  a  true  earnest  of  peace  and  prosperity,  the 
Holy  Father,  out  of  deference  to  the  belligerent  Powers,  did  not 
intend  in  his  letter  to  indicate  the  means  for  effecting  and  main- 
taining this,  preferring  to  leave  the  determination  of  such  means 
to  the  Powers  themselves;  but  he  considers  that  the  only  practical 
and  easy  way  of  effecting  this  is  the  following:  a  pact  among  civil- 
ized nations,  including  non-belligerents,  requiring  the  simultaneous 
and  reciprocal  suppression  of  compulsory  military  service;  the  insti- 
tution of  a  tribunal  of  arbitration  to  decide  international  contro- 
versies; and  the  imposition  of  a  general  boycott  as  a  sanction  against 
any  nation  that  might  attempt  to  re-establish  obligatory  military 
service,  or  might  refuse  to  submit  an  international  question  to 
arbitration  or  to  accept  the  decision  thereon. 

542.  Omitting  other  considerations,  the  recent  example  of  Eng- 
land and  of  America  proves  that  voluntary  military  service  certainly 

132 original  Italian,  Civilth  Cattolica,  1919,  v.  3,  p.  439  (October  4,  1919). 


[543]  BENEDICT    XV 

gives  the  forces  necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  public  order,  al- 
though it  does  not  supply  the  enormous  armies  which  modern  war 
requires.  Therefore,  once  obligatory  military  service  has  been 
suppressed  by  common  accord  and  voluntary  service  introduced  in 
its  stead,  we  would  have,  without  any  disturbance  of  public  order, 
almost  automatically  a  complete  disarmament,  with  all  the  benefits 
directly  consequent  thereon:  a  lasting  international  peace  (as  far 
as  that  is  possible  in  this  world),  and  the  restoration  of  sound 
finances  in  the  various  nations  in  as  short  a  time  as  possible,  with- 
out speaking  of  other  advantages  which  need  not  be  enumerated, 
since  they  are  readily  foreseen.  Compulsory  military  service  has 
been  the  true  cause  of  so  many  evils  for  more  than  a  century;  in  its 
simultaneous  and  reciprocal  suppression  lies  the  true  remedy.  And 
since,  once  suppressed,  it  could  not,  even  in  the  actual  constitution 
of  the  Central  Empires,  be  re-established  without  a  law  of  Parlia- 
ment approving  it  (an  improbable  approbation  for  many  reasons), 
we  would  have  not  only  the  word  of  rulers,  but  even  the  guarantee 
of  peoples,  as  requested  in  recent  documents  by  persons  of  au- 
thority. ... 


He  clarifies  and  elaborates  the  various  proposals  of  the 
August  i  peace  note. 

October  7,  1917 

543 Your   Grace  will  have  seen  my   letter  to   the 

Bishop  of  Valence,134  which  gives  expression  to  the  astonishment 
which  I  have  experienced  at  the  generally  hostile  attitude  of  the 
French  Press  in  regard  to  the  Papal  Note.  In  that  letter  I  have 
demonstrated  (what  was  plain  from  a  perusal  of  the  document  of 
the  Pope)  that  none  of  the  points  indicated  by  the  Holy  Father,  as 
bases  of  a  just  and  lasting  peace,  could  be  wounding  to  French 
patriotism.  Nay,  some  of  those  points  are  clearly  favorable  to 
France;  and  so  much  so  that  if  any  nation  is  favored  in  the  Papal 

133  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  130,  pp.  574-575  (November  3,  1917).  Original 

French,  La  Briere,  La  Patrie  et  la  Paix,  pp.  154-159. 

134  See  supra  n.  536. 


TO    ARCHBISHOP    CHESNELONG        [544-546] 

Letter  it  is  not  Germany  or  Austria,  but  France  and  Belgium.  My 
surprise  and  astonishment  were,  therefore,  very  great. 

544.  The  Papal  document  has  been  represented  as  inspired  by 
the  Central  Empires,  and  especially  by  Austria,   But  this  assertion 
is  completely  false.  The  declarations  of  the  Holy  See  and  those  of 
the  German  Chancellor,  the  replies  of  the  Central  Empires,  the 
opposition  of  the  Pan-Germanist  and  conservative  Press  of  Ger- 
many place  this  point  beyond  a  doubt;  and  I  may  add  that,  owing 
to  a  wholly  involuntary  delay  in  its  transmission,  the  Emperor  of 
Austria  and  his  Government  were  the  last  to  receive  the  text  of  the 
Papal  Letter. 

545.  The  genesis  of  the  letter  was,  besides,  very  simple— -so  sim- 
ple that  there  is  no  need  to  have  recourse  to  the  idea  of  any  foreign 
inspiration  at  all.   From  the  declarations  made  by  the  statesmen 
and  parliaments  of  the  belligerent  Powers,  the  Holy  See  had  noted 
with  the  liveliest  satisfaction  that  on  certain  fundamental  points 
there  was  substantial  agreement;  and  it  accordingly  brought  these 
different  points  together  and  invited  the  Powers  themselves  to  define 
and  complete  them,  and  to  examine  them  in  a  spirit  of  conciliation, 
taking  into  account  as  far  as  possible  the  aspirations  of  the  peoples 
concerned.  There  you  have  the  whole  purport  and  purpose  of  the 
Pope's  Letter  of  August  i. 

546.  Thus,  for  example,  nearly  all  the  belligerents  —  Russia, 
France,  England,  Germany  and  Austria  — had  declared  that  peace 
should  be  concluded  without  indemnities.   Russia,  Germany  and 
Austria  made  no  distinction  between  the  cost  of  the  war  and  the 
damage  wrought  by  the  war,  indicating  by  this  that  compensation 
for  the  damage  would  not  be  demanded.   M.  Ribot  was  the  only 
one  who  declared  that  in  future  negotiations  for  peace  France  re- 
served to  herself  the  right  to  claim  compensation  for  the  damage 
caused  upon  her  territory  unnecessarily  and  by  the  fault  of  the 
military  authorities.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  in  the  third  point  of 
the  Papal  Appeal  the  Holy  See  proposes  that  there  should  be,  as 
a  general  rule,  reciprocal  condonation  of  the  cost  and  damage 
of  the  war;  but  it  added  that  if  in  any  cases  there  were  special  rea- 
sons against  this,  those  reasons  should  be  weighed  with  justice 
and  equity.   Stated  in  such  general  terms,  this  proposal  does  not 
exclude  the  reservations  put  forward  by  M.  Ribot;  and  France 
remains  free  to  judge  whether,  in  the  hypothesis  of  her  being  vic- 


[547-549]  BENEDICT    XV 

torious,  it  is  worth  her  while  to  prolong  the  war,  even  for  a  year, 
in  order  to  exact  from  Germany  compensation  for  the  damage  of 
which  she  has  been  guilty. 

547.  Again,  it  has  been  said  that  the  Holy  Father,  in  his  capacity 
of  supreme  judge  of  morality  and  justice,  ought  in  the  first  place 
to  have  declared  which  side  was  wrong  and  which  was  right.  This 
is  a  strange  criticism,  forsooth!    In  the  interest  of  mankind  the 
Holy  Father,  in  his  Letter,  assumes  the  office  of  mediator,  and  does 
all  that  is  possible  to  persuade  the  belligerent  nations,  each  of  which 
claims  to  have  right  on  its  side,  to  lay  down  their  arms,  to  enter 
into  conversation  and  to  become  reconciled.   Now,  is  it,  I  would 
ask,  the  part  of  a  mediator  to  decide  which  of  the  parties  concerned 
is  wrong  and  which  is  right?   If  he  sought  to  settle  this  question, 
is  it  likely  that  he  would  attain  the  object  he  proposes,  which  is 
that  of  getting  the  parties  to  enter  on  the  path  of  reconciliation 
and  peace? 

548.  Moreover,  and  here  I  pass  over  some  other  points  of  less 
importance,  it  has  been  objected  that  the  proposals  of  the  Holy 
Father  are  not  all  capable  of  being  realized.  And  it  has  been  par- 
ticularly pointed  out  that  reciprocal  and  simultaneous  disarmament 
must  be  placed  in  the  rank  of  the  aspirations  destined  to  remain 
without  effect.   But  disarmament  is  desired  by  all  without  excep- 
tion, as  the  only  means  of  removing  the  danger  of  war,  remedying 
the  financial  difficulties  of  the  nations  concerned,  and  of  avoiding 
the  social  convulsions  which  are,  unless  it  comes  about,  only  too 
easy  to  foresee.   As  soon,  however,  as  it  becomes  a  question  of 
the  way  in  which  this  disarmament  is  to  be  effected  and  main- 
tained, agreement  ceases.   I  have  no  hesitation  in  acknowledging 
frankly  that  none  of  the  systems  so  far  put  forward  is  really  prac- 
ticable. And  yet  there  is  such  a  practicable  system. 

549.  The  Holy  See,  in  its  Appeal  of  August  i,  did  not,  out  of 
deference  for  the  heads  of  the  belligerent  nations,  think  it  well 
to  point  to  it,  preferring  to  leave  to  them  the  task  of  deciding  on  it. 
But,  for  itself,  the  practical  system  and  one  which  is,  besides,  easily 
applied,  given  a  little  good- will,  would  be  something  of  this  sort: 
the  suppression,  by  commoh  accord  among  civilized  nations,  of 
compulsory  military  service;  the  constitution  of  a  Court  of  Arbitra- 
tion, as  was  mentioned  in  the  Pope's  Appeal,  for  the  solution  of 
international  questions;  and  lastly,  for  the  prevention  of  infrac- 


TO     ARCHBISHOP     CHESNELONG         [  550-55 1  ] 

tions  and  as  a  penalty,  the  establishment  o£  a  universal  boycott 
against  the  nation  which  should  seek  to  set  up  compulsory  military 
service,  or  should  refuse  either  to  submit  an  international  question 
to  the  Court  of  Arbitration  or  to  accept  its  decision. 

550.  Lord  Robert  Cecil  has  himself,  in  one  of  his  speeches,  fully 
recognized  the  practical  efficacy  of  such  a  penalty.    And  indeed, 
not  to  mention  other  considerations,  the  recent  example  of  England 
and  America  is  evidence  in  favor  of  the  adoption  of  this  system. 
England  and  America  had  voluntary  service,  but  in  order  to  take 
an  effective  part  in  the  present  war,  they  have  been  obliged  to  have 
recourse  to  conscription.    This  shows  that  voluntary  service  pro- 
vided the  men  necessary  for  maintenance  of  public  order  (and  is 
not  public  order  maintained  in  England  and  America  as  well  as, 
if  not  better  than,  in  other  countries?),  but  it  was  not  able  to  fur- 
nish the  enormous  armies  needed  in  modern  warfare.    So  then, 
by  the  suppression,  by  common  agreement,  among  civilized  nations 
of  compulsory  service  and  its  replacement  by  voluntary  service,  dis- 
armament, with  all  the  happy  consequences  indicated  above,  would 
be  brought  about  automatically  and  without  any  perturbation  of 
public  order. 

551.  For  more  than  a  century  conscription  has  been  the  real 
cause  of  a  multitude  of  evils  afflicting  society,  for  which  a  simul- 
taneous and  reciprocal  suppression  of  it  will  be  the  true  remedy. 
And  once  suppressed,  conscription  should  not  be  able  to  be  re- 
established except  by  special  law,  for  which  even  under  the  existing 
constitution  in  the  Central  Empires,  the  approval  of  Parliament 
would  be  necessary,  and  that  would  be  very  improbable  for  many 
reasons,  and  especially  owing  to  the  sad  experience  of  the  present 
war.   Thus  we  should  come  to  have,  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
agreement  arrived  at,  just  what  is  so  much  desired — the  guarantee 
of  the  peoples  themselves.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  right  of  peace 
or  war  were  reserved  to  the  people  by  way  of  referendum  or  at 
least  to  Parliament,  peace  between  nations  would  be  assured,  at  least 
so  far  as  is  possible  in  this  world. 


[552-553]  BENEDICT    XV 


The  motives  behind  the  papal  intervention  for  peace. 
December  3,  1917 

552.  .  .  .  Particularly,  however,  do  We  embrace  the  clear  mean- 
ing of  your  gratitude  that  We  recently  suggested  reconciliation  and 
peace  to  the  rulers  of  peoples  contending  with  one  another;  all  the 
more,  because  that  proof  of  paternal  love  which  had  suggested 
itself  to  Us  by  the  consciousness  of  Our  Apostolic  duty,  by  com- 
miseration for  common  troubles,  by  love  of  justice  and  right  no 
less  than  by  love  of  public  tranquillity,  We  have  seen  called  into 
unworthy  suspicion  by  certain  men  of  prejudiced  opinions.  Through 
the  activity  of  most  wicked  factions  there  is  thus  stirred  up  daily 
more  and  more  against  the  clergy  the  blind  rashness  of  multitudes 
so  that  We  can  now  use  that  expression  of  the  Apostle:  We  are 
reviled,  and  we  bless;  we  are  persecuted,  and  we  suffer  it;  we  are 
blasphemed,  and  we  entreat™  Nevertheless,  relying  on, divine  aid, 
We  wish  to  continue  constantly  to  perform  the  duties  of  Our  office. 
In  the  meantime,  let  us  not  cease,  by  our  humble  and  suppliant 
prayer,  to  beg  God  that  He  Himself  may  ultimately  deign  in  His 
mercy  to  grant  that  peace  which  the  world  cannot  give.  .  .  . 



His  Holiness  grieves  that  the  papal  message  of  peace 
has  been  misunderstood. 

December  5,  1917 

553-  We  thank  you  from  Our  heart  for  your  common  letter  of 
homage  whereby  at  the  beginning  of  the  meeting  at  Friesing  you 
gave  testimony  of  your  supreme  obedience  and  fidelity  toward  Us. 
For  this  was  no  common  pleasure,  or  rather  it  was  a  consolation 
to  Us,  a  consolation  which  indeed  you  see  that  We  greatly  need 
in  these  bitter  times.  For  to  the  other  anxieties  and  cares  which 

135  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  10,  p.  14  (January  2,  1918). 

136 1  Corinthians,  IV,  12-13. 

137  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  10,  p.  15  (January  2,  1918). 



afflict  Our  soul  by  the  length  of  this  terrible  war  there  is  added 
this,  namely,  that  Our  exhortation  to  restore  peace,  which  in  truth 
sprang  from  no  other  motive  than  from  a  sincere  desire  of  public 
good,  not  only  had  an  effect  that  We  hoped  for  least  of  all  but 
even  was  twisted  against  Us  by  wicked  men  into  a  cause  for  public 
hatred  against  Us  although  it  was  a  proof  of  Our  love.  In  this 
matter  We  do  not  so  much  complain  at  the  injustice  visited  upon 
Us— for  We  ought  to  be  always  ready  to  bear  insults  for  the  name 
of  Jesus— as  We  grieve  at  the  loss  of  so  many  souls.  Relying,  how- 
ever, on  the  help  of  Jesus  Christ,  Who  will  never  be  wanting  to 
His  Church,  and  imploring  from  Him  an  end  of  such  great  evils, 
let  us,  with  supreme  effort,  continue  to  strive  that  in  the  bosom  of 
the  Church  holiness  of  morals  and  discipline  may  flourish  more 
and  more,  ,  .  . 

ALLOCUTION  A  Lei,  Signor  Candinale  TO  THE  COLLEGE  OF  CAR- 


The  Pope  laments  that  the  belligerent  nations  have 
refused  to  consider  his  peace  proposals. 

December  24,  1917 

554 By  now  accustomed  to  celebrate,  by  the  Divine 

Will,  with  joy  tempered  by  sadness,  the  most  sweet  recurrence  of 
the  holy  feast,  We  were  preparing  to  give  voice  to  the  sorrows 
of  the  father  and  the  anguish  of  the  shepherd,  in  this  fourth  war- 
time celebration  of  the  anniversary  of  the  Birth  of  Our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ. 

555.  Alas!  How  many  souls  We  saw  in  sorrow  because  of  the 
present  day,  how  many  in  fear  and  darkness  because  of  the  morrow! 
As  guardian  of  the  Fold  that  only  a  false  shepherd  could  bear  to 
see  fall  to  destruction,  We  felt,  like  Paul,  a  keen  sorrow  when 
all  Our  endeavors  to  effect  a  reconciliation  among  the  peoples  had 
failed.  We  were  grieved  particularly,  that  the  invitation  addressed 
by  Us  to  the  chiefs  of  the  belligerent  peoples  had  gone  unheeded — 
not  because  personal  gratification  had  been  denied  Us,  but  be- 
cause the  peace  of  nations  had  been  delayed. 

556.  From  the  most  authoritative  circles  there  had  been  an- 

138  Original  Italian,  Civilta  Cattolica,  1918,  v.  i,  pp.  15-17  (December  28,  1917). 


[557"558]  BENEDICT    XV 

nounced  some  essential  principles  of  discussion  that  could  have 
been  used  as  a  basis  for  a  common  understanding.  We  had  gathered 
these  points  simply  to  invite  the  heads  of  the  belligerent  States  to 
make  them  the  object  of  their  particular  attention,  with  the  sole 
purpose  of  obtaining  more  quickly  the  realization  of  that  wish  that 
lies  secret  and  stifled  in  the  hearts  of  all.  However,  when  We  saw 
that  We  were  either  unheeded  or  looked  upon  with  suspicion,  We 
could  not  fail  to  perceive  in  Ourselves  the  signum  cui  contra- 
dicetur}'^  We  were  comforted  by  the  hope  that  Our  invitation  to 
peace,  since  it  was  not  one  that  looked  for  immediate  effects,  might 
perhaps  be  likened  to  the  kernel  of  wheat  of  which  our  Divine 
Master  says,  Unless  the  grain  of  wheat  jailing  into  the  ground  die, 
itself  remaineth  alone;  but  if  it  die,  it  bringeth  forth  much  fruit^ 
Above  all,  We  were  comforted  by  the  knowledge  that  it  is  Our 
right  and  obligation  to  pursue  in  the  world  the  peace-making  mis- 
sion of  Jesus  Christ.  No  obstacle  and  no  danger  appeared  strong 
enough  to  make  Us  break  Our  resolution  to  do  Our  duty  and  to 
exercise  the  right  that  belongs  to  the  representative  of  the  Prince 
of  Peace. 

557.  But  We  cannot  deny  that  on  witnessing  the  deadly  strug- 
gles of  nations  that  were  once  flourishing  but  were  now  being 
driven  to  the  extremes  of  mutual  destruction,  and  fearing  that  the 
suicide  of  European  civilization  was  drawing  nearer  and  nearer, 
We  asked  in  sorrow,  "When,  and  how,  will  this  horrible  tragedy 
end?"  .  .  .  Opportunely  have  you  spoken,  Lord  Cardinal,  and  We 
applaud  the  fitness  of  your  advice,  according  to  which  you  look 
upon  the  present  conflict  in  the  light  of  Faith,  and  from  that  Faith 
you  derive  the  firm  conviction  that  the  present  calamities  will  not 
come  to  an  end  until  men  return  to  God. 

558.  But  in  order  that  the  comfort  which  We  are  pleased  to 
derive  from  the  Christmas  greetings  of  the  Sacred  College,  ex- 
pressed by  their  Most  Eminent  Dean,  be  a  messenger  of  better  days, 
We  shall  not  limit  Ourselves  merely  to  acknowledge  the  affirmed 
importance  of  a  return  to  God,  but,  with  the  most  earnest  and 
heartfelt  longing,  We  desire  to  hasten  the  hour  of  the  salutary 
return  of  contemporary  society  to  the  school  of  the  Gospel.    "When 
the  blind  of  today  shall  see,  and  the  deaf  shall  hear,  when  every 

139  Luke,  II,  34- 
^]ohn,  XII,  24-25. 



deviation  shall  be  righted  and  every  roughness  smoothed/5  when, 
in  other  words,  man  and  society  shall  go  back  to  God,  then—  and 
only  ±etL—sAall  all  flesh  see  the  salvation  of  God—videbit  omnis 
caw  salutare  Dei141  and  to  the  poor  and  to  the  suffering  shall  the 
good  tidings  of  peace  be  announced.  Oh!  the  great  lesson  that  the 
Church  repeats  to  us  with  the  words  of  the  liturgy  for  these  holy 
days!  ...... 

559.  And  to  return  to  God  it  would  be  sufficient  to  go  to 
Bethlehem  with  the  single-heartedness  of  the  shepherds;  it  would 
suffice  to  hearken  to  the  voice  of  heaven's  messenger  above  the 
Crib  of  the  Divine.  Oh!  Peace  of  Christ,  dear  to  every  age  that 
possessed  you,  how  much  dearer  should  you  be  to  our  age  which 
lost  you  for  so  long  a  time!  .  .  .  But  the  Peace  announced  by  the 
angels  at  Bethlehem  countenances  neither  hatred  nor  vengeance, 
cupidity  nor  slaughter  ...  it  is  the  voice  of  meekness  and  forgive- 
ness. ...  It  is  a  promise,  indeed,  it  is  a  reward  announced  to 
men  of  good  will.  Oh!  Let  this  never  be  forgotten  by  those  who 
see  in  the  annual  recurrence  of  the  Christmas  celebration  an  invita- 
tion to  return  to  the  Lord  by  way  of  Bethlehem!  ...... 

LETTER  Natalis  Trecenteslmi  TO  MOTHER  ANGELA  OF  OUR  LADY, 

Laxity  of  morals  increases  with  the  progress  of  the  war. 
December  27,  1917 

560.  It  is  indeed  fitting  that  the  solemn  celebration  of  the  three- 
hundredth  anniversary  of  the  foundation  of  the  Religious  Order 
of  the  Visitation  take  place  in  these  tempestuous  times.  It  is  evi- 
dent that  the  cause  of  so  many  evils  is  to  be  placed  especially  in 
this  fact  that  too  many  people  have  publicly  and  privately  aban- 
doned those  Christian  precepts  and  practices  which  are  the  very 
foundations  o£  States.  For  a  long  time  how,  but  especially  since  the 
change  in  French  policy,  the  effort  was  that  the  beneficent  authority 
of  the  Church,  gradually  restricted  to  a  narrower  field,  should  finally 
lose  all  influence  in  human  society.  Moreover,  there  has  been  a  de- 
termined effort  to  remove  womanhood  from  the  maternal  care  and 

1<LI»fr,m,  6. 

142  Original  Latin,  A.AS.,  v.  10,  p.  57  (February  i,  1918). 


protection  o£  the  Church.  Woman  has  indeed  marvelous  powers, 
either  for  good  or  for  bad,  upon  the  fortunes  of  the  human  race;  for 
if  she  openly  departs  from  the  path  of  virtue,  all  training  both  by 
the  family  and  by  the  State  is  easily  destroyed.  And  so  one  can  see 
that  when  religion  has  been  removed,  women  have  been  taught 
to  lay  aside  all  modesty  and  piety.  One  can  see,  too,  that  there  are 
many  women  who,  devoting  themselves  too  much  to  pursuits 
foreign  to  their  nature,  have  acquired  manners  of  acting  which  are 
utterly  masculine;  and  that  these  same  women,  deserting  their 
duties  in  the  home  for  which  they  were  created,  rashly  throw  them- 
selves into  the  midst  of  life's  struggle.  This  is  the  source  of  that 
deplorable  perversity  of  morals  which  the  license  of  the  war  itself 
has  unbelievably  increased  and  widely  propagated.  As  far  as  has 
been  in  your  power  you  have  opposed  this  perversion  of  right 
standards  by  properly  educating  girls  in  Christian  wisdom;  and 
with  God's  help  your  results  in  this  work  have  been  great  and 
outstanding.  .  .  . 

LETTER  Annua  Pietatis  Vestrae  TO  CARDINAL  GUSMINI,  ARCH- 

Without  God's  help,  men  cannot  restore  order  in  the 

December  29,  1917 

561.  The  annual  expression  of  your  filial  devotion,  which  you 
sent  to  Us  with  happy  wishes,  comes  to  Us,  not  indeed  as  joyful 
as  it  might  have  been,  considering  the  sorrowful  times,  but  never- 
theless as  most  pleasing  and  gratifying,  since  it  comes  from  those 
whom  We  know  to  be  closely  united  to  Us  by  ties  of  long  stand- 
ing. Responding  to  your  kindness  with  that  paternal  love  which 
We  have  for  you  and  which  is  at  the  same  time  known  to  you, 
We  ask  the  Divine  Infant  to  pour  forth  His  gifts  upon  you,  espe- 
cially the  perfection  of  them  all — peace — which  at  His  birth  He 
brought  to  all  men.  For  anyone  can  have  this  peace  in  his  soul, 
even  in  the  most  difficult  circumstances.  Would  that  the  nations 
of  the  world  would  settle  this  terrible  conflict  and  would  become 
sharers  of  that  peace  as  soon  as  possible!  Yes,  men  can  of  their 

143  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  10,  pp.  58-59  (February  i,  1918). 


IN    OGNI    PERIODO  [562-563] 

own  power  throw  the  whole  world  into  disorder  and  destroy  every- 
thing; but  they  cannot  rebuild  again  and  set  things  in  order  unless 
God  helps  them.  Therefore,  since  peace  must  be  sought  from 
heaven,  We  must  continue  to  pray  for  it  in  all  Our  supplications, 
even  though  Our  frequent  exhortations  to  men  have  thus  far  been 
of  no  avail.  Just  as  you  do,  We  shall  constantly  commend  Our 
prayers  to  the  patronage  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.  From  her  the  world 
received  peace  with  Christ;  under  her  guidance  may  it  return  to 
the  possession  of  that  peace  which  it  has  so  unfortunately  lost.  .  .  . 

ADDRESS  In  Ogni  Periodo  TO  THE  ROMAN  NoBiLiTY.144 

The  Pope   condemns   injustice   wherever   it   appears. 
January  5,  1918 

5^2 This  year,  however,  We  have  a  special  reason 

to  be  pleased  with  the  good  wishes  of  the  Roman  Patriciate  and 
Nobility.  In  this  very  instant  We  have  heard  the  worthy  repre- 
sentative of  this  high  rank  echo  Our  words,  inviting  all  peoples 
to  return  to  God,  in  order  to  hasten  the  end  of  the  tremendous 
calamity  which  has  afflicted  the  world  for  more  than  three  years. 
When  in  this  very  hall  We  sent  forth  that  invitation  to  the  nations 
to  return  to  God,  We  wished  especially  that  the  great  ones  of  the 
world  should  be  the  first  to  answer  the  appeal,  because  it  is  for 
them  to  go  before  the  little  ones  with  the  light  of  good  example. 
To-day  the  Roman  Patriciate  and  Nobility  have  come  to  Us,  and, 
celebrating,  through  the  voice  of  a  common  interpreter,  the  civil- 
ization brought  by  Christ,  recognize  with  Us  that  the  world  must 
return  to  Christ  to  enjoy  the  benefits  of  that  civilization.  .  .  . 

563.  The  joy  of  Our  soul  is  increased  by  the  certainty  that  each 
one  of  you,  dearly  beloved  sons,  wishes  to  run  in  the  way  which 
Christian  society  must  follow  to  return  to  Christ.  This  is  a  way  of 
justice  and  of  love.  But  We  have  already  remarked  your  zeal  for 
justice  in  the  words  with  which,  alluding  to  the  sorrowful  events 
which  have  lately  afflicted  our  country,  you  have  condemned 
methods  of  war  which  are  not  in  conformity  with  the  dictates  of 
the  law  of  nations.  In  this  also  you  have  associated  yourselves 

144  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  131,  p.  81  (January  19,  1918).   Original  Italian, 
UOsservatore  Romano,  January  6,  1918. 


[564]  BENEDICT    XV 

with  Us,  who,  faithful  to  Our  program  of  condemning  injustice 
wherever  it  appears,  have  even  recently  raised  Our  voice  against 
a  form  of  war  which,  waged  on  undefended  cities,  whilst  it  does 
not  obtain  results  of  military  value,  can  make,  and  indeed  has 
made,  victims  amongst  non-combatants,  and  can  and  has  damaged 
the  sacred  inheritance  of  religion  and  of  art,  making  national  hatred 
and  lust  for  vengeance  even  more  keen.  We  hope  that  the  love  of 
justice  will  follow  you  ^Iso  in  every  other  phase  of  private  and  public 
life,  and  will  confirm  you  in  the  resolution  to  render  unto  God 
that  which  is  due  to  Him,  and  to  your  neighbor  that  which  you 
would  wish  for  yourselves 

LETTER  Conspirantibus  Adversus  TO  THE  AUSTRIAN  BiSHOps.145 

The  Pope  endeavors  not  only  to  alleviate  the  cruel 
tragedies  of  the  war  but  also  to  hasten  its  end. 

February  2,  1918 

564.  ...  It  is  a  very  opportune  consolation  to  Us  that  you 
approve  greatly  Our  manner  of  action  with  regard  to  this  calamity 
of  war.  And  indeed  it  was  fitting  both  to  Our  Apostolic  office 
and  to  Our  charity  that  We  would  strive  with  all  Our  strength 
not  only  to  alleviate  great  sorrows  but  also  to  urge  and  to  hasten 
the  end  of  this  slaughter  of  Our  children.  But  if  this  profession 
of  your  gratitude  delights  Us,  how  much,  oa  the  other  hand,  does 
malevolence  pain  Us!  You  know  that  some  went  so  far  that,  re- 
jecting Our  exhortation  to  peace,  they  placed  the  blame  for  the 
evils  which  followed  upon  that  proof  of  paternal  love.  However, 
We  in  this  case  as  in-  all  others  which  belong  to  Our  office  are 
motivated  by  religious  duty,  not  by  the  approval  of  men:  and 
placing  all  Our  hope  in  Jesus  Christ,  Who  will  never  abandon  His 
Church,  there  is  no  reason  why  We  should  be  moved  by  these 
difficulties.  And  so  while  the  war  lasts,  let  Us  continue— the  only 
thing  that  is  left — to  lighten  in  some  measure  so  great  a  burden  of 
troubles  and  griefs  by  the  various  offices  of  Christian  charity;  and, 
in  the  meantime,  by  Our  prayers  to  strive,  along  with  you  and  with 
all  good  men,  finally  to  call  down  peace,  the  companion  of  justice, 
from  heaven,  whence  eventually  it  must  be  expected.  .  .  . 

145  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  10,  p.  90  (March  i,  1918). 


TO    DELEGATES     FROM    FINLAND        [565-567] 


Before  the  Holy  See  all  nations,  large  or  small,  have 
equal  rights. 

March  2,  1918 

565.  True  to  its  tradition  to  recognize  the  same  rights  for  small 
nations  as  for  the  large  ones,  the  Holy  See  will  be  happy  to  establish 
immediate  friendly  relations  with  the  government  of  Finland. 

DENYS  CocHiN.147 

Cardinal  Gasparri  tries  to  dear  up  French  misunder- 
standings concerning  the  effort  of  the  Holy  See  to  pre- 
vent the  deportation  of  Frenchmen  into  Germany. 

March  16,  1918 

566.  I  have  duly  received  your  letter  of  February  22,148  in  which 
you  reply  to  mine  of  February  18.  The  sole  object  of  my  letter  was 
to  put  a  stop  to  the  deportations,  and  with  that  object  I  forwarded 
to  you  Germany's  proposals  concerning  them.   If  you  think  that 
these  proposals  compromised  a  principle,  and  were,  therefore,  un- 
acceptable, even  with  reservations  on  the  principle,  you  have  only 
a  very  simple  course  to  take — not  to  accept  them. 

567.  You  say  that  the  Holy  See  has  no  word  o£  reprobation 
for  the  deportations.  Are  you  quite  sure  of  that?    Do  you  know 
the  documents  that  are  in  the  archives  of  the  Secretary  of  State? 
As  to  seeing  in  my  letter  any  affirmation  that  Alsace-Lorraine  is 
German,  that  is  going  altogether  too  far.   When  you  wrote  your 
letter  you  had  plainly  lost  your  customary  command  of  your  pen, 
so  please  allow  me  to  consider  your  letter  as  not  having  been 

146  Original  Italian,  Osservatore  *  Romano  (March  3,  1918).  German  translation  from 
Lama,  Papst  und  Kurie,  p.  430. 

147 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  131,  pp.  490-491  (April  13,  1918).  Italian  trans- 
lation from  the  French  original,  which  we  have  been  unable  to  find,,  Civiltd, 
Cattolica,  1918,  v.  2,  p.  173  (April  12,  1918). 

148  M.  Denys  labored  under  the  misapprehension  that  the  proposals  offered  by  Germany 
were  made  by  the  Holy  See. 


[568-571]  BENEDICT    XV 


To  help  in  the' reconstruction  of  Poland  the  Pope  sends 
Achille  Ratti  as  Apostolic  Visitor. 

April  25,  1918 

568.  In  the  midst  of  the  great  difficulties  and  anxieties  that 
weigh  upon  Us,  brought  on  by  this  murderous  war  that  is  daily 
increasing  in  violence,  as  with  new  fire  added  to  existing  flames, 
the  merciful  goodness  of  God  permits  Us  to  enjoy  at  intervals 
some  consolation  which  strengthens  within  Us  the  hope  that  when 
once  this  huge  accumulation  of  miseries  shall  have  disappeared, 
things  will  turn  out  in  such  wise  as  to  benefit  the  Catholic  Religion 
and  the  eternal  salvation  of  men.    Thus  it  was  that  We  derived 
no  little  joy  of  heart  from  the  letter  which  you  addressed  to  Us 
on  the  nth  of  December  last;  for  after  giving  the  fullest  expres- 
sion of  your  love  and  reverence  for  Us,  you  went  on  to  tell  Us  of 
the  very  weighty  deliberations  you  had  held  in  the  council  of 
bishops  convened  that  very  day  in  Warsaw,  with  a  view  to  estab- 
lishing on  a  new  basis  the  Catholic  cause  in  the  territory  of  Poland. 

569.  Certainly   no   one,   much    less   Ourself,    could   entertain 
any  doubt  as  to  your  very  close  union  with  Us,  since  it  is  a  fact 
of  common  knowledge  that  ever  and  uninterruptedly,  through 
whatever  difficult  circumstances  may  have  prevailed,  you  have  per- 
severed in  communion  with  the  Apostolic  See.  But  We  set  a  greater 
value  upon  this  more  recent  expression  of  your  devoted  attachment 
to  Us  for  this  reason,  that  it  comes  opportunely  at  a  juncture  when 
a  more  widespread  increase  of  political  freedom  and  a  full  and 
entire  liberty  to  practice  the  Faith  of  their  ancestors  seem  to  be 
dawning  for  the  Catholics  of  Poland. 

570.  You  are  undertaking  a  highly  important  and  difficult  work, 
and  it  demands  that  you  set  aside  every  division  of  opinion  and 
bring  all  your  powers  to  bear  upon  it;  if  thus  .your  minds  are  in 
agreement,  the  result  can  only  be  that,  with  God's  help,  the  benefits 
to  religion  will  correspond  in  abundance  to  the  harmony  of  your 

571.  In  order  to  give  a  public  and  unmistakable  testimony  of 
the  special  care  and  benevolence  We  bear  towards  you  and  the 

149  Original  Latin,  Actes  de  Benoit  XV,  v.  i,  pp.  191-193. 


QUARTUS    JAM    ANNUS  [572'57$] 

task  that  now  engages  you,  as  also  to  receive  the  expressions  o£ 
good-will  in"  Our  behalf  of  which  you  have  made  profession,  We 
have  resolved  to  send  to  you  as  Our  personal  representative,  Our 
beloved  son,  Achille  Ratti,  Prothonotary  Apostolic  and  Prefect 
of  the  Apostolic  Vatican  Library.  To  him  as  Apostolic  Visitor  will 
pertain  matters  strictly  ecclesiastical;  We  charge  him,  that  is  to  say, 
with  the  task  of  examining  into  what  advice,  what  powers,  what 
remedies  the  Catholic  structure  needs  in  your  midst;  and  in  making 
such  regulations  for  it  as  will  seem  best  under  the  circumstances, 
he  is  to  be  your  associate  and  fellow  counselor.  Holding,  therefore, 
this  appointment  as  intermediary  between  the  Apostolic  See  and 
the  bishops  of  Poland,  he  will  with  greater  ease  make  known  to 
Us  your  desires  and  communicate  to  you  Our  decisions;  the  result 
of  this  arrangement  will  undoubtedly  be  that  the  new  order  of 
things  which  you  have  begun  to  create  will  be  put  into  effect  in 
perfect  harmony  with  Our  ideas  and  your  own  as  well. 

572.  There  is  no  need,  assuredly  to  recommend  to  you  a  man 
whom  his  personal  piety,  his  zeal  for  religion,  his  practical  experi- 
ence in  affairs  and  his  universally  known  learning  more  than  suffi- 
ciently recommend;  this,  though,  We  desire  you  to  know:  that 
Our  confidence  in  this  admirable  man  is  such  that  We  are  convinced 
that  his  labors  will  prove  of  very  great  benefit  to  your  episcopal 
sees.   Since,  however,  human  counsels  are  of  no  avail  unless  they 
be  seconded  by  the  grace  of  the  omnipotent  God,  We  beseech  Him 
with  earnest  prayers  to  enlighten  and  direct  your  minds  with  the 
gifts  of  His  heavenly  wisdom.  .  .  . 

MOTU  PROPRIO — Quartus  Jam  Annus.150 

All  priests  must  celebrate  Holy  Mass  on  June  29  for 
the  speedy  end  of  the  war. 

May  9,  1918 

573.  Already  the  fourth  year  is  drawing  to  its  close  since  the 
moment  when,  soon  after  the  European  conflagration  had  broken 
out,  We  took  up  the  burden  of  the  Supreme  Pontificate;  and  in  all 
this  space  of  time  since,  the  fury  of  war,  instead  of  decreasing,  has 

150  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  131,  p.  658  (May  18,  1918).    Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  10,  pp.  225-227  (June  i,  1918). 


[574"577]  BENEDICT    XV 

gained  continually  in  strength,  the  anguish  of  Our  heart  has  had 
no  rest  before  the  terrible  evils  which  have  been  accumulating. 
Following  this  tragic  sequel  of  events,  not  only  have  We  shared 
in  the  sufferings  of  all,  even  to  being  able  to  say  with  St.  Paul: 
Who  is  wea\,  and  I  am  not  weaf(?  Who  is  made  to  stumble,  and 
1  am  not  inflamed?1*1;  but  further,  as  far  as  has  been  possible  to 
Us,  We  have  omitted  nothing  which  consciousness  of  the  Apostolic 
duty  dictated  or  the  charity  of  Christ  suggested  to  Us.  And  now 
the  condition  in  which  We  find  Ourself  is  such  that  it  recalls  that 
of  King  Josaphat  when  in  his  anguish  he  exclaimed:  Lord,  God 
of  our  Fathers,  Thou  art  God  in  heaven,  and  rulest  over  all  king- 
doms and  nations;  in  Thy  hand  is  strength  and  power,  and  no 
one  can  resist  Thee  .  .  .  we  will  cry  to  Thee  in  our  afflictions, 
and  Thou  wilt  hear  and  save  us.  ...  0  our  God  .  .  .  as  we  \now 
not  what  to  do,  we  can  only  turn  our  eyes  to  Thee.1"2 

574.  Therefore,  laying  all  Our  anxiety  in  the  Hands  of  God,1** 
Who  rules  the  hearts  of  men  and  the  course  of  events,  from  Him 
alone  "Who  heals  whilst  punishing,  and  forgiving  skves,"  We  await 
the  end  of  this  terrible  scourge,  that  He  may  soon  give  back  His 
peace  to  the  world  and  restore  the  reign  of  charity  and  justice 
among  men. 

575.  But,  before  all,  must  be  appeased  the  just  wrath  of  God, 
caused  by  the  spread  of  perversity  in  siri.   Humble  and  suppliant 
prayer,  offered  with  perseverance  and  trust,  will  contribute  much 
to  this  end;  but  more  efficacious  still  in  obtaining  Divine  Mercy  is 
the  Holy  Sacrifice  of  the  Mass,  in  which  we  offer  to  our  Heavenly 
Father  Him  Who  gave  Himself  in  redemption  for  0///54  and  lives 
still  to  intercede  for  us.155 

576.  And  the  Church  is  right  in  ordaining  that  pastors  of  souls 
shall  celebrate  on  fixed  days  for  the  needs  of  the  Christian  people 

'  when  this  loving  Mother  wishes  to  invoke  the  mercies  of  God  on 
the  needs  of  her  children.  And  what  need  can  be  to-day  more 
urgent  than  this  in  which  all  are  comprised — that  tranquillity  and 
true  brotherhood  between  peoples  may  reign  again? 

577.  It  seems,  therefore,  most  opportune  to  Us  to  invite  to  that 

151 II  Corinthians,  XI,  29. 

152 II  Paralipomenon,  XX,  6-12. 

153  I  Peter,  V,  7. 

134 1  Timothy,  II,  6. 

155  Hebrews,  VII,  25. 


M'AXIMAS     INTER    HORUM  [57^79] 

end  all  pastors  to  celebrate  together  with  Us  on  a  solemn  occasion; 
and,  therefore,  by  this  Motu  proprio  We  ordain  that  on  June  29, 
Feast  of  the  holy  Apostles,  Peter  and  Paul,  help  and  patrons  of 
Christendom,  all  priests  who  are  under  the  obligation  of  celebrat- 
ing pro  populo  shall  offer  the  Holy  Sacrifice  for  this  Our  inten- 
tion, and  furthermore  let  all  other  priests  of  both  branches  of  the 
clergy  know  that  they  will  be  doing  an  act  most  pleasing  to  Us 
if  they  also,  celebrating  on  that  day,  will  unite  their  intention  to 
Ours.  Thus  will  the  whole  Catholic  priesthood,  in  union  with 
the  Vicar  of  Christ,  offer  on  every  altar  of  the  world  the  Host  of 
propitiation  and  love,  and  by  doing  violence  together  to  the  Heart 
of  God,  will  strengthen  the  hope  that  at  length  that  for  which  all 
people  long  may  be  realized:  Justice  and  peace  have 

LETTER  Maximas  inter  Horum  TO  CARDINAL  FERRARI,  ARCH- 


The  papal  peace  efforts  have  been  scandalously  misin- 
terpreted by  the  enemies  of  the  Church. 

May  22,  1918 

578.  In  the  profound  sorrows  of  the  present  time,  the  collective 
letter  which  you  sent  Us  on  the  25th  of  April  last  has  brought  Us 
no  small  comfort.   In  your  meeting,  as  those  responsible  for  the 
government  of  the  Church  in  the  province  of  Lombardy,  you  at 
once  felt  that  "the  Father  could  not  be  absent  from  a  meeting  of 
the  brethren;"  therefore,  with  ardent  affection  you  called  for  Us 
to  be  present  in  your  midst,  confirming  with  most  noble  words 
your  union  with  and  attachment  to  Us,  which  are  all  the  stronger 
"in  that  in  the  present  upheaval  of  society  the  enemies  of  religion 
are  attacking  the  supreme  authority  of  Jesus  Christ  entrusted  to 
him  whom  God  constituted  teacher  and  upholder  of  justice." 

579.  Over  and  above  the  unutterable  horrors  of  this  war  which 
is  without  precedent,  and  threatens  to  drag  poor  Europe  down  into 
the  abyss,  much  grief  is  caused  Us  by  the  insidious  and  crafty  cam- 
paign of  calumny  and  hatred  against  Our  person  and  Our  work, 

156  Psalms,  LXXXIV,  11- 

157  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  131,  p.  800   (June  22,  1918).    Ongmal  Latin, 

,  v.  10,  pp.  273-275  (July  i,  1918). 

[580-581]  BENEDICT    XV 

while  We  could  conscientiously  say  to  the  human  race,  bathed  in 
its  own  blood,  in  the  words  of  sacred  Scripture:  —  What  is  there  that 
I  ought  to  do  more  to  my  vineyard,  that  I  have  not  done  to  it?158 

580.  After  the  outbreak  of  this  conflagration,  which  for  the 
good  of  all  We  wished  could  have  been  averted,  as  far  as  was 
in  Our  power  We  missed  no  opportunity  of  doing  or  attempting 
anything  that  might  soften  and  mitigate  the  terrible  consequences. 
More  than  once,  and  especially  in  the  Consistorial  Allocution  at 
the  beginning  of  1915,  and  again  more  explicitly  in  the  other  of 
December  4  in  the  following  year,  We  reproved,  as  again  now  We 
reprove,  every  kind  of  violation  of  right  wherever  it  may  be  per- 
petrated.   In  addition  to  that,  with  exhortations,  public  prayers, 
expiatory  functions,  with  proposals  for  a  just  and  lasting  peace, 
We  studied  to  bring  nearer  the  end  of  this  awful  slaughter.  In  spite 
of  that,  Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brothers,  you  know  well  the 
crazy  and  absurd  calumnies  which,  under  many  and  varied  forms, 
publicly  and  secretly,  by  word  of  mouth  and  in  writing,  are  being 
spread  everywhere.  In  the  country  and  the  villages,  where  sorrow 
is  deepest,  and  on  that  account  more  deserving  of  regard  and  re- 
spect, it  is  being  said  that  We  desired  the  war;  in  the  cities,  on 
the  other  hand,  it  is  spread  about  that  We  desire  peace,  but  an 
unjust  peace  which  would  be  an  advantage  only  to  one  of  the 
belligerent  groups.   And  Our  words  are  so  twisted,  Our  thoughts 
and  intentions  so  suspected,  Our  silence  with  regard  to  this  or  that 
misdeed  is  so  scandalously  misinterpreted,  as  if  in  such  a  state  of 
uncertainty,  and  when  passion  is  so  fiercely  aroused,  it  were  easy 
or  even  possible  to  inflict  single  condemnations  on  single  facts 
which,  by  a  condemnation  pronounced  by  Us  in  virtue  of  a  general 
all-embracing  principle,  have,  every  one  of  them,  already  been  re- 
proved, and  surely  with  fairer  judgment. 

581.  But  this  campaign  of  hatred  is  not  confined  to  Ourself  and 
Our  work.  The  gravest  injury  is  done  also  to  most  highly  deserv- 
ing priests  and  illustrious  bishops  in  casting  doubt  on  their  loyalty 
to  their  country;  by  the  lowest  devices  of  persecutors  and  informers, 
attempts  are  made  to  take  them  by  surprise,  to  defame  them  and 
bring  them  into  the  courts.  And  so,  at  the  very  moment  when  Italy 
should  have  so  much  need  of  peace  and  concord  among  all  citizens, 
the  enemies  of  religion,  actually  taking  advantage  of  this  unhappy 



time,  are  striving  to  stir  up  the  ignorant  and  simple  multitude 
against  this  Seat  of  truth  and  justice,  against  the  clergy,  against  the 
Catholics,  sowing  the  seeds  of  discord  among  the  different  social 

582.  But  though  this  perverse  campaign  causes  Us  deepest  sor- 
row, still  it  does  not  surprise  Us  or  discourage  Us;  much  less  does 
it  enfeeble  Us.  Far  from  it.  Called  by  the  hidden  counsels  of  Divine 
Providence  to  govern  the  Church,  We  have  profound  feeling  of 
Our  duty  to  defend  its  sanctity  and  safeguard  its  honor.  And,  there- 
fore, against  this  diffusion  of  calumnies  and  hatred  We,  too,  together 
with  you,  Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brethren,  protest  anew  with 
the  voice  of  Our  Divine  Ministry,  and  We  denounce  it  before  the 
conscience,  not  only  of  the  faithful,  but  of  all  honest  men 



All  language  controversies  should  be  solved  in   the 
spirit  of  charity. 

June  7,  1918 

583.  In  Our  Apostolic  letter,  Commisso  Divinitus™  which  We 
sent  you  on  September  8,  1916,  We  earnestly  exhorted  the  clergy 
and  Catholic  people  of  your  country  that  they  should  lay  aside  all 
contentions  and  quarrels  which  have  arisen  either  by  reason  of  race 
or  from  diversity  of  languages.  At  the  same  time  We  urged  that 
if  controversies  should  thereafter  occur  from  these  causes  they  should 
be  restricted  as  charity  requires,  as  it  becomes  saints  careful  to 
serve  the  unity  of  the  spirit  in  the  bond  of  peace 

584.  Now  the  time  has  come  to  address  Our  words  to  all  Our 
brethren,  the  bishops  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  and  to  repeat 
to  them  from  the  depths  of  Our  soul  the  exhortation  which  We 
gave  two  years  since:  that  they  be  of  one  heart  and  of  one  mind 
and  that  there  may  be  no  division  among  them  by  reason  either 
of  racial  origin  or  of  speech.  For  one  and  the  same  Spirit  set  them 
to  rule  the  Church  of  God,  the  Spirit  of  unity  and  of  peace.  Thus 

159  Translation  from  Eppstein,  The  Catholic  Tradition  of  the  Law  oj  Nations,  p.  388. 

Original  Latin,  A~A.S.,  v.  10,  pp.  44&-441  (November  2,  1918). 

160  See  supra  n.  464. 


[585-586]  BENEDICT    XV 

will  it  be  right  for  you,  being  made  a  pattern  of  the  flocf^  from  the 
heart}^  with  greater  authority  and  efficacity,  Venerable  Brethren, 
to  order  your  priests  (and  We  enjoin  that  this  order  be  strictly 
given)  both  to  observe  spiritual  concord  amongst  themselves  and 
strive  by  word  and  example  to  have  it  preserved  by  the  faithful. 
To  which  end  We  desire  again  and  again  to  recommend  what  in 
earlier  Apostolic  letters  We  have  recommended,  "that  all  the  priests 
should  seek  to  acquire  the  habit  of  speaking  competently  each  of 
the  two  languages,  English  and  French,  and  casting  all  prejudices 
aside,  should  use  now  one,  now  the  other  to  meet  the  needs  of 
the  faithful" 


The  Pope  realizes  that  his  efforts  for  peace  will  be 
appreciated  by  j  air -minded  men  after  the  war. 

July  26,  1918 

585 .  .  Appropriately  you  recall  what  We  have  done 

from  the  very  beginning  of  Our  Pontificate,  with  the  help  of  God, 
toward  lessening  the  sorrows  of  this  cruel  war  and  hastening  its 
end.  Indeed,  paying  no  attention  to  those  attacks  and  that  con- 
tumely, We  shall  persevere  in  Our  efforts  for  human  society,  for 
We  well  know  that  Our  advice  and  Our  acts  will  be  approved 
by  all  fair-minded  men  as  instinct  with  justice  and  charity  when 
affairs  and  minds  have  been  tranquillized 



The  Swiss  Bishops  are  congratulated  for  their  zeal  in 
behalf  of  the  captives. 

October  13,  1918 

586,    ...  As  regards  the  pleasing  news  which  you  have  given 
Us  regarding  those  captives,  who,  at  Our  request,  are  kept  along 

161 1  Peter,  V,  3. 

162  Translation  from  Irish  Ecclesiastical  Record,  ser.  5,  v.  12,  p.  338  (October,  1918), 

Original  Latin,  Irish  Ecclesiastical  Record,  ser.  5,  v.  12,  p.  337  (October,  1918). 

163  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  10,  p.  448  (November  2,  1918). 


NEL    GRAVE    PERIODO  [587-588] 

the  Swiss  border  because  of  their  health,  We  are  grateful  to  you  in 
return,  Venerable  Brethren,  who,  spurred  on  by  the  love  of  Christ, 
have  always  been  accustomed  zealously  to  help  Us  to  alleviate  their 
suffering.  We  pray  that  God  may  reward  you  by  an  abundance 
of  His  gifts.  .  .  . 


Benedict  XV   wishes  io  see  Poland  restored   to  full 

October  15,  1918 

587.  In  the  grave  crisis  which  is  passing  over  Europe,  We 
cannot  resist  the  promptings  of  Our  affection  to  send  to  you  and 
to  the  noble  Polish  nation  a  word  of  comfort  and  hope.    History 
has  recorded  in  letters  of  gold  what  Poland  has  done  for  Christianity 
and  for  European  civilization;  but,  alas,  it  also  has  to  record  the 
evil  with  which  Europe  has  repaid  its  merits.  After  having  violently 
despoiled  it  of  political  independence,  it  has  endeavored  in  certain 
quarters  to  deprive  it  of  its  Catholic  Faith  and  its  very  nationality; 
but  with  admirable  resistance,  the  Poles  have  known  how  to  pre- 
serve both  one  and  the  other,  and  today,  after  surviving  an  oppres- 
sion of  more  than  a  century,  Polonia  semper  fidelis  is  more  active 
than  ever. 

588.  The  Holy  See,  which  loved  Poland  at  the  height  of  its 
glory,  loves  it  still  more,  if  that  be  possible,  in  the  depths  of  its 
misfortunes,  even  as  a  mother's  love  for  her  children  increases  with 
their  increasing  unhappiness.   We  cannot  but  recall  that  the  only 
one,  during  the  dismemberment  of  Poland,  who  set  himself  to 
maintain,  though  in  the  event  without  success,  the  nationality  and 
independence  of  Poland,  was  Pope  Clement  XIV,  of  happy  memory, 
who  wrote  to  all  the  Catholic  sovereigns  in  the  strongest  of  terms. 
It  is  well  also  to  record  the  fact  that,  during  the  long  years  of  Polish 
martyrdom,  while  others  merely  watched  in  silence  the  oppressor's 
exercise  of  brutal  force,  Our  Predecessors,  Gregory  XVI  and  Pius  IX, 
lifted  their  voices  in  vigorous  protest  in  behalf  o£  the  oppressed. 

164  Translation  from  America,  v.  20,  p.  356  (January  18,  1919)-    Original  Italian, 
Civilta  Cattolica,  1918,  v.  4,  p.  430  (November  29,  1918). 


[589-591]  BENEDICT  xv 

When  the  story  of  the  Catholic  Church  in  Poland  during  the 
eighteenth  century  is  published,  with  the  authentic  documents  in 
Our  archives,  and  We  hope  it  will  appear  soon,  more  light  will 
be  thrown  on  the  indescribable  sufferings  of  the  Polish  people  and 
the  unceasing,  truly  maternal  solicitude  of  the  Holy  See  to  render 
them  assistance. 

589.  But,  infinite  thanks  be  to  the  Lord,  the  dawn  of  the  resur- 
rection of  Poland  is  at  last  appearing.  It  is  Our  ardent  desire  that 
it  may  be  restored  to  its  full  independence  at  the  earliest  possible 
date,  and  that  it  may  take  its  place  in  the  congress  of  nations  and 
continue  its  history  as  a  civil  and  Christian  nation;  and  it  is  Our 
fond  hope  that  at  the  same  time  all  the  other  nations,  non-Catholic 
nations  included,  that  have  hitherto  been  subject  to  Russia,  may  be 
allowed  to  decide  their  own  lot  and  develop  and  prosper  according 
to  their  native  genius  and  their  own  individual  resources.     • 

590.  In  the  hope  of  seeing  the  realization  of  these  wishes  of 
Ours  in  the  near  future,  We  desire,  in  addition  to  the  provision 
We  have  recently  made  for  an  enlarged  and  more  adequate  estab- 
lishment of  the  Catholic  hierarchy  in  that  land,  to  give  to  you, 
Venerable  Brother,  and  through  you  to  the  Polish  people,  a  further 
and  more  solemn  proof  of  Our  good-will  and  confidence;  and  to 
this  end  it  is  Our  purpose,  at  the  first  Consistory  which  the  Lord 
shall  grant  Us  to  hold,  to  elevate  you  to  the  cardinalate 



The  Pope  in  urging  peace  ma^es  no  distinction  among 
the  belligerents. 

October  16,  1918 

591.  ...  This  fury  of  arms  had  already  broken  out  in  Europe 
when  We  were  elevated  to  the  Supreme  Pontificate:  and  since  it 
was  not  allowed  to  Us  to  limit  that  outbreak,  much  less  to  repress 
it,  We  began  to  try  the  one  thing  that  remained,  namely,  to  lessen 
the  misfortunes  connected  with  this  great  evil  so  far  as  We  were 
able.  Hence,  Our  various  plans  and  charitable  services  for  lessening 
miseries  and  distress. 

165  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  10,  p.  449  (November  2,  1918). 

TO    CARDINAL    VON    HARTMANN        [592-595] 

592.  In  enumerating  these  services  you  rightly  affirm  that  We, 
in  performing  them,  have  made  no  distinction  among  the  bel- 
ligerents.  In  accordance  with  that  same  design,  which  would  be 
salutary  for  all  nations,  to  the  end  that  slaughter  and  destruction 
might  be  terminated.  We,  as  often  as  seemed  proper^  have  urged 
peace,  and  a  peace  in  harmony  with  justice.  You  have  supported 
Our  position  in  an  outstanding  manner,  being  grieved  that  the 
voice  and  exhortation  of  a  Father  was  neglected,  then  in  particular 
when  he  had  proposed  those  points  which  alone  seemed  capable 
of  securing  a  settlement  of  hostilities.  Indeed,  We  were  taken  aback 
that  Our  charity  was  answered  in  this  way;  for  who  would  believe 
that  what  had  proceeded  from  Us  as  a  duty  of  Our  love  to  reconcile 
men  with  one  another  would  be  turned  against  Us  and  become  a 
matter  of  public  hatred?    Although  in  this  affair  the  wickedness 
of  certain  men  who  bitterly  accused  Us  to  the  public  of  favoritism 
for  one  side  or  the  other,  is  not  so  much  to  be  wondered  at  as  the 
rashness  of  many  who  gave  credence  to  a  most  ridiculous  charge. 

593.  Now  We  most  joyfully  learn  from  your  letter  that  this 
fickleness  of  judgment  is  in  no  wise  to  be  reprehended  in  the  case 
of  Canadian  Catholics  of  both  tongues,  who  have  always  with  one 
mind  and  voice  agreed  with  Us  about  this  war.  .  .  . 


Peace  deliberations  must  be  approached  in  good  will. 
November  6,  1918 

594.  The  letter  sent  by  Your  Eminence,  in  the  name  of  the 
bishops  who  are  accustomed  to  gather  annually  at  Fulda,  awakened 
the  most  profound  compassion  in  the  heart  of  the  Holy  Father. 
In  it  you  related  vividly  the  sufferings  of  the  German  people  in 
this  dreadful  war  and  begged  him  to  use  his  influence  in  behalf 
of  the  German  fatherland,  which  you  saw  threatened  in  its  very 

595.  Inspired  by  that  love  that  draws  him  especially  to  his 
troubled  and  suffering  children,  the  Holy  Father  well  understands 

166  German  text  from  Lama,  Papst  und  Kurie,  p.  5.  Lama's  reference  to  the  Osserva- 
tore  Romano,  December  6,  1918,  is  a  mistake  because  we  have  searched  in  vain 
through  the  November  and  December  issues  for  this  letter. 


[596-597]  BENEDICT    XV 

and  feels  the  full  bitterness  of  the  sorrow  that  fills  Your  Eminence 
and  your  zealous  colleagues.  From  the  depth  of  his  heart  he  im- 
plores the  Lord  God  to  give  you  consolation  and  strength. 

596.  During  the  war  the  Holy  Father  did  not  cease  to  deplore 
injustices  and  cruelties,  no  matter  which  side  committed  them. 
He  did  not  tire  in  imploring  the  warring  sides  to  abandon  their 
intentions  of  destroying  one  another  and  to  turn  instead  to  charity 
and  mercy.  Thus,  too,  in  the  present  overwhelming  events,  he  has 
repeatedly  turned  to  the  leader  of  a  large  warring  State  and  adjured 
him  by  the  Precious  Blood  of  Jesus  Christ,  Saviour  of  the  world, 
to  approach  the  armistice  proposal  and  peace  deliberations  in  good 
will,  so  that  a  peace,  just  and  honorable  for  all,  might  ensue.  May 
the  Almighty  bless  these  efforts;  may  He  in  His  boundless  mercy 
soon  grant  the  hard-tried  people  of  Germany  the  good  fortune  of 
a  just  and  lasting  peace.  As  security  there  is  the  Apostolic  Blessing 
which  His  Holiness  grants  all  the  German  dioceses  and  their 
Venerable  Shepherds.  .  .  . 


OF   STATE.167 

The  Pope  rejoices  in  the  Austrian-Italian  peace  nego- 

November  8,  1918 

597.  After  the  last  fortunate  successes  of  the  Italian  arms,  the 
enemies  of  this  Apostolic  See,  firm  in  their  determination  to  use 
to  its  detriment  happy  as  well  as  unhappy  events,  have  endeavored, 
and  are  still  endeavoring,  to  excite  against  it  Italian  public  opinion 
which  is  rejoicing  in  the  victory  attained,  as  if  forsooth  the  Supreme 
Pontiff  was  in  his  heart  displeased  thereat.  You,  Lord  Cardinal, 
through  daily  intercourse,  are  well  aware  of  Our  sentiments,  as 
also  of  the  practice  and  teaching  of  the  Church  in  similar  circum- 
stances. In  the  letter  of  August  i,  1917,  to  the  rulers  of  the  different 
belligerent  Powers,  We  expressed  the  hope,  which,  indeed,  was 
repeated  later  on  other  occasions,  that  the  territorial  questions  be- 
tween Austria  and  Italy  might  find  a  solution  in  conformity  with 


167 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  132,  p.  579   (November  23,   1918).    Original 
Italian,  A.A.S.,  v.  10,  pp.  478-479  (December  5,  1918). 


QUOD    JAM    DIU  [598] 

the  just  aspirations  of  the  peoples;  and  recently  We  have  given 
instructions  to  Our  Nuncio  at  Vienna  to  establish  friendly  rela- 
tions with  the  different  nationalities  of  the  Austro-Hungarian  Em- 
pire which  have  constituted  themselves  into  independent  States. 
In  fact,  the  Church,  a  perfect  society,  which  has  for  its  one  and 
only  aim  the  sanctification  of  men  in  all  times  and  all  countries, 
while  it  adapts  itself  to  different  forms  of  government,  so  it  accepts 
without  any  difficulty  the  legitimate  territorial  and  political  varia- 
tions of  the  peoples.  We  believe  that  if  these  judgments  and  appre- 
ciations of  Ours  were  more  generally  known,  no  person  of  good 
sense  would  persist  in  attributing  to  Us  a  regret  for  which  there 
is  no  foundation.  But  We  cannot  deny  that  a  cloud  still  disturbs 
the  calmness  of  Our  mind  because  hostilities  have  not  yet  ceased 
everywhere,  and  the  clash  of  arms  still  gives  rise  in  many  places 
to  anxiety  and  fear.  But  We  hope  that  it  will  not  be  long  before 
the  happy  dawn  of  peace  which  has  arisen  also  over  Our  beloved 
country  rejoices  the  other  warring  peoples,  and  We  foretaste  the 
sweetness  of  that  day,  now  not  far  off,  in  which  charity  will  return 
to  reign  amongst  men,  and  universal  concord  will  unite  the  nations 
in  a  league  fruitful  of  good.  Meanwhile  We  are  glad  to  confirm 
to  you,  Lord  Cardinal,  Our  special  benevolence,  a  new  pledge  of 
which  shall  be  the  Apostolic  Benediction  which  We  impart  to  you 
with  deep  and  very  special  affection. 

ENCYCLICAL   Quod  Jam   Diu   ON   THE   FUTURE   PEACE   CON- 


Catholics  are  requested  to  pray  for  the  coming  peace 
conference  that  from  it  a  just  and  lasting  peace  may 

December  i,  1918 

598.  That  which  the  entire  world  has  so  long  sighed  for,  what 
Christianity  implored  with  so  much  fervent  prayer,  and  what  We, 
the  interpreter  of  the  sorrow  of  all,  with  the  heart  of  a  father, 
continually  kept  asking  for,  has  come  in  a  moment.  The  clang 
of  arms  has  ceased  at  last.  It  is  true  that  peace  has  not  yet  formally 

168  Translation  from  The  Catholic  Mind,  v.  17,  pp.  67-68  (February  8,  1919)-  Original 
Latin,  A.A£,f  v.  io>  pp.  473-474  (December  5,  1918), 




put  an  end  to  the  war.  However,  with  the  armistice,  which  has 
meantime  suspended  carnage  and  devastation  by  land,  sea  and  air, 
the  road  to  peace  is  fortunately  clear. 

599.  In  order  to  explain  such  a  sudden  event  several  causes 
might  be  adduced.  But  if  we  want  to  seek  the  principal  cause,  we 
absolutely  must  look  to  Him  Who  governs  all  occurrences,  Who, 
led  to  mercy  by  the  continual  prayers  of  the  good,  granted  humanity 
to  withdraw  from  so  many  struggles  and  so  many  causes  of  anguish. 
Therefore,  while  giving  thanks  to  the  goodness  of  the  Lord,  we 
rejoice  at  the  many  imposing  demonstrations  of  piety  that  have 
been  held  throughout  the  Catholic  world  for  the  purpose. 

600.  Now  it  remains  to  us  to  beg  of  Divine  Clemency  that  the 
great  favor  granted  to  us  may  have  its  crowning  success.   Within 
a  short  time  the  delegates  of  the  several  nations  will  unite  in  solemn 
congress  for  the  purpose  of  giving  to  the  world  a  just^  and  lasting 
peace.   They  will  accordingly  have  to  come  to  decisions  of  such 
grave  importance  and  of  so  complex  a  nature  as  were  never  before 
taken  by  any  human  assembly. 

601.  It  is,  then,  not  necessary  to  point  out  how  imperative  it  is 
that  they  receive  light  from  above  in  order  to  execute  properly  their 
mandate.  And  since  there  is  question  of  decisions  that  concern  the 
weal  of  all  humanity  to  the  highest  degree,  without  any  doubt  all 
Catholics,  who  are  in  conscience  bound  to  favor  order  and  the 
progress  of  civilization,  have  the  obligation  of  invoking  the  Divine 
aid  for  those  who  take  part  in  the  Peace  Conference.  We  wish  this 
duty  to  be  remembered  by  all  Catholics.    Therefore,  Venerable 
Brothers,  in  order  that  the  fruit  of  the  approaching  congress  may 
be  that  great  gift  o£  heaven,  which  is  true  peace  founded  upon 
the  Christian  principles  of  justice,  it  will  be  your  care  to  announce 
public  prayers  in  each  parish  of  your  respective  dioceses  in  that 
form  which  you  will  consider  timely,  to  implore  for  it  the  light  of 
the  Heavenly  Father. 

602.  As  far  as  We  Ourselves  are  concerned,  representing,  how- 
ever unworthily,  Jesus  Christ,  the  King  of  Peace,  We  shall  use  all 
the  influence  of  Our  Apostolic  Ministry  so  that  the  decisions  that 
may  be  arrived  at  for  the  purpose  of  perpetuating  tranquillity,  good 
order  and  concord  in  the  world  may  be  accepted  and  faithfully 
followed  everywhere  by  Catholics.  .  .  . 


E    LA    QUINTA    VOLTA  [603-606] 

ALLOCUTION  £  la  Quinta  Volta  TO  THE  COLLEGE  OF  CARDI- 


Benedict  XV  prays  that  God's  blessing  be  upon  the 
Versailles  Peace  Conference. 

December  24,  1918 

603.  This  is  the  fifth  time  that  the  happy  recurrence  of  the 
Christmas  solemnity  has  united  about  Us  the  distinguished  circle 
of  the  Sacred  College,  but  it  is  in  reality  the  first  in  which  We 
are  able  to  accept  from  it  with  joy  the  best  wishes  of  the  season. 

604.  Our  soul  is  no  longer  wrung  with  bitterness  and  anxiety 
over  a  sad  condition  of  affairs'  which  was  so  opposed  to  that  mes- 
sage of  peace  and  of  love  proper  to  this  sweet  feast.  Lord  Cardinal, 
with  what  sublimity  and  nicety  of  language,  so  familiar  to  your 
lips,  have  you  offered  to  Us  in  the  name  of  the  Sacred  College, 
a  wish  which  seems  more  fitting  at  the  present  time  than  any 
other  and  which  certainly  corresponds  better  than  any  other  to 
the  sentiments  of  Our  souk 

605.  With  the  liveliest  pleasure  have  We  indeed  received  your 
augury  that  there  may  be  multiplied  always  the  fruits  of  that 
spiritual  fatherhood  which,  in  a  special  way,  We  possess  from  God, 
from   Whom  all  fatherhood  in  heaven  and  on  earth  receives  its 
name™  and  which  desires  to  imitate,  as  far  as  is  possible,  the 
inexhaustible  charity  and  continual  beneficence  of  God.   We  are 
grateful  to  the  Most  Eminent  Dean  of  the  Sacred  College  for  having 
pointed  out  in  this  fatherhood  of  Ours  the  prime  font  of  the  activity 
We  have  exercised  during  the  days  of  the  great  scourge  which  has 
finally  ceased  only  a  short  time  ago,  and  with  all  sincerity  We 
offer  to  him  and  to  his  Most  Eminent  colleagues  the  return  of  good 
wishes  and  prayers,  in  testimony  also  of  Our  gratitude  for  the 
delicate  reference  which  has  just  been  made  to  Our  sorrows  and  to 
Our  cares  of  a  private  and  domestic  nature.171 

606.  Upon  the  heights  of  the  Vatican  there  have  come,  alas, 
the  sorrowing  cries  of  these  years  of  war;  there  have  come  the 
groans  of  the  victims  of  the  daily  slaughter;  there  have  come  the  dis- 

169  Original  Italian,  Civil ta  Cattolica,  1919,  v.  I,  pp.  63-67  (December  28,  1918). 
inEpfonans,Vlt  15. 

71  Benedict  XV  refers  to  the  death  of  his  brother,  Marquis  Giovanni  Antonio  della 
Chiesa  on  December  9. 


[607-609]  BENEDICT    XV 

Dressing  pleas  that  the  end  of  the  horrible  conflict  be  not  long 
delayed.  And  may  the  Lord  be  praised  that  He  gave  Us  the  power 
of  being  a  father  and  of  acting  as  one,  and  that  more  than  once  He 
made  Our  weakness  the  instrument  of  His  merciful  power. 

607.  Hence  it  was  that  We  longed  for  and  frequently  obtained 
the  mitigation  of  those  sorrows  which  found  their  echo  in  Our 
paternal  heart;  hence  it  was  that  with  the  urging  as  well  as  the 
restraint  of  a  father,  We  deplored  and  condemned  the  excesses 
of  brutal  hate,  leaving  open,  however,  at  the  same  time  the  way 
to  a  further  examination  in  accord  with  the  ever  certain  duties  of 
Our  compassionate  fatherhood;  hence  it  was  also  that  We  directed 
Our  forces  and  Our  suggestions  to  hasten  the  dawn  of  peace  by 
recalling  the  principles  of  the  unchanging  and  eternal  Justice  of 
Christ,  the  supreme  Law-giver  of  civil  society,  and  the  Source, 
not  of  possible  repression  but  rather  of  the  complete  restoration 
of  every  right, 

608.  That  fatherhood  which  was  the  norm  in  Our  counsels,  in 
Our  condemnations,  in  Our  judgments  and  in  Our  good  works 
of  the  past,  the  same  guides  Us  also  in  Our  conduct  of  the  present 
hour.    Oh,  while  We  embrace  all  Our  children,  tired  at  length 
of  conflict  and  of  slaughter,  Our  thoughts  fly  to  that  great  confer- 
ence of  the  nations172  assembled  for  the  noble  purpose  of  securing 
peace  to  the  world.   And,  nourishing  in  Our  breast  the  warmest 
interest  in  the  happy  outcome  of  the  arduous  tasks  set  before  the 
illustrious  assembly,  We  wish  with  all  Our  heart  that  above  its 
sessions  may  hover  that  spirit  of  which  We  are  the  custodian,  and 
to  this  sublime  intention  We  dedicate  all  Our  longings  and  all  the 
support  of  Our  fatherly  heart. 

609.  But  since  every  best  grace  and  every  perfect  gift  comes 
down  from  the  Father  of  lights  alone,  from  the  Vatican  Hill  We 
shall  every  day  invoke  the  assistance  of  that  celestial  light  upon 
the  historic  congress — imitating  Moses  who,  for  the  sake  of  his 
people,  ascended  the  mountain  and  prayed  with  outstretched  arms 
during  the  momentous  time  of  battle.  With  heart  and  arms  raised 
to  the  Divine  Majesty,  that  ancient  leader  guided  his  dear  people 
to  triumphant  success;  will  not  Our  prayers,  then,  hasten  the  noon- 
day of  that  peace  whose  radiant  dawn  We  now  hail?    But  Our 
arms,  like  those  of  Moses,  are  weary  and  heavy,  and  they  would 

172  The  Conference  at  Versailles. 


E     LA     QUINTA     VOLT  A  [6lO-6ll] 

falter  were  they  not  sustained  by  those  sons  who,  according  to 
the  plan  of  Divine  Providence,  are  like  the  staff  by  which  the 
father  is  supported.  Hence,  just  as  Aaron  and  Hur  ascended  the 
mountain  with  Moses  and  upheld  the  arms  of  their  leader  on  either 
side,  stayed  up  his  hands  on  both  sides™  so  We  have  bid  the 
Christian  world  to  come  to  Our  aid  by  ordering  that  in  accord 
with  the  circumstances  of  the  various  localities,  united  prayers  of 
propitiation  be  raised  to  heaven  for  this  most  momentous  of  con- 
gresses. In  the  midst  of,  and  participating  in  these  prayers,  accord- 
ing to  His  unfailing  promise,  will  be  the  Divine  Head  of  the 
Church  Himself,  who  will  contribute  to  their  success  that  same 
force  which  the  hands  of  his  disciples  secured  to  the  extended 
arms  of  Moses. 

610.  However,  prayer  is  not  the  only  means  by  which  We  in- 
tend that  Our  fatherhood  should  be  manifested  at  the  present  time. 
For  to  it  We  join  Our  entreaties  toward  hastening  both  the  assem- 
bling and  the  happy  conclusion  of  the  peace  congress;  We  join 
to  it  the  desire  by  which,  not  content  with  showing  Our  fatherly 
interest  in ,  the  great  event,  We  express  again  the  hope  that  the 
deliberations  of  the  congress  will  consider  not  only  the  restoration 
of  order,  but  also  the  renewal  of  those  humane  sentiments  which 
make  it  pleasant  to  dwell  in  harmony  with  our  brethren  and  even 
to  sacrifice  ourselves  for  them.   Above  all,  to  prayer  which  is  the 
most  noteworthy  form  which  Our  fatherhood  takes  at  the  present 
hour,  We  join  the  firm  resolve  to  secure  to  the  just  deliberations 
of  the  world  congress  the  support  of  Our  influence  among  the  faith- 
ful, so  that  just  as  We  have  children  everywhere,  so  also  everywhere 
may  be  facilitated  through  the  help  of  Our  fatherhood,  the  observ- 
ance of  those  decisions  which  may  be  made  to  give  to  the  world  a 
just  and  Jasting  peace. 

611.  But  the  announcemeAt  of  this  resolve  of  Ours,  as  well  as 
of  what  ought  to  be  carried  out  in  the  future,  already  makes  it  clear 
that,  if  in  the  past  and  the  present  We  have  held  Our  fatherhood 
as  the  norm  of  Our  activities,  We  do  not  intend  to  seek  elsewhere 
for  Our  future  directives.  We  have  been  a  father  in  the  past;  We 
are  a  father  in  the  present;  and  We  shall  be  a  father  in  the  future 
as  long  as  life  remains  to  Us,  looking  always,  as  the  rule  and  guide 
of  Our  work,  to  that  fatherhood  which  God  has  confided  to  Us, 

173  Exodus,  XVTI,  12. 


[612-614]  BENEDICT    XV 

and  which  is  all-embracing  like  that  of  which  it  is  a  participated 

612.  Now  this  fatherhood  of  Ours  makes  Us  rejoice  exceed- 
ingly over  the  good  which  We  hope  will  come  from  peace  restored, 
and  strongly  urges  Us  to  secure  by  every  means  its  protection  and 
increase.    The  dreadful  tempest  which  has  passed  over  the  earth 
has  left  behind  it  very  sad  traces  of  its  havoc.  But  it  is  even  more 
to  be  feared  that  it  has  left  in  the  hearts  of  men  distressing  vestiges 
of  ancient  rancors,  unwholesome  germs  of  discord,  of  revenge,  and 
of  ungenerous  reprisals.  The  very  ardors  of  war,  and  the  burning 
desire — noble  in  its  origin — of  defending  one's  country,  inflame 
the  soul  with  an  indignation,  however  just  it  be  in  its  beginnings, 
which,  in  its  final  consequences,  can  too  easily  lead  to  excess  by 
not  stifling  but  rather  strengthening  with  new  life  the  ancient  seeds 
of  social  discord  which  it  should  desire  to  be  remedied  in  justice. 
Will  not  that  be  the  work  of  a  father  which  We  shall,  in  order  to 
secure  the  just  and  lasting  peace  which  We  have  always  extolled, 
direct  toward  repairing  the  moral  evils  of  the  war  not  less  than 
the  material  havoc  of  the  dreadful  scourge?  "It  will  be  the  work 
of  a  father  to  remove  the  dangers  of  fresh  disturbances  of  order — 
such  as  might  quickly  arise  from  hatreds  and  intense  national 
aspirations.   Oh,  fortunate  will  be  Our  age,  if  it  shall  behold  the 
kiss  of  justice  and  of  peace  accompanied  by  the  spirit  of  charity, 
since  only  the  law  of  love  joins  in  a  marvelous  union  the  children 
of  the  same  father,  and  forms  of  men  of  good-will  one  real  family. 
Fear,  want,  material  force — oh,  how  experience  has  shown  this 
to  us  in  lessons  of  blood — are  not  only  inadequate  bonds,  but  also 
unworthy  of  human  society.  Social  unity  to  be  reasonable  must  be 
founded  on  natural  benevolence;  to  be  Christian  it  must  be  ennobled 
by  the  charity  of  Christ. 

613.  To  make  this  charity  flourish  once  more  in  the  midst  of 
nations,  We  shall,  therefore,  direct  Our  desires  and  Our  fatherly 
care,  in  order  that  it  may  be  evident  that  Our  fatherhood,  which 
has  remained  constant  in  the  past  and  is  steadfast  in  the  present, 
shall  likewise  continue  unfailing  in  the  future. 

614.  It  pleases  Us  to  hope  that  Our  efforts  can  become  the 
echo  of  those  deliberations  which  very  soon  will  be  undertaken  by 
the  peace  congress  toward  which  turn  at  present  the  aspirations  of 


ANTEQUAM    ORDINEM  [615-616] 

all  hearts.  But  in  the  task  of  restoring  society,  just  as  We  are  able 
to  count  upon  the  wisdom  and  advice  of  the  Senate  of  the  Church, 
so  also  We  are  confident  of  finding  docile  and  generous  helpers  in 
all  those  who  desire  to  promote  Catholic  Action.  The  care  and  in- 
struction of  children,  the  protection  and  prudent  direction  of 
working-men,  the  opportune  advice  and  suggestion  given  to  the 
well-to-do  to  use  properly  their  riches  and  authority — here  is  the 
field  in  which  for  the  future  the  task  of  a  father  should  be  princi- 
pally exercised;  and  here  it  is  where  the  Father  hopes  to  have  his 
sons  as  helpers  in  order  to  reap  together  with  them  abundant  fruits 
of  true  Catholic  Action 

ALLOCUTION  Antequam   Ordinem  TO  THE  COLLEGE  OF  CAR- 


Benedict  XV  is  especially  concerned  over  the  suffering 
Eastern  Peoples. 

March  10,  1919 

615 As  long  as  the  terrible  war  lasted  We  made 

every  effort  in  Our  power  to  alleviate  the  immense  miseries  by 
which  the  peoples  living  in  the  territories  of  Russia,  the  Balkans 
and  Turkey  were  oppressed.  For  We  saw  there  an  entire  people 
massacred,  almost  exterminated,  crowds  of  poor  wretches  leaving 
their  homes,  taking  refuge  in  the  mountains  and  falling  victims 
to  hardship  and  famine;  in  other  places  Christian  communities 
scattered,  priests  driven  out  or  imprisoned,  churches,  monasteries, 
schools,  hospices  converted  to  profane  uses,  ecclesiastical  and  private 
property  brought  to  ruin  and  destruction.  All  that  was  in  Our 
power  We  did  to  remedy  these  evils  without  any  distinction  of 
nationality  or  religion.  Our  anxiety  was,  above  all,  for  the  Armeni- 
ans and  the  inhabitants  of  Syria  and  the  Lebanon,  as  those  whom 
We  had  seen  most  often  persecuted  by  deportations,  exposed  to 
the  tortures  of  hunger,  and  even  slaughtered  en  masse. 

616.  And,  therefore,  on  behalf  of  the  Armenians  in  general 
and  in  particular  those  condemned  to  death  or  in  any  need  of 
Our  help,  personally  and  repeatedly  We  appealed  to  the  Emperor 

174  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  133,  pp.  353-354   (March  22,  1919)-    Original 
Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  n,  pp.  99-101  (March  12,  1919). 


[617-618]  BENEDICT    XV 

of  the  Ottomans  or  urgently  put  their  case  before  those  sovereigns 
who  seemed  to  Us  to  have  most  influence  over  him.  We  succeeded 
thus,  by  Divine  aid,  in  preventing  massacres  in  several  places  and 
in  saving  many  lives.  Moved  by  compassion  for  the  many  orphans 
of  Armenia,  We  opened  a  refuge  for  them  in  Constantinople.  As 
regards  Syria  and  the  Lebanon,  in  order  to  prevent  horrors  which 
were  feared  and  to  provide  food  for  the  inhabitants  there,  We  ap- 
pealed for  the  intervention  and  help  of  various  Governments.  All 
sufferers  in  the  Orient,  in  fact,  We  endeavored  to  help  with  the 
material  and  moral  means  in  Our  power,  assisted  in  Our  task  by 
the  zeal  of  Our  representatives.  And  even  now  that  the  armistice 
has  come  and  the  clash  of  war  has  ceased,  Our  anxiety  is  still  keen 
on  behalf  of  the  Christians  of  the  Orient.  For  serious  political  up- 
heavals and  rekindled  struggles  of  nationalities  are  hindering  there 
the  normal  development  of  civil  and  religious  life,  especially  among 
the  subject  peoples  of  the  Russian  Empire,  where  the  proclamation 
of  religious  liberty  had  aroused  such  hopes  of  a  better  future.  In 
the  other  parts  of  the  Orient,  too,  there  appears  before  Our  eyes 
the  sad  spectacle  of  missions  dispersed,  Christian  communities 
robbed  of  churches  and  pastors,  peoples  in  prey  of  political  con- 
vulsions fighting  among  themselves  for  the  first  necessaries  of  life. 

617.  But  there  is  one  matter  on'  which  We  are  most  specially 
anxious,  and  that  is  the  fate  of  the  Holy  Places,  on  account  of  the 
special  dignity  and  importance  for  which  they  are  so  venerated  by 
every  Christian.  Who  can  ever  tell  the  full  story  of  all  the  efforts 
of  Our  Predecessors  to  free  them  from  the  dominion  of  infidels, 
the  heroic  deeds  and  the  blood  shed  by  the  Christians  of  the  West 
through  the  centuries?    And  now  that,  amid  the  rejoicing  of  all 
good  men,  they  have  finally  returned  into  the  hands  of  the  Chris- 
tians, Our  anxiety  is  most  keen  as  to  the  decisions  which  the  Peace 
Congress  at  Paris-  is  soon  to  take  concerning  them.   For  surely  it 
would  be  a  terrible  grief  for  Us  and  for  all  the  Christian  faithful 
if  infidels  were  placed  in  a  privileged  and  prominent  position;  much 
more  if  those  most  holy  sanctuaries  of  the  Christian  religion  were 
given  into  the  charge  of  non-Christians.  .  .  . 

618.  ...  Helpless,  deprived  of  all  they  have,  those  poor  souls 
are  stretching  out  to  Us  suppliant  arms,  imploring  not  only  food 
and  clothing  but  the  rebuilding  of  their  churches,  the  re-opening 
of  their  schools,  the  restoration  of  their  missions.  To  this  end  We 


EURE    EMINENZ  [619-622] 

have  for  Our  part  already  set  aside  a  certain  sum,  and  most  will- 
ingly would  We  give  more  if  the  present  poverty  of  the  Holy  See 
allowed.  But  it  is  Our  intention  to  excite  the  interest  of  the  bishops 
of  the  whole  Catholic  world  that  they  may  take  to  heart  such  a 
noble  and  holy  cause,  arousing  among  all  the  faithful  that  sense  of 
active  chanty  which  their  ancestors  always  showed  toward  their 
brethren  of  the  Orient 


The  Pope  labors  to  effect  the  return  of  the  German  war 

March  10,  1919 

619.  Your  Eminence  has  related  to  Us  in  moving  words  the 
sufferings  of  numerous  families  who,  while  they  see  war  prisoners 
of  foreign  nations  joyfully  leaving  Germany,  are  themselves  tor- 
tured by  the  fearful  uncertainty  concerning  the  time  when  they 
will  again  embrace  their  dear  ones,  whose  help  and  consolation  they 
need  the  more,  as  the  times  become  more  woeful. 

620.  Your  Eminence  knows  with  what  unceasing  care  We  have 
attempted  to  dry  so  many  tears  in  this  war.   You  will,  therefore, 
readily  understand  how  heavily  these  pains  and  sufferings  also 
redound  in  Our  paternal  heart,  and  how  happy  We  would  be  if 
We  would  succeed  in  securing  redress/ 

621.  Last  November,  after  the  signing  of  the  armistice.  Our 
Cardinal  Secretary  of  State  took  steps  with  several  States  of  the 
Allies  on  behalf  of  the  German  war  prisoners,  namely,  the  sick  and 
the  wounded.   The  following  month  he  repeated,  always  in  Our 
name,  his  efforts  in  the  most  loving  manner,  to  improve  the  con- 
dition of  many  unfortunate  ones  and  to  assure  them  more  spiritual 
help  through  German  priests.  We  turned  Our  attention  sympatheti- 
cally, too,  to  the  prisoners  who  are  nearer  to  Us,  and  asked  the 
bishops  of  the  Italian  dioceses  and  the  army  bishops  to  give  these 
all  'possible  care. 

622.  On  a  festive  occasion  a  little  later,  We  expressed  to  a  noted 

175  German  text  from  Lama,  Papst  und  Kuric,  pp.  114-115. 


[623-624]  BENEDICT    XV 

person176  Our  ardent  desire  to  see  the  hundreds  and  thousands  o£ 
German  prisoners  who  had  endured  the  sufferings  of  imprisonment 
for  a  long  time,  brought  back  to  their  own  firesides.  We  had  the 
satisfaction  of  hearing  that  this  person  fully  shared  Our  loving 
wishes  and  was  inclined  to  support  them.  Since  then  the  Cardinal 
Secretary  of  State  has  issued  an  urgent  appeal  to  one  of  the  allied 
States  to  win  its  interest  for  this  thoroughly  charitable  and  humane 
work,  and  We  are  still  awaiting  an  answer. 

623.  May  the  good  and  merciful  God  bless  these  efforts  which 
We  shall  continue  unceasingly  with  that  zeal  and  love  which  Our 
divine  mission  and  sincere  sympathy  for  those  unhappy  souls  in- 
spire in  Us.  May  the  King  of  Peace  grant  to  the  many  sorrowing 
families  the  first  precious  fruits  that  they  had  hoped  for  in  this  so 
ardently  desired  peace. 

LETTER  Multipliers  Quidern  TO  CARDINAL  CSERNOCH,  ARCH- 

The  Vatican  is  deeply  concerned  over  the  critical  situa- 
tion in  Hungary. 

March  12,  1919 

624.  Many  anxieties  have  been  brought  to  Us  by  so  cruel  and 
so  long  a  war;  but  nothing  makes  Us  more  anxious  and  solicitous 
than  the  fact  that  the  disturbances  resulting  therefrom  have  over- 
flowed not  only  into  civil  society  but  even  into  the  religious  affairs 
of  nations.  Particularly,  however,  are  We  concerned  over  the  great 
misfortunes  of  those  peoples  who  made-  up  the  Austro-Hungarian 
Empire,  and  who  are  now  each  striving  after  that  form  of  govern- 
ment which  corresponds  to  the  wishes  of  individual  nations.  For 
since  an  important  part  of  the  flock  divinely  entrusted  to  Us  is 
contained  in  these  peoples,  and  a  part  which  has  always  been  out- 
standing for  its  faith  and  great  devotion  towards  this  Apostolic  See, 
it  is  easy  to  understand  that  We  are  concerned  in  a  special  way 
that  religion  among  them  suffer  no  harm.  We  sincerely  hope  that 
all  those  men  who  govern  those  States,  while  they  are  anxious  to 

176  This  was  Woodrow  Wilson,  President  of  the  United  States,  who  had  an  audience 

with  Benedict  XV  on  January  4,  1919. 

177  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  n,  p.  122  (April  I,  1919). 


TELEGRAM    TO    LENIN  [625-627] 

establish  peace  and  prosperity  for  their  peoples,  will  see  to  it  that 
they  preserve  intact  the  rights  and  laws  of  the  Church,  if  they  truly 
wish  the  foundations  of  justice  in  civil  society  and  of  the  public 
good  to  stand  safe  and  sound.  Now,  nobody  is  unaware  how  much 
the  Apostolic  See  has  at  heart  the  internal  peace  and  good  of  na- 
tions and  how  ready  it  always  is  to  lend  its  aid  to  accomplish  this. 
Even  more,  to  achieve  this  end  better,  it  is  accustomed  to  enter  into 
mutual  unions  or  relations  with  the  legitimate  rulers  of  States  who 
have  signified  that  they  have  the  same  desire  themselves.  .  .  . 


The  Holy  See  pleads  for  the  persecuted  Orthodox. 
March  12, 1919 

625.  .  .  .  The  Holy  Father  adjures  you  to  give  strict  orders  that 
the  servants  of  every  religion  be  respected.  Humanity  and  religion 
will  be  grateful  to  you. 

LETTER  C'Est  avec  la  Plus  Vive  Complaisance  TO  CARDINAL 

The  Pope  has  special  sympathy  and  compassion  for  the 
people  of  Belgium. 

April  3,  1919 

626 Your  letter  recalls  the  long  series  of  calamities 

which  have  fallen  upon  your  well-beloved  country,  the  unfortunate 
consequences  of  which  are  still  being  experienced.  With  great  deli- 
cacy of  heart  you  recall  also  Our  solemn  protestations  against  the 
injustices  and  violations  of  law  committed  with  regard  to  Belgium, 
as  well  as  Our  efforts  to  alleviate  such  great  sufferings,  and  you 
stress  especially  your  unfailing  confidence  in  Our  action. 

627.  This  confidence,  certainly,  was  not  without  foundation. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  while  being  animated  with  that  universal 
charity  which  binds  Us  to  all  Our  children  .overwhelmed  with 
affliction  and  sorrow,  that  charity  which  has  its  source  in  the  very 

178  German  text  from  Lama,  Papst  und  Kurie,  p.  368. 

179  Original  French,  Documentation  Catholique,  v.  j,  pp.  647-648   (June  21,  1919)* 


[628-631]  BENEDICT    XV 

Heart  of  Our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  We  could  not  help  regarding 
your  people  with  a  special  sympathy  and  experiencing  for  them  a 
particular  compassion. 

628.  While  We  are  using  all  Our  power  to  bring  some  relief 
to  the  sufferings  of  so  many  unfortunate  sons,  We  have  never 
ceased  striving  to  the  end  that  full  political,  military  and  economic 
independence  be  restored  to  your  dear  nation,  and  that  the  losses 
she  has  sustained  be  repaired. 

629.  We  are  fully  conscious  of  having  done  for  Belgium  and 
for  her  people  all  that  was  possible  for  Us  to  do,  all  that  the  radiat- 
ing Chanty  of  Christ  and  the  most  tender  paternal  affection  could 
suggest.   Nevertheless,  Venerable  Brethren,  it  is  consoling  for  Us 
to  hear  you  say  again  that  you  have  never  doubted  your  Father, 
not  even  in  most  critical  moments 


Christian  charity  alone  will  be  able  to  heal  the  wounds 
remaining  from  the  war. 

May  14,  1919 

630.  While  the  great  weight  of  calamities  and  troubles  which 
in  these  most  bitter  times  oppresses  Us  beyond  measure  from  every 
side,  besides  those  outer  things,  there  is  my  daily  pressing  anxiety, 
the  care  of  all  the  churches^1  to  use  the  words  of  the  Apostle,  We 
have  recently  followed  with  greater  solicitude  and  more  anxious 
care,  Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brethren,  the  sudden  calamities 
and  most  disturbing  public  events  which  have  occurred  among  your 
nation  and  neighboring  nations  and  which  still  hold  our  minds  in 
suspense  in  expectation  of  what  is  to  come.  ...... 

631.  Yet  We  add  this,  Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brethren — 
although  We  know  that  this  is  known  to  all  of  you — that  this 
wonderful  charity  of  Boniface,  which  was  not  contained  by  the 
boundaries  of  Germany  alone,  embraced  absolutely  all  nations, 
though  they  were  jnost  hostile  to  one  another;  just  as  with  even 
greater  love,  according  to  the  order  of  virtue,  the  Apostle  of  Ger- 

180  Original  Latin,  A.4.S.,  v.  n,  pp.  209-220  (June  2,  1919). 
181 II  Corinthians,  XI,  28. 


IN    HAG    TANTA  [632-633] 

many  embraced  the  neighboring  nation  of  the  Franks,  of  whom  he 
was  likewise  the  most  prudent  reformer,  and  his  own  countrymen 
"born  of  the  race  and  stock  of  the  Angles."  To  the  Angles  he,  as  a 
member  of  the  same  race,  a  legate  of  the  Church  Universal,  and  a 
servant  of  the  Apostolic  See,  commended  the  propagation  of  the 
Catholic  Faith  .  .  .  among  the  Saxon  peoples,  who  were  born  of 
the  very  same  race.  Finally  he  commended  that  "unity  and  com- 
munity of  love"  were  to  be  guarded  in  a  most  charitable  way.182 

632.  Since  in  truth  charity  is — to  use  as  Our  own  once  more 
the  words  of  the  same  writer  whom  We  have  quoted  above — "the 
origin  and  end  of  all  good  things,  let  us  place  our  end  in  it,"183 
Beloved  Son  and  Venerable  Brethren.  This,  therefore,  We  beg  in 
every  way,  that  in  this  disturbed  society  of  mankind,  when  the 
rights,  laws,  worship,  and  the  memory  itself  of  Almighty  God  and 
His  Church  have  been  restored,  Christian  charity  may  blossom 
once  more,  and,  putting  an  end  to  raging  wars  and  hatred  and  to 
divisions,  schisms  and  errors  that  creep  in  on  every  side,  may  unite 
peoples  with  one  another  by  a  stronger  bond  than  the  passing  agree- 
ments of  men,  primarily  by  the  unity  of  faith   and   the   tie   of 
ancient  connections  or  rather  by  kinship  with  this  Holy  See,  which 
Christ  our  Lord  willed  to  be  the  established  foundation  of  His 
family  on  earth  and  to  be  consecrated  by  the  virtues,  the  wisdom, 
and  the  labors  of  so  many  saints,  and  finally  by  the  very  blood  of 
martyrs  like  your  Boniface. 

633.  When  this  harmony  of  faith  and  union  of  wills  have  been 
restored  throughout  the  world,  We  shall  be  seen  also  to  claim  by  a 
certain  right  of  Ours  from  the  whole  Christian  people,  what  Pope 
Clement,  moved  by  the  knowledge  of  the  Roman  Primacy  and  the 
sacred  authority  of  the  Apostolic  See,  even  from  the  first  century 
wrote  in  a  special  way  to  the  Corinthians:  "You  will  give  us  delight 
and  joy  if,  obeying  what  we  have  written  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  you 
root  out  the  wicked  passion  of  your  jealousy  according  to  the  exhor- 
tation which  we  have  made  in  this  letter  about  peace  and  con- 
cord."184 ...... 

a  St.  Boniface,  Epistola;,  XXXVI  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  89,  c.  735. 

184  St.  Clement  of  Rome,  Epistola  ad  Corinthios,  n.  63  in  Rouet  de  Journel,  Enchiridion 
Patristicum  (5th  ed.,  1922),  p.  10. 


[634-635]  BENEDICT  XV 


The  Holy  See  will  not  jail  to  do  all  that  can  possibly 
be  done  to  bring  about  a  just  and  lasting  peace. 

July  3, 1919 

634.  .  .  .  Thinking  only  o£  the  good  of  all  peoples,  His  Holi- 
ness was  confident  that  the  peace  settlement  would  mean  the  end  of 
the  unholy  hatred  of  men  and  would  bring  to  the  whole  world  a 
new  era  of  true  brotherly  love  and  community  spirit,  imperturbable 
calm  and  genuine  welfare.  I  can  assure  Your  Eminence,  your 
Venerable  Brethren  in  the  episcopate  and  all  who  expect  the  Holy 
Father  to  intervene  in  the  matter  of  the  conditions  of  peace,  that 
the  Holy  See  has  already  taken  steps  in  this  direction  and  will  not 
fail  to  do  all  that  can  possibly  be  done.  .  .  . 



His  Holiness  as\s  for  assurance  that  the  Versailles 
Treaty  will  protect  the  rights  and  interests  of  the 
Catholic  Missions. 

July  3, 1919 

635 Now  to  pass  over  other  matters  here  which  per- 
tain not  merely  to  the  Orient,  but  to  the  entire  Christian  wbrld, 
We  will  not  be  silent  that  We  have  been  in  anxiety  about  the 
Catholic  Missions.  When  We  were  informed  that  some  measures 
were  being  considered  at  the  Versailles  Peace  Conference  by  which 
the  right  of  preaching  the  Gospel  did  not  seem  to  be  safeguarded, 
We  confidently  asked  the  members  of  the  conference  to  give  their 
serious  attention  to  this  matter.  We  also  sent  as  Our  representative 
a  worthy  prelate  of  the  Roman  Curia  to  protect  these  same  rights 
to  the  utmost.  It  is  a  pleasure  to  say  here  that  those  men  satisfied 
in  large  measure  Our  demands  after  they  considered  them  with 
open  minds.  Consequently,  We  are  led  to  hope  that  the  same  men 
will  follow  a  like  fairness  of  mind  in  putting  into  action  the  deci- 
sions which  they  have  made  in  this  regard,  a  matter  which  is  of 

185  German  text  from  Lama,  Papst  und  Kurie,  p.  101. 

186  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  n,  p.  259  (July  4,  1919). 


DIUTURNI  [636] 

importance  not  only  to  the  Catholic  Religion  but  also  to  civil  society 
and  culture.  And  since  hostilities  have  finally  come  to  an  end,  We 
suppliantly  invoke  Divine  Mercy  to  regard  this  Our  prayer,  that  the 
blockade  be  lifted  on  account  of  which  a  countless  multitude  is 
suffering  famine  and  the  direst  want  of  everything,  that  as  many  as 
are  yet  prisoners  of  war  be  set  free  as  soon  as  possible,  that  finally 
men  and  nations,  till  now  enemies,  be  again  united  in  the  bonds  of 
Christian  charity,  without  which,  We  do  not  cease  to  insist,  every 
peace  conference  will  be  in  vain 



Every  effort  must  be  made  to  relieve  the  misery  of  post- 
war Germany. 

July  15,  1919 

636.  The  day  has  at  last  arrived  which  marks  for  your  nation 
the  end  of  the  long  and  most  distressing  war;  with  the  signing  of 
the  Treaty  of  Peace  an  end  has  been  put  finally  to  the  blockade 
which  made  so  many  victims,  specially  and  above  all  among  those 
who  in  point  of  fact  were  taking  no  part  in  the  war.  We,  who  as 
the  Universal  Father  have  at  heart  the  belligerents  on  both  sides 
and  tried  by  every  means  in  Our  power  to  put  an  end  to  the 
terrible  conflagration  or  to  mitigate  its  consequences,  give  the 
Almighty  thanks  for  this  boon  together  with  you  and  all  your 
nation.  It  should  be  your  care  now  to  repair  as  soon  as  possible 
the  immense  harm  produced  amongst  you  by  the  war,  and  inas- 
much as  nothing  can  be  so  useful  to  that  end  as  the  work  of  the 
Catholic  Church,  assisted  by  Divine  Grace,  We  have  thought  fit 
to  send  you  this  letter.  And  first  of  all,  in  order  that  there  may  not 
come  to  pass  in  Germany  public  disturbances  which  would  bring 
on  your  nation  and  indeed  on  Europe  the  ruin  which  is  overcom- 
ing other  nations,  every  effort  must  be  made  that  the  populations 
may  not  lack  food.  To  that  end,  Venerable  Brethren,  by  means  of 
the  parish  priests  and  such  other  ecclesiastics  as  are  in  the  closest 
touch  with  the  people,  you  should  strongly  urge  the  faithful  in 
country  districts  not  to  refuse  the  inhabitants  of  the  cities  who  are 


187  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  134,  p.  149  (August  2,  1919)-    Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  n,  pp.  305-306  (August  i,  1919). 


[637]  BENEDICT    XV 

suffering  hunger  as  much  food  as  they  themselves  can  manage  to 
do  without.  In  these  hard  times,  that  duty  is  laid  on  them  strictly 
by  the  law  of  charity  which,  if  it  embraces  all,  including  enemies, 
wishes  that  we  should  specially  love  our  fellow  countrymen.  And, 
in  addition,  We  feel  confident  that  all  who  belong  to  civilized 
nations,  and  in  particular  the  Catholics  among  them,  will  hasten 
•to  help  the  populations  which  they  know  are  reduced  to  extremities, 
doing  so  not  so  much  on  account  of  the  dangers  threatening  society 
as  from  their  membership  in  the  family  of  mankind  itself  and 
under  the  impulse  of  Christian  charity.  Indeed,  we  should  all  call 
to  mind  what  the  Apostle,  St.  John,  teaches:  He  who  has  the  goods 
of  this  world  and  sees  his  brother  in  need  and  closes  his  heart  to 
him,  how  does  the  love  of  God  abide  in  him?  My  dear  children, 
let  us  not  love  in  word,  neither  with  the  tongue,  but  in  deed  and  in 
truth}^  In  the  second  place,  Venerable  Brethren,  each  one  of  you 
should  use  all  the  authority  of  his  sacred  office  to  heal  the  spiritual 
wounds  which  the  war  either  inflicted  on  your  nation  or  made 
more  sore. 

637.  It  is  specially  necessary  to  eliminate  every  feeling  of  hatred 
either  towards  foreigners  with  whom  the  nation  was  at  war  or 
towards  fellow-citizens  of  other  parties,  and  in  the  place  of  hatred 
put  the  brotherly  love  which  is  of  Christ,  which  knows  no  barrier 
or  limit  or  strife  of  class.  And  We  repeat  here  the  hope  We  ex- 
pressed at  the  last  Consistory,  that  "men  and  peoples  may  be  again 
united  in  Christian  charity,  because  if  that  is  lacking  every  Peace 
Treaty  will  be  vain."  We  feel  sure  that  you,  Venerable  Brethren, 
as  good  pastors  and  ministers  of  peace  and  charity,  will  engage  all 
your  care  and  energy  in  this  task  and  will  not  cease  to  ask  pity 
of  the  Lord,  together  with  your  clergy  and  your  flocks.  For  Us, 
Our  help  will  never  fail  you  in  these  terrible  times  for  your  coun- 
try, because  Our  heart  of  a  father  turns  with  greater  pity  towards 
Our  children  who  are  suffering  most,  following  the  example  of  the 
loving  Redeemer  Who,  taking  pity  on  the  sufferings  of  a  great 
multitude,  spoke  these  memorable  words:  /  have  compassion  on 
the  crowd^  Meanwhile  .  .  .  upon  you,  Venerable  Brethren,  and 
upon  all  those  entrusted  to  your  pastoral  care  We  impart  ...  the 
Apostolic  Benediction. 

™*ljohn,m,  17-18. 
189  Uar\,  VIII,  2. 


TO  ARCHBISHOP  MUNDELEIN         [638-641] 


America  must  help  to  relieve  the  distress  in  post-war 

July  1 8,  1919 

638.  The  information  has  come  to  the  Holy  Father  that  the 
Central  Verein,  after  the  long  interruption  caused  by  the  war,  will 
soon  meet  again  in  the  city  of  Chicago.  This  information  has  been 
received  with  the  greatest  satisfaction  by  the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  who 
is  well  acquainted  with  the  splendid  merits  of  its  work.  .  .  .  And 
now  that  the  Central  Verein  takes  up  its  labors  anew,  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff  desires  to  pay  it  the  tribute  of  praise  it  has  well  earned  by 
the  work  it  has  so  successfully  accomplished  in  the  past,  and  also  to 
send  to  its  members  his  fatherly  greetings  as  a  harbinger  of  an  even 
happier  future. 

639.  His  Holiness  has  no  doubt  whatever  that  such  a  bright 
future  is  in  store  for  them,  because  of  those  remarkable  qualities 
which  the  German-Americans  have  given  proof  of  on  every  occa- 
sion, and  particularly  during  the  recent  war.  While  keeping  alive 
the  love  they  bore  for  the  land  of  their  fathers,  yet  this  has  not 
hindered  them  from  doing  their  full  duty  towards  their  adopted 
country,  and  nobly  indeed  have  they  responded  to  its  different  calls, 
pouring  out  for  it  lavishly,  their  money,  their  service  and  their  lives. 

640.  But  now  that  the  war  has  at  last  come  to  an  end,  there  is 
offered  an  even  more  promising  field  for  their  beneficent  zeal.   It 
is,  alas,  only  too  true  that  this  cruel  war  which  has  so  completely 
divided  the  human  race  into  two  opposite  camps,  has  left  behind 
it  a  trail  of  hate  among  the  nations.   And  yet  the  world  cannot 
possibly  enjoy  the  blessed  fruits  of  peace  for  any  length  of  time 
unless  that  hatred  be  entirely  blotted  out  and  all  the  nations  be 
brought  together  again  in  the  sweet  bonds  of  Christian  brotherhood. 

641.  To  bring  this  about  the  Catholics  in  a  more  particular 
manner  must  lend  themselves,  since  they  are  already  closely  united 
in  the  Mystical  Body  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  should,  therefore,  con- 
stantly give  others  an  example  of  Christian  charity.  fAixd  In  accom- 

190  Original  English,  The  New  World  (Chicago  diocesan  newspaper),  September  19, 


[642-644]  BENEDICT    XV 

plishlng  this  result,  the  work  or  the  German  Catholics  in  the  United 
States,  who  being  united  by  the  closest  ties  to  both  lately  warring 
races,  ought  to  be  particularly  successful 

642.  Consequently,  the  Holy  Father,  to  whose  heart  there  is 
nothing  dearer  than  the  real  reconciliation  o£  the  nations,  and  who 
has  already  addressed  himself  on  this  subject  to  the  Bishops  of 
Germany,  now  appeals  to  you  in  order  that  you,  too,  may  co-operate 
in  such  a  noble  mission.  Moreover,  knowing  the  dreadful  condi- 
tions under  which  our  brethren  in  Germany  are  now  living,  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff  implores  you  most  fervently  to  lend  them  every 
assistance,  material  as  well  as  moral,  and  in  the  quickest  and  most 
effective  way,  especially  facilitating  the  early  resumption  of  com- 
merce and  all  those  benefits  that  naturally  follow  in  its  wake.  To 
this  invitation  the  Holy  Father  feels  certain  that  not  only  you  will 
gladly  respond,  but  all  the  children  of  your  generous  country  with- 
out any  distinction  whatever,  for  surely  they  will  be  mindful  of  the 
great  services  their  fellow  citizens  of  German  birth  and  descent 
have  rendered  their  country  during  this  war.  In  this  way  they  will 
become  real  benefactors  of  the  human  race  and  draw  upon  their 
own  nation  Almighty  God's  choicest  blessing.  .  .  . 



Christians  must  love  their  enemies. 
October  7,  1919 

643 .While  the  most  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus,  therefore, 

shows  in  a  sensible  manner  His  boundless  love  for  His  children, 
who  too  often,  alas,  are  forgetful,  at  the  same  time  it  reminds  us  of 
this  great  duty  whereby  we  ought  to  love  God  above  all  things  and 
our  neighbor  as  ourselves. 

644.  Moreover,  the  love  of  neighbors,  which  is  stronger  the 
more  it  is  concerned  with  those  nearest  us,  extends  to  all  men,  even 
to  our  enemies,  since  we  all  are  united  to  one  another  by  the  bond 
of  brotherhood,  inasmuch  as  we  are  sons  of  the  same  God  and  have 
been  redeemed  by  the  same  Blood  of  Jesus  Christ:  You  have  heard 
that  it  hath  be$n  said,  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbor,  and  hate  thy 

191  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  n,  p.  413  (November  3,  1919). 

LETTER    TO    CARDINAL    BOURNE        [645-647] 

enemy.  But  1  say  to  you,  Love  your  enemies:  do  good  to  them  that 
hate  you:  and  pray  for  them  that  persecute  and  calumniate  you: 
that  you  may  be  the  children  of  your  Father,  Who  is  in  heaven™2 
This  Our  Lord  and  Master  has  commanded,  thus  the  Apostles  with 
one  voice,  and  especially  that  herald  of  love,  St.  John,  have  handed 
down,  and  this  has  been  followed  in  practice,  we  know,  by  all  who 
have  conducted  their  lives  in  accordance  with  the  wisdom  of  the 

645.  We  know,  of  course,  that  a  precept  of  this  kind  made  by 
Christ  our  Lord  does  not  please  the  world,  and  this  is  so  to  such  a 
degree  that  the  world  interprets  perversely  the  counsels  of  those 
who   affirm  and   defend  its   sanctity  and  repays   them  with   all 
calumnies.   So  it  was  done  with  Jesus  Christ;  nor  will  it  ever  be 
otherwise  if  anyone  preaches  forgetfulness  of  injuries  and  love 
towards  those  who  have  done  evil  to  us  and  have  attacked  our 
country.   But  the  displeasure  of  the  wicked  ought  not  retard  any- 
one from  following  and  inculcating  such  a  weighty  precept  of  the 
Gospel,  upon  which  especially  the;  tranquillity  of  human  association 
and  the  condition  of  States  depend 


The  suffering  victims  of  Central  Europe  are  a  cause  of 
anxiety  to  Benedict  XV, 

October  29,  1919 

646.  I  lost  no  time  in  informing  the  Holy  Father  that  the  West- 
minster Catholic  Federation,  presided  over  by  Your  Eminence,  had 
formed  the  truly  noble  and  charitable  plan  of  an  appeal  to  the  entire 
world  to  lighten  the  distress  in  which  large  numbers  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Central  Europe  are  languishing — a  distress  which  bears 
most  gravely  and  cruelly  upon  little  children. 

647.  The  cessation  of  hostilities  has  brought  only  inadequate 
relief  to  these  unfortunates,  and  in  some  regions  it  has  even  in- 
creased the  hardships  which  make  existence  impossible.   The  in- 
formation sent  to  the  Holy  See  from  different  quarters  shows, 

192  Matthew,  V,  43-4 5 : 

198  Original  English,  The  Tablet,  v.  134,  p.  722  (November  29,  1919). 


[648-65°]  BENEDICT    XV 

among  other  things,  that  many  dwellers  in  large  towns  have  be- 
come utterly  enfeebled  through  their  enormous  and  increasing 
difficulties,  and  that  every  day  long  files  of  sufferers  can  be  seen 
outside  the  premises  of  charitable  societies  waiting  to  receive  a 
miserable  ration.  The  reports  of  medical  men  abound  with  heart- 
rending descriptions  of  the  pitiable  state  of  the  children  in  or- 
phanages and  free  schools,  "emaciated  little  creatures,  without 
exception  too  small  for  their  age,  among  whom  rickets  are  becoming 
more  and  more  serious,  while  a  peculiarly  deadly  tuberculosis  makes 
rapid  strides." 

648.  All  this  fills  the  heart  of  the  August  Pontiff  with  profound 
pity,  for  amidst  the  ills  bred  by  the  war,  those  of  which  childhood 
is  the  victim  are  worthy  of  the  greatest  compassion.    It  is,  indeed, 
a  mournful  sight  to  behold  these  little  beings,  whose  eyes  have 
hardly  opened  to  the  light,  bearing  in  their  faces  and  in  their 
glances  the  signs  of  decay  and  of  a  premature  sadness  born  of 
long-drawn  grief,  instead  of  the  frank  lightheartedness  proper  to 
their  age. 

649.  Your  Eminence,  therefore,  can  easily  picture  how  greatly 
the  Holy  Father  is  consoled  by  the  knowledge  of  this  generous 
project,  and  with  what  warmth  he  praises  and  encourages  all  those 
who  stretch  forth  their  hands  to  help  those  innocents  and  to  furnish 
them  with  those  things  which  their  parents  are  not  able  to  provide. 
But  who  can  remain  indifferent  face  to  face  with  the  sufferings  of 
these  hapless  ones?    Are  they  not  the  tender  flower  of  humanity 
for  whom  the  Redeemer  of  the  world  has  shown  a  surpassing  love 
and  care? 



The  bishops  of  the  entire  world  are  as\ed  to  collect 
funds  for  the  starving  children  of  Central  Europe. 

November  24,  1919 

650.    It  was  the  expectation  and  hope  of  Our  paternal  heart  that, 
once  the  terrible  conflict  was  ended,  and  the  spirit  of  Christian  char- 

194 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  134,  p.  741  (December  6,  1919).   Original  Latin, 
A.A.S.,  v.  ii,  pp.  437-439  (December  i,  1919). 


PATER NO    JAM    DIU  [651] 

ity  restored,  the  regions  desolated  by  famine  and  misery,  especially  in 
Central  Europe,  might  little  by  little  improve  their  condition,  thanks 
to  the  united  efforts  of  all  good  men.  But  this  Our  hope  has  not 
been  realized  by  events.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  information  reaches 
Us  from  all  sides  that  those  populous  regions  are  deprived  of  food 
and  clothing  to  a  degree  beyond  all  imagination,  so  that  a  most 
lamentable  decay  of  health  is  the  result  among  the  less  hardy,  and 
especially  among  the  children.  This  their  misfortune  afflicts  Our 
heart  all  the  more  as  they  are  altogether  innocent  and  even  ignorant 
of  the  sanguinary  conflict  which  has  desolated  almost  the  whole 
world;  and,  moreover,  they  represent  the  germs  of  the  future  gener- 
ations, which  cannot  but  feel  the  effects  of  their  debilitation. 

651.  Nevertheless,  Our  distress  has  been  somewhat  relieved  by 
learning  that  men  of  good  will  have  banded  themselves  in  societies 
in  order  to  "save  the  children."  We  have  not  hesitated  to  approve 
and  confirm  with  Our  authority,  as  was  fitting,  this  noble  plan. 
Indeed,  it  corresponds  with  the  grave  duty  of  affection  which  We 
feel  towards  that  tender  age  which  is  most  dear  to  Our  Divine 
Redeemer,  and  which  has  least  strength  to  bear  and  suffer  ills.  In 
fact,  We  had  done  this  formerly.  You  will  remember  that  at  no 
distant  date  We  endeavored  with  all  Our  means  to  succor  the  little 
children  in  Belgium  who  were  in  extremity  of  hunger  and  of  misery, 
and  recommend  them  to  the  public  charity  of  Catholics.  The  gener- 
osity of  the  latter  was  such  that  in  great  part  it  was  owing  to  it 
that  it  was  possible  to  provide  for  the  necessities  of  so  many  inno- 
cent children  and  to  preserve  their  life  and  health.  In  fact,  as  soon 
as  We  had  addressed  Our  exhortation  for  this  noble  purpose  to  the 
Episcopate  of  the  United  States  of  America,  Our  desires  were  gener- 
ously met  by  the  widest  correspondence.  We  record  this  happy 
result  to-day,  not  only  to  pay  tke  tribute  of  Our  praise  to  men 
worthy  of  being  remembered  in  the  annals  of  Christian  charity, 
but  also  by  Our  voice  and  authority  to  invite  the  bishops  of  the 
whole  world  to  take  steps  in  order  to  carry  into  effect  Our  proposal, 
and  for  this  purpose  to  employ  all  their  prestige  with  their  flocks. 
With  the  approach  of  the  season  of  Christmas,  commemorating 
the  birth  of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  Our  thoughts  spontaneously 
fly  to  the  poor  little  children,  especially  in  Central  Europe,  who  are 
most  cruelly  feeling  the  wants  of  the  necessities  of  life;  and  We 
embrace  this  tender  age  with  all  the  more  solicitude  inasmuch  as  it 


[652-654]  BENEDICT    XV 

more  exactly  recalls  the  image  of  the  Divine  Infant,  suffering,  for 
love  of  men  in  the  cave  at  Bethlehem,  the  rigor  of  winter  and  the 
want  of  all  things.  No  other  circumstance  could  be  more  opportune 
than  this  to  induce  Us  to  solicit  for  innocent  children  the  charity 
and  pity  of  Christians  and  of  all  who  do  not  despair  of  the  salvation 
of  the  human  race. 

652.  Wherefore,  Venerable  Brethren,  with  the  .purpose  of  attain- 
ing in  your  respective  dioceses  the  object  of  which  We  have  spoken, 
We  direct  that  on  next  December  28,  the  feast  of  the  Holy  Innocents, 
you  should  order  public  prayers  and  gather  the  alms  of  the  faithful. 
In  order  to  help  on  a  larger  scale  so  many  poor  children  in  this 
most  noble  competition  of  charity,  in  addition  to  money  it  will  be 
necessary  to  gather  food,  medicines  and  clothing,  all  of  which  are 
so  greatly  wanting  in  these  regions.  We  need  not  delay  in  explain- 
ing how  such  offerings  may  be  conveniently  divided  and  forwarded 
to  their  destination.  This  task  may  be  confided  to  the  committees 
which  have  been  formed  for  this  object,  and  may  provide  for  it  in 
any  manner  whatsoever. 

653.  Finally,  We  trust  that  the  exhortation  which,  moved  by 
duty  of  that  universal  fatherhood  which  God  has  confided  to  Us, 
We  have  made,  although  addressed  principally  to  Catholics,  may 
be  benevolently  listened  to  by  all  who  have  the  sentiments  of 
humanity.  Moreover,  in  order  to  afford  an  example  to  others,  not- 
withstanding the  continual  requests  for  help  which  reach  Us  from 
all  sides,  We  have  determined,  to  the  extent  of  Our  means,  to  con- 
tribute to  the  relief  of  these  poor  children  the  sum  of  100,000 

LETTER  Cdeberrima  Evenisse  §ollcmnia  TO  CARDINAL  BELLO, 

For  the  peace  of  their  nation,  the  faithful  must  be  sub- 
ject to  those  who  'are  in  legitimate  authority. 

December  18,  1919 

654.  We  were  indeed  very  glad  to  hear  that  the  solemnities 
were  very  well  attended  which  took  place  recently  in  honor  of 

195  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  12,  pp.  32-33  (February  2,  1920). 



Blessed  Nonius  Alvares  at  Lisbon,  and  that  very  many  of  you 
took  part  in  them.  For  thus  taking  advantage  of  the  excellent 
opportunity  you  not  only  took  counsel  over  the  state  of  affairs  with 
one  another,  in  order  to  set  forth  a  joint  program  for  your  flocks 
in  matters  which  pertain  to  Religion  and  State,  but  you  also  learned 
from  the  Apostolic  Nuncio  Our  opinion  in  this  most  serious  matter. 
Nevertheless,  Venerable  Brethren,  on  account  of  Our  special  love 
for  the  most  noble  Portuguese  nation  We  wish  to  speak  to  you 
paternally.  First  of  all  We  cherish  a  well-founded  hope  that  all— 
whether  clergy  or  laity,  whose  sincere  love  of  country  is  certainly 
most  clearly  established— will  be  second  to  none  in  re-establishing 
peace  and  good-will  among  their  fellow  citizens.  For  since  the 
Church,  as  is  evident,  must  neither  be  responsible  to  political  par- 
ties, nor  serve  political  interests,  it  is,  therefore,  her  duty  to  urge 
the  faithful  to  obey  those  who  are  in  authority,  whatever  be  the 
constitution  of  the  State.  For  on  this  depends  the  common  good, 
which  is  certainly,  according  to  God's  plan,  the  first  law  of  the  State, 
as  Our  Predecessor  of  happy  memory,  Leo  XIII,  clearly  set  forth 
in  his  Encyclical,  Au  Milieu  des  Sollicitudes,  of  February  16,  i892.196 
Moreover,  writing  to  the  Cardinals  of  France  on  the  3rd  of  May 
of  the  same  year,  he  stated  that  it  was  a  Christian's  duty  faithfully 
to  submit  to  the  authority  which  is  actually  in  power.  Following, 
therefore,  the  teaching  and  practice  of  the  Church,  which  has  always 
been  accustomed  to  be  on  friendly  terms  with  States  of  whatever 
constitution,  and  which  has  recently  restored  relations  with  the 
Republic  of  Portugal,  let  Catholics,  with  a  clear  conscience,  submit 
also  to  this  civil  authority  as  it  is  now  constituted,  and  for  the 
common  good  of  Religion  and  State  let  them  willingly  accept  public 
offices  if  they  are  conferred.  We  make  these  exhortations  all  the 
more  willingly  because,  from  what  has  been  reported  to  Us,  We 
are  confident  that  the  Portuguese  authorities  will  uphold  the  com- 
plete freedom  of  the  Church  and  the  exercise  of  her  sacred  rights 
that  she  may  there  most  profitably  carry  out  her  divine  commission. 
It  will  be  your  task,  Venerable  Brethren,  together  with  the  clergy 
to  urge  the  faithful  from  time  to  time  that,  considering  Mother 
Church  more  important  than  worldly  interests  and  political  parties, 
they  strive  by  all  means  to  protect  her  rights  with  united  strength. 
For  thus  they  will  greatly  contribute  to  the  increase  and  prosperity 

196 Cf.  supra*.  176. 


[655-658]  BENEDICT    XV 

of  their  native  Portugal,  that  she  may  successfully  continue  to  carry 
out  the  most  glorious  task  she  has  received  from  Divine  Providence 
especially  in  spreading  the  Faith  and  civilization  throughout  the 
vast  extent  of  her  colonies.  .  .  . 


A  fair  penalty,  not  destruction,  may  be  imposed  upon 
conquered  peoples. 

December  24,  1919 

655 Far,  however,  from  being  afraid  for  the  future 

of  individuals  and  of  society,  We  subscribe  to  the  wish  of  the  Sacred 
College,  desiring  that,  first  of  all,  the  spirit  of  faith  be  revived  in 
individuals  and  in  society,  and  that  both  one  and  the  other  may 
then  enjoy  the  fruits  of  that  peace  which  is  the  daughter  of  a  true 
life  of  faith. 

656.  The  Apostle,  Saint  Paul,  after  having  taught  the  Romans 
that  the  Kingdom  of  God  is  not  meat  and  drinJ^;  but  justice t  and 
peace,  and  joy  in  the  Holy  Ghost,  used  to  draw  from  his  teaching 
this  conclusion:  Let  us  do,  therefore,  that  which  is  useful  to  peace: 
itaque  quae  pads  sunt  sectemur.198    We,  also,  have  recently  co- 
operated, within  the  limited  measure  of  Our  strength,  in  the  exten- 
sion of  the  Kingdom  of  God  by  furthering  the  propagation  of  the 
Faith  throughout  the  whole  world. 

657.  .  .  .  Hence,  having  taken  care  to  revive  the  spirit  of  faith 
by  calling  to  mind  the  nativity  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  in  order 
that  it  be  vouchsafed  to  individuals  and  to  society  to  enjoy  more 
copiously  the  fruits  of  that  peace  which  faith  alone  can  give,  We 
also,  with  St.  Paul,  must  remind  them  of  the  obligation  of  doing 
all  which  helps  to  maintain  that  ineffable  good:  itaque  quae  pads 
sunt  sectemur. 

658.  Because  pads  sunt,  our  acts  of  homage  and  of  obedience 
to  divine  and  human  laws,  which  acts,  in  a  direct  or  indirect  way, 
recognize  the  supreme  dominion  of  God  over  creation,  are  useful 
to  peace;  because  pads  sunt,  the  mortifications  and  the  penances, 
with  which  the  senses  are  subjected  to  the  spirit,  help  to  promote 

197 Original  Italian,  La  Civllta  Cattolica,  1920,  v.  I,  pp.  73-74. 
198  Romans,  XIV,  17-19. 



peace;  because  pacts  sunt,  the  kindness  which  in  our  words  and 
acts  we  employ  towards  our  brethren,  even  at  the  price  of  self  love, 
helps  to  promote  peace. 

659.  And  if  we  pass  from  the  consideration  of  the  good  of  the 
individual  to  that  of  society,  we  ought  once  again  to  repeat  the 
exhortation  of  St.  Paul:  itaque  quae  pacts  sunt  sectemur. 

660.  Pacts  sunt  the  public  act  by  which  it  is  acknowledged  that 
from  neither  schools,  nor  from  courtrooms,  nor  from  public  assem- 
blies must  God,  Who  is  not  only  the  Lord  of  the  individual  but  of 
society,  be  ostracized;  pads  sunt  the  work  and  care  devoted  to 
establish  the  alliance  of  peoples  on  the  foundation  of  justice;  pads 
sunt  the  decisions  and  sentences  which  impose  upon  conquered 
peoples  a  fair  penalty,  but  not  destruction 

LETTER  Par  Vlntermediaire  TO   MR.   HERBERT  HOOVER,   THE 

Hoover  s  relief  wor\  is  highly  praised. 
January  9,  1920 

661.  Through  Our  dear  son,  the  Cardinal  Archbishop  of  Balti- 
more, We  have  received  further  news  of  the  really  admirable  and 
providential  work  that  you  are  continuing  to  carry  out  to  alleviate 
the  serious  and  complex  troubles  from  which  Europe  is  suffering 
in  the  matter  of  food  supplies.  Such  beneficent  work  will  undoubt- 
edly ensure  for  you  a  very  high  place  in  the  annals  of  Christian 
charity,  and,  so  to  speak,  a  unique  title  to  the  gratitude  of  the 
peoples;  and  it  fills  Our  heart  with  sincere  pleasure  and  lively  con- 
solation when  We  think  of  the  immense  good  that  it  is  bringing 
to  the  multitude  of  suffering  people  in  this  desolated  Europe.  Espe- 
cially, We  have  learned,  you  are  concentrating  your  attention  and 
anxious  care  on  the  little  children.  We  still  retain  a  vivid  recollec- 
tion of  what  you  did  to  help  the  unfortunate  children  of  Belgium 
at  a  moment  when  they  were  dying  through  the  lack  of  the  food 
their  young  lives  required.  We  spoke  then  from  Our  heart,  encour- 
aging your  generous  initiative.  We  can  do  no  less  now,  the  more 
so  in  that  it  is  not  a  question  of  the  lives  of  the  children  of  one 

199  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  135,  pp.  223-224  (February  14,  1920).   Original 
French,  A.A.S.,  v.  12,  pp.  35-36  (February  2,  1920). 


[662]  BENEDICT    XV 

nation  only,,  but,  from  what  We  hear,  of  three  millions  of  children 
belonging  to  different  States  of  Europe.  Moved  by  the  charity  of 
Jesus  Christ,  therefore,  and  feeling  the  love  that  He  felt  for  the 
children,  We  most  heartily  recommend  the  work  which  you  are 
doing  to  all  American  citizens,  without  distinction  of  faith  or  party, 
feeling  sure  that  they  who  have  always  opened  their  hearts  to  every 
noble  initiative  will  respond  with  enthusiasm  to  this  appeal.  The 
more  so  in  that  We  are  happy  to  see  that  in  your  work  there  is 
no  place  for  resentment  or  particularism  of  any  sort,  it  aims  at 
helping  all  suffering  children,  in  preference  the  children  of  the 
enemies  of  yesterday  who  are  undergoing  the  worst  sufferings. 
We,  as  you  know,  were  moved  by  these  same  high  sentiments  when 
We  turned  to  the  bishops  of  the  whole  -world,  urging  them  to 
rouse  the  charity  of  the  faithful  to  help  the  children  of  Central 
Europe  on  Holy  Innocents'  Day,  and  when  We  gladly  approved 
the  work  of  the  "Save  the  Children  Fund"  of  London,  which  had 
taken  a  similar  initiative.  We  have  no  doubt  at  all  that  with  God's 
aid  all  these  efforts  will  have  the  happiest  results,  but,  on  the  other 
hand,  We  think  that  success  would  be  more  easily  attained  if  all 
the  initiatives  were  to  come  together  in  a  common  understanding. 
With  all  Our  heart  We  wish  the  greatest  success  to  your  generous 
effort,  and  We  fervently  pray  that  God  may  grant  you  the  most 
precious  reward. 

ENCYCLICAL  Pacem  Dei  Munus  Pulcherrimum  ON  PEACE  AND 

Unless  Christian  charity  and  justice  are  practiced  by 
the  nations,  the  feace  treaty  will  be  in  vain. 

May  23,  1920 

662.  Peace,  the  beautiful  gift  of  God,  the  name  of  which,  as 
St.  Augustine  says,  is  the  sweetest  word  to  our  hearing  and  the 
best  and  most  desirable  possession;201  peace,  which  was  for  more 
than  four  years  implored  by  the  ardent  wishes  of  all  good  peoples, 
by  the  prayers  of  pious  souls  and  the  tears  of  mothers,  begins  at 

200  Translation  from  Eppstein,  The  Catholic  Tradition  of  the  Law  of  Nations,  pp.  236- 

242,  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  12,  pp.  209-218  (June  i,  1920). 

201  De  Civitate  Dei,  bk.  XIX,  ch.  n  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  41,  c.  637. 


PA  GEM    DEI  [663-666] 

last  to  shine  upon  the  nations.  At  this  We  are  indeed  the  happiest 
of  all,  and  heartily  do  We  rejoice.  But  this  joy  of  Our  paternal 
heart  is  disturbed  by  many  bitter  anxieties,  for  if  in  most  places 
peace  is  in  some  sort  established  and  treaties  are  signed,  the  germs 
of  former  enmities  remain;  and  you  well  know,  Venerable  Brethren, 
that  there  can  be  no  stable  peace  or  lasting  treaties,  though  made 
after  long  and  difficult  negotiations  and  duly  signed,  unless  there 
be  a  return  of  mutual  charity  to  appease  hate  and  banish  enmity. 
This,  then,  Venerable  Brethren,  is  the  anxious  and  dangerous  ques- 
tion upon  which  We  wish  to  dwell  and  to  put  forward  recom- 
mendations to  be  brought  home  to  your  people. 

663.  For  Ourselves,  since  We  were  raised  by  the  hidden  designs 
of  God  to  this  Chair,  We  have  never  ceased  to  do  everything 
in  Our  power  from  the  very  beginning  of  the  war  that  all  the 
nations  of  the  world  might  resume  cordial  relations  as  soon  as 
possible.  To  that  end  We  never  ceased  to  pray,  to  repeat  exhorta- 
tions, to  propose  ways  of  arrangement,  to  try  every  means,  in  fact, 
to  open  by  divine  aid  a  path  to  a  just,  honorable,  and  lasting  peace; 
and  at  the  same  time  We  exercised  all  Our  paternal  care  to  alleviate 
everywhere  that  terrible  load  of  sorrow  and  disaster  of  every  sort 
by  which  the  immense  tragedy  was  accompanied. 

664.  And  now,  just  as  from  the  beginning  of  Our  troubled 
pontificate  the  charity  of  Jesus  Christ  led  Us  to  work  both  for  the 
return  of  peace  and  to  alleviate  the  horrors  of  the  war,  so  now  that 
comparative  peace  has  been  concluded,  this  same  charity  urges  Us 
to  exhort  all  the  children  of  the  Church,  and  all  mankind,  to  clear 
their  hearts  of  bitterness,  and  give  place  to  mutual  love  and  concord. 

665.  There  is  no  need  from  Us  of  long  proof  to  show  that 
society  would,  incur  the  risk  of  great  loss  if,  while  peace  is  signed, 
latent  hostility  and  enmity  were  to  continue  among  the  nations. 
There  is  no  need  to  mention  the  loss  of  all  that  maintains  and 
fosters  civil  life,  such  as  commerce  and  industry,  art  and  literature, 
which  flourish  only  when  the  nations  are  at  peace.   But,  what  is 
even  more  important,  grave  harm  would  accrue  to  the  form  and 
essence  of  the  Christian  life,  which  consists  essentially  in  charity 
and  the  preaching  of  which  is  called  the  Gospel  of  peace.2(>2 

666.  You  know  well,  and  We  have  frequently  reminded  you 
of  it,  that  nothing  was  so  often  and  so  carefully  inculcated  on  His 


[667-669]  BENEDICT    XV 

disciples  by  Jesus  Christ  as  this  precept  of  mutual  charity,  as  the 
one  which  contains  all  others.  Christ  called  it  the  new  command- 
ment, His  very  own,  and  desired  that  it  should  be  the  sign  of 
Christians  by  which  they  might  be  distinguished  from  all  others; 
and  on  the  eve  of  His  death  it  was  His  last  testament  to  His  disciples 
to  love  one  another  and  thus  try  to  imitate  the  ineffable  unity  of 
the  three  Divine  Persons.  in  the  Trinity.  That  they  may  be  one  as 
tve  also  are  one  .  .  .  that  they  may  be  made  perfect  in  one?®* 

667.  The  Apostles,  following  in  the  steps  of  the  Divine  Master, 
and  conforming  to  His  word  and  commands,  were  unceasing  in 
their  exhortation  to  the  faithful:  Before  all  things  have  a  constant 
mutual  chanty  among  yourselves?®*  But  above  all  these  things  have 
charity  which  is  the  bond  of  perfection?^  Dearly  beloved;  let  us 
love  one  another,  for  charity  is  of  God?QQ  Our  brethren  of  the  first 
Christian  ages  faithfully  observed  these  commands  of  Jesus  Christ 
and  the  Apostles.  They  belonged  to  different  and  rival  nations,  yet 
they  willingly  forgot  their  causes  of  quarrel  and  lived  in  perfect 
concord,  and  such  a  union  of  hearts  was  in  striking  contrast  with 
the  deadly  enmities  by  which  human  society  was  then  consumed. 

668.  What  has  already  been  said  in  favor  of  charity  holds  good 
for  the  inculcation  of  the  pardoning  of  injuries  which  is  no  less 
solemnly  commanded  by  the  Lord:  But  I  say  to  you,  love  your 
enemies;  do  good  to  them  that  hate  you;  pray  for  those  that  per- 
secute and  calumniate  you,  that  you  may  be  the  children  of  your 
Father  Who  is  in  heaven,  Who  maketh  His  sun  to  rise  upon  the 
good  and  bad?®"1  Hence,  that  terribly  severe  warning*  of  the  Apostle, 
St.  John:  'Whosoever  hateth  his  brother  is  a  murderer.   And  you 
tyiow  that  no  murderer  hath  eternal  life  .abiding  in  himself?^ 

669.  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  in  teaching  us  how  to  pray  to  God, 
makes  us  say  that  we  wish  for  pardon  as  we  forgive  others  :  Forgive 
us  our  trespasses  as  we  forgive  them  that  trespass  against  us?0® 
And  if  the  observance  of  this  law  is  sometimes  hard  and  difficult, 
we  have  not  only  the  timely  assistance  of  the  grace  of  Our  Divine 
Redeemer,  but  also  His  example  to  help  us  to  overcome  the  diffi- 

,  xvn,  22-23. 

204  1  Peter,  IV,  8. 

205  Colossians,  III,  14. 
2°6l/o^IV,  7. 

™  Matthew,  V,  44-45. 
208  1  lohn,  III,  15, 
^  Matthew,  VI,  12, 


PA  OEM  DEI  [670-672] 

culty.  For  as  He  hung  on  the  Cross  He  thus  excused  before  His 
Father  those  who  so  unjustly  and  wickedly  tortured  Him:  Father, 
forgive  them,  for  they  {now  not  what  they  do.210  We,  then,  who 
should  be  the  first  to  imitate  the  pity  and  loving  kindness  of  Jesus 
Christ,  Whose  Vicar,  without  any  merit  of  Our  own,  We  are;  with 
all  Our  heart,  and  following  His  example,  We  forgive  all  Our 
enemies  who  knowingly  or  unknowingly  have  heaped  and  are  still 
heaping  on  Our  person  and  Our  work  every  sort  of  vituperation, 
and  We  embrace  all  in  Our  charity  and  benevolence  and  neglect 
no  opportunity  to  do  them  all  the  good  in  Our  power.  That  is 
indeed  what  Christians  worthy  of  the  name  ought  to  do  toward 
those  who  during  the  war  have  done  them  wrong. 

670.  Christian  charity  ought  not  to  be  content  with  not  hating 
our  enemies  and  loving  them  as  brothers;  it  also  demands  that  we 
treat  them  with  kindness,  following  the  rule  of  the  Divine  Master 
who  went  about  doing  good  and  healing  all  that  were  oppressed 
by  the  devil?1^  and  finished  His  mortal  life,  the  course  of  which 
was  marked  by  good  deeds,  by  shedding  His  blood  for  them.   So 
said  St.  John:  In  this  we  have  %nown  the  charity  of  God,  because 
He  hath  laid  down  His  life  for  us,  and  we  ought  to  lay  down  our 
lives  for  the  brethren.   He  that  hath  the  substance  of  this  world 
and  shall  see  his  brother  in  need  and  shall  shut  up  his  bowels  from 
him:  how  doth  the  charity  of  God  abide  in  him?  My  little  children, 
let  us  not  love  in  word  nor  by  tongue,  but  in  deed  and  in  truth.212 

671.  Never  indeed  was  there  a  time  when  we  should  "stretch 
the  bounds  of  charity"  more  than  in  these  days  of  universal  suffer- 
ing and  sorrow;  never  perhaps  as  to-day  has  humanity  so  needed 
that  universal  beneficence  which  springs  from  the  love  of  others, 
and  is  full  of  sacrifice  and  zeal.  For  if  we  look  around  where  the 
fury  of  the  war  has  been  let  loose  we  see  immense  regions  utterly 
desolate,  uncultivated  and  abandoned;  multitudes  reduced  to  want 
of  food,  clothing  and  shelter;  innumerable  widows  and  orphans 
reft  of  everything,  and  an  incredible  number  of  enfeebled  beings, 
particularly  children  and  young  people,  who  carry  on  their  bodies 
the  ravages  of  this  atrocious  war. 

672.  When  one  regards  all  these  miseries  by  which  the  human 


213  Acts,  X,  38. 

I,  1 6-1 8. 

[673-674]  BENEDICT    XV 

race  is  stricken  one  inevitably  thinks  of  the  traveler  in  the  Gospel,213 
who,  going  down  from  Jerusalem  to  Jericho,,  fell  among  thieves, 
who  robbed  him,  and  covered  him  with  wounds  and  left  him  half 
dead.  The  two  cases  are  very  similar;  and  as  to  the  traveler  there 
came  the  good  Samaritan,  full  of  compassion,  who  bound  up  his 
wounds,  pouring  in  oil  and  wine,  took  him  to  an  inn,  and  under- 
took all  care  for  him,  so,  too,  is  it  necessary  that  Jesus,  of  Whom 
the  Samaritan  was  the  figure,  should  lay  His  Hands  upon  the 
wounds  of  society. 

673.  This  work,  this  duty  the  Church  claims  as  her  own  as 
heir  and  guardian  of  the  spirit  of  Jesus  Christ — the  Church  whose 
entire  existence  is  a  marvelously  varied  tissue  of  all  kinds  of  good 
deeds,  the  Church,  that  "real  mother  of  Christians  in  the  full  sense 
of  the  word,  who  has  such  tenderness  of  love  and  charity  for  her 
neighbor  that  she  can  offer  the  best  remedies  for  the  different  evils 
which  afflict  souls  on  account  of  their  sins."  That  is  why  she  "treats 
and  teaches  children  with  tenderness,  young  people  with  firmness, 
old  people  with  great  calm,  taking  account  of  not  only  the  age 
but  also  the  condition  of  soul  of  each."214  It  would  be  difficult  to 
exaggerate  the  effect  of  this  many-sided  Christian  beneficence  in 
softening  the  heart  and  thus  facilitating  the  return  of  tranquillity 
to  the  nations. 

674.  Therefore,  Venerable  Brethren,  We  pray  you  and  exhort 
you  in  the  mercy  and  charity  of  Jesus  Christ,  strive  with  all  zeal 
and  diligence  not  only  to  urge  the  faithful  entrusted  to  your  care 
to  abandon  hatred  and  to  pardon  offenses;  but — and  what  is  more 
immediately  practical — to  promote  all  those  works  of  Christian 
benevolence  which  bring  aid  to  the  needy,  comfort  to  the  afflicted, 
and  protection  to  the  weak,  and  to  give  opportune  and  appropriate 
assistance  of  every  kind  to  all  who  have  suffered  from  the  war. 
It  is  Our  especial  wish  that  you  should  exhort  your  priests,  as  the 
ministers  of  peace,  to  be  assiduous  in  urging  this  love  of  one's 
neighbor  and  even  of  enemies  which  is  the  essence  of  the  Christian 
life  and  by  being  all  things  to  all  men215  and  giving  an  example 
to  others,  wage  war  everywhere  on  enmity  and  hatred,  thus  doing 
a  thing  most  agreeable  to  the  loving  Heart  of  Jesus  and  to  him 

313  Luke,  X,  30  sq. 

214  St.  Augustine,  De  Moribus  Ecclesiac  Catholicae,  bk.  I,  ch.  30,  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  32, 

c.  1336. 
215 1  Corinthians,  IX,  22. 


PACEM    DEI  [675-677] 

who,  however  unworthy,  holds  His  place  on  earth.  In  this  con- 
nection Catholic  writers  and  journalists  should  be  invited  to  clothe 
themselves  as  elect  of  God,  holy  and  beloved,  with  pity  and  \ind- 
ness?1Q  Let  them  show  this  charity  in  their  writings  by  abstaining 
not  only  from  false  and  groundless  accusations,  but  also  from  all 
intemperance  and  bitterness  of  language,  all  of  which  is  contrary 
to  the  law  of  Christ  and  does  but  reopen  sores  as  yet  unhealed, 
seeing  that  the  slightest  touch  is  a  serious  irritant  to  a  heart  whose 
wounds  are  recent. 

675.  All  that  We  have  said  here  to  individuals  about  the  duty 
of  charity  We  wish  to  say  also  to  the  peoples  who  have  been  de- 
livered from  the  burden  of  a  long  war,  in  order  that,  when  every 
cause  of  disagreement  has  been,  as  far  as  possible,  removed — and 
without  prejudice  to  the  rights  of  justice — they  may  resume  friendly 
relations  among  themselves.  The  Gospel  has  not  one  law  of  charity 
for  individuals  and  another  for  States  and  nations,  which  are  indeed 
but  collections  of  individuals.  The  war  being  now  over,  people  seem 
called  to  a  general  reconciliation  not  only  from  motives  of  charity, 
but  from  necessity;  the  nations  are  naturally  drawn  together  by 
the  need  they  have  of  one  another,  and  by  the  bond  of  mutual 
good-will,  bonds  which  are  to-day  strengthened  by  the  development 
of  civilization  and  the  marvelous  increase  of  communication. 

676.  Truly,  as  We  have  already  said,  this  Apostolic  See  has 
never  wearied  of  teaching  during  the  war  such  pardon  of  offenses 
and  the  fraternal  reconciliation  of  the  peoples,  in  conformity  with 
the  most  holy  law  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  in  agreement  with  the  needs 
of  civil  life  and  human  intercourse;  nor  did  it  allow  that  amid 
dissension  and  hate  these  moral  principles  should  be  forgotten. 
With  all  the  more  reason,  then,  now  that  the  Treaties  of  Peace  are 
signed,  does  it  proclaim  these  principles  as,  for  example,  it  did  a 
short  time  ago  in  the  Letter  to  the  Bishops  of  Germany,217  and  in 
that  addressed  to  the  Archbishop  of  Paris.218 

677.  And  this  concord  between  civilized  nations  is  maintained 
and  fostered  by  the  modern  custom  of  visits  and  meetings  at  which 
the  heads  of  States  and  princes  are  accustomed  to  treat  of  matters 
of  special  importance.   So,  then,  considering  the  changed  circum- 

216  Colossians,  III,  12. 

217  Apostolic  Letter  Diutttrni,  July  15,  1919.  See  supra  nn.  636-637. 
213  Letter  Amor  Hie,  October  7,  1919.  See  supra  nn.  643-645. 


[678-679]  BENEDICT    XV 

stances  of  the  times  and  the  dangerous  trend  of  events,  and  in 
order  to  encourage  this  concord,  We  would  not  be  unwilling  to 
relax  in  some  measure  the  severity  of  the  conditions  justly  laid 
down  by  Our  Predecessors,  when  the  civil  power  of  the  Apostolic 
See  was  overthrown,  against  the  official  visits  of  the  heads  of 
Catholic  States  to  Rome.  But  at  the  same  time  We  formally  declare 
that  this  concession,  which  seems  counseled  or  rather  demanded  by 
the  grave  circumstances  in  which  to-day  society  is  placed,  must  not 
be  interpreted  as  a  tacit  renunciation  of  its  sacrosanct  rights  by  the 
Apostolic  See,  as  if  it  acquiesced  in  the  unlawful  situation  in  which 
it  is  placed.  Rather  do  We  seize  this  opportunity  to  renew  for  the 
same  reasons  the  protests  which  Our  Predecessors  have  several  times 
made,  not  in  the  least  moved  thereto  by  human  interests,  but  in 
fulfillment  of  the  sacred  duty  of  their  charge  to  defend  the  rights 
and  dignity  of  this  Apostolic  See;  once  again  demanding  and  with 
even  greater  insistence,  now  that  peace  is  made  among  the  nations, 
that  "for  the  Head  of  the  Church,  too,  an  end  may  be  put  to  that 
abnormal  condition  which  in  so  many  ways  does  such  serious 
harm  to  tranquillity  among  the  peoples."219 

678.  Things  being  thus  restored,  the  order  required  by  justice 
and  charity  re-established  and  the  nations  reconciled,  it  is  much 
to  be  desired,  Venerable  Brethren,  that  all  States,  putting  aside 
mutual  suspicion,  should  unite  in  one  league,  or  rather  a  sort  of 
family  of  peoples,  calculated  both  to  maintain  their  own  independ- 
ence and  safeguard  the  order  of  human  society.   What  specially, 
amongst  otlier  reasons,  calls  for  such  an  association  of  nations,  is 
the  need  generally  recognized  of  making  every  effort  to  abolish 
or  reduce  the  enormous  burden  of  the  military  expenditures  which 
States  can  no  longer  bear,  in  order  to  prevent  these  disastrous  wars 
or  at  least  to  remove  the  danger  of  them  as  far  as  possible.    So 
would  each  nation  be  assured  not  only  of  its  independence  but 
also  of  the  integrity  of  its  territory  within  its  just  frontiers. 

679.  The  Church  will  certainly  not  refuse  her  zealous  aid  to 
States  united  under  the  Christian  law  in  any  of  their  undertakings 
inspired  by  justice  and  charity,  inasmuch  as  she  is  herself  the  most 
perfect  type  of  universal  society.  She  possesses  in  her  organization 
and  institutions  a  wonderful  instrument  for  bringing  this  brother- 
hood among  men,  not  only  for  their  eternal  salvation  but  also  for 

219  Encyclical  Ad  Beatissimi,  November  i,  1914,    See  supra  n.  296. 


PACEM    DEI  [680] 

their  material  well-being  in  this  world;  she  leads  them  through 
temporal  well-being  to  the  sure  acquisition  of  eternal  blessings.  It  is 
the  teaching  of  history  that  when  the  Church  pervaded  with  her 
spirit  the  ancient  and  barbarous  nations  of  Europe,  little  by  little 
the  many  and  varied  differences  that  divided  them  were  diminished 
and  their  quarrels  extinguished;  in  time  they  formed  a  homogeneous 
society  from  which  sprang  Christian  Europe  which,  under  the 
guidance  and  auspices  of  the  Church,  whilst  preserving  a  diversity 
of  nations,  tended  to  a  unity  that  favored  its  prosperity  and  glory. 
On  this  point  St.  Augustine  well  says;  "This  celestial  city,  in  its 
life  here  on  earth,  calls  to  itself  citizens  of  every  nation,  and  forms 
out  of  all  the  peoples  one  varied  society;  it  is  not  harassed  by  dif- 
ferences in  customs,  laws  and  institutions,  which  serve  to  the  attain- 
ment or  the  maintenance  of  peace  on  earth;  it  neither  rends  nor 
destroys  anything  but  rather  guards  all  and  adapts  itself  to  all; 
however,  these  things  may  vary  among  the  nations,  they  are  all 
directed  to  the  same  end  of  peace  on  earth  as  long  as  they  do 
not  hinder  the  exercise  of  religion,  which  teaches  the  worship 
of  the  true  supreme  God."220  And  the  same  holy  Doctor  thus 
addresses  the  Church:  "Citizens,  peoples,  and  all  men,  thou,  recall- 
ing their  common  origin,  shalt  not  only  unite  among  themselves, 
but  shalt  make  them  brothers."221 

680.  To  come  back  to  what  We  said  at  the  beginning,  We 
turn  affectionately  to  all  Our  children  and  conjure  them  in  the 
name  of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  to  forget  mutual  differences  and 
offenses  and  draw  together  in  the  bonds  of  Christian  charity,  from 
which  none  are  excluded  and  within  which  none  are  strangers. 
We  fervently  exhort  all  the  nations,  under  the  inspiration  of  Chris- 
tian benevolence,  to  establish  a  true  peace  among  themselves  and 
join  together  in  an  alliance  which  shall  be  just  and,  therefore,  lasting. 
And  lastly  We  appeal  to  all  men  and  all  peoples  to  join  in  mind 
and  heart  with  the  Catholic  Church  and  through  the  Church  with 
Christ,  the  Redeemer  of  the  human  race,  so  that  We  may  address 
to  them  in  very  truth  the  words  6i  St.  Paul  to  the  Ephesians:  But 
now  in  Christ  Jesus  you  who  sometime  were  ajar  off,  are  made 
nigh  by  the  Blood  of  Christ.  For  He  is  our  peace,  Who  hath  made 
both  one,  and  breaking  down  the  middle  wall  of  partition  .  .  . 

220  De  Civitate  Dei,  bk.  XIX,  ch.  17,  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  41,  c.  646. 

221  De  MoribusEcclesiae  Catholicae,  bk.  I,  ch.  30,  in  Migne,  P.L.,  v.  32,  c.  1336. 


[681-683]  BENEDICT    XV 

filling  the  enmities  in  Himself.  And  coming  He  preached  peace 
to  you  that  were  ajar  off  and  peace  to  them  that  were  nigh.222 

681.  Nor  less  appropriate  are  the  words  which  the  same  Apostle 
addressed  to  the  Colossians:  Lie  not  one  to  another:  stripping  your- 
selves of  the  old  man  with  his  deeds.   And  putting  on  the  new, 
him  who  is  renewed  unto  knowledge  according  to  the  image  of 
Him  that  created  him.    Where  there  is  neither  Gentile  nor  ]ew, 
circumcision  nor  uncircumcision ,  Barbarian  nor  Scythianf  bond  nor 
free.  But  Christ  is  all  and  in  all.22B 

682.  Meanwhile,  trusting  in  the  protection  of  Mary,  the  Virgin 
Immaculate,  who  not  long  ago  We  directed  should  be  universally 
invoked  as  "Queen  of  Peace/'  as  also  in  the  intercession  of  the  three 
Blessed  to  whom  We  have  decreed  the  honor  of  Saints,  We  humbly 
implore  the  Holy  Ghost,  the  Paraclete,  that  He  may  "graciously 
grant  to  the  Church  the  gifts  of  unity  and  peace,''224  and  may  renew 
the  face  of  the  earth  by  a  fresh  outpouring  of  His  charity  for  the 
salvation  of  all.  As  an  earnest  of  these  heavenly  gifts  and  as  a  pledge 
of  Our  paternal  benevolence,  We  impart  with  all  Our  heart  to  you, 
Venerable  Brethren,  to  all  your  clergy  and  people,  the  Apostolic 



The  application  of  Christian  social  principles  will  bring 
internal  peace  to  those  lands  where  there  now  is  strife 
between  opposing  factions. 

June  14,  1920 

683,  We  understand  from  the  letters  which  you  sent  Us  re- 
cently that  you  are  deeply  concerned  over  those  popular  movements 
by  which  the  tranquillity  of  your  territory  is  disturbed  at  present. 
The  reasons  for  your  concern  are  obvious.  The  issues  in  dispute 
are  most  difficult  and  unpleasant;  moreover,  the  Faith  itself  is 
placed  in  jeopardy.  We  deeply  share  in  your  concern  and  for  the 

z-2Ephesians>  II,  13  sq. 

223  Colossians,  III,  9-11. 

224  Secret  in  the  Feast  of  Corpus  Christi. 

225  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  12,  p.  290  (July  i,  1920). 


BONUM    SANE  [684-685] 

same  reasons.  It  is  Our  duty  principally  to  bring  back  a  Christian 
reconciliation  among  opposing  factions,  and  to  safeguard  the  eternal 
salvation  of  all.  First  of  all,  you  have  done  well  to  establish  certain 
proper  boards  for  the  benefit  of  the  workingman,  which,  with  the 
right  use  of  the  principles  of  Christian  wisdom,  will  do  away  with 
any  disputes  between  owners  and  workers.  And  certainly,  as  We 
have  written  recently  to  the  Bishop  of  Bergamo,  these  boards  can 
be  of  great  advantage,  as  long  as  they  use  Christian  principles,  and 
as  long  as  those  questions  or  problems  which  pertain  to  religion 
or  morals  or  doctrine  are  duly  referred  to  the  authority  of  the 

684.  For  the  Church  alone  has  the  medicine  and  the  remedy 
for  the  cure  of  the  sickness  which  exists  in  these  difficulties  —  a 
remedy,  by  the  way,  which  is  conformed  to  the  eternal  laws  of 
justice  —  a  remedy  which  We  hear  the  human  race  to-day  loudly 
imploring  on  all  sides.  But  these  laws  of  justice  are  to  be  observed 
indeed  in  such  a  way  that  within  their  proper  fields  they  may  remain 
both  just  and  firm.  Consequently,  when  We  exhort  the  rich  to 
cultivate  generosity  and  to  emphasize  fairness  much  more  than 
their  rights,  We  at  the  same  time  earnestly  advise  the  working- 
men  that  their  very  Faith  may  be  endangered  if  they  seek  to  im- 
pose and  to  make  immoderate  and  unreasonable  demands 

Moxu  PROPRIO — Bonum  Sane — ON  DEVOTION  TO  ST.  JosEPH.226 

Many  serious  moral  evils  have  arisen  as  a  consequence 
of  the  war. 

July  25,  1920 

685 What  is  lacking^  to  restore  a  common  and  properly 

ordered  peace  after  so  hard  a  struggle  of  war,  We  have  recently 
shown  in  the  Encyclical  On  the  Christian  Restoration  of  Peace?*1 
in  which  We  paid  particular  attention  to  the  public  relations  both 
of  nations  and  men  with  one  another.  Now,  however,  there  is 
another  cause  of  disturbance  which  calls  for  attention,  and  that  a 
far  greater  one  inasmuch  as  it  attacks  the  very  veins  and  sinews 
of  human  society.  The  calamity  of  war  came  upon  the  nations 
precisely  at  that  time  when  Naturalism,  the  greatest  plague  in  the 

226 Original  Latin,  4.A.S.,  v.  12,  pp.  313-315  (August  2,  1920). 
227  Cf.  supra  nn.  662-682. 


[686-687]  BENEDICT    XV 

world,  had  completely  tainted  them.  As  soon  as  Naturalism  takes 
root,  it  weakens  the  desire  for  heavenly  treasures,  smothers  the 
flame  of  love  for  God,  draws  man  away  from  the  healing  and 
supernaturalizing  grace  of  Christ,  and  finally  robs  him  of  the  light 
of  faith,  and  abandons  him,  armed  only  with  the  weak  and  corrupt 
forces  of  his  nature,  to  the  unbridled  lusts  of  his  soul.  Since  too 
many  men,  therefore,  had  their  desires  turned  only  to  perishable 
goods,  and  since  the  bitterest  quarrels  and  jealousies  existed  be- 
tween rich  and  poor,  the  greatness  and  length  of  the  war  increased 
mutual  class  hatred  and  rendered  it  even  more  bitter,  particularly 
because  it  brought  unbearable  want  to  the  masses  and  a  sudden 
abundance  of  wealth  to  a  very  few. 

686.  In  addition  to  this  list  of  woes  it  added  these:  that  the 
sanctity  of  marital  fidelity  and  respect  for  parental  authority  suf- 
fered no  slight  loss  on  account  of  the  war,  because  the  remoteness 
of  one  of  the  parties  weakened  the  bond  of  duty  in  the  other  and 
the  absence  of  a  guardian  led  rash  young  girls  in  particular  to 
indulge  their  passions  without  restraint.   We  must,  therefore,  de- 
plore the  fact  that  morals  are  much  more  depraved  and  corrupt 
than  formerly,  and  on  this  account  what  is  called  the  social  question 
is  growing  so  serious  from  day  to  day  that  the  worst  evils  are  now 
to  be  feared.   The  fond  hope  and  wish  of  every  renegade  is  the 
speedy  rise  of  some  universal  state,  which  is  based  on  complete 
equality  of  men  and  common  ownership  of  property  as  a  funda- 
mental principle,  in  which  neither  any  distinctions  of  nationality, 
nor  authority  of  parents  over  their  children,  nor  of  public  authority 
over  citizens,  nor  of  God  over  man  living  in  society  is  acknowl- 
edged.   If  these  principles  are  put  into  practice,  dreadful  horrors 
must  necessarily  follow;  and  at  this  very  moment  not  a  small  part 
of  Europe  is  experiencing  and  feeling  them.  We  even  see  that  such 
a  state  of  affairs  is  being  sought  for  all  other  nations,  and  that  great 
upheavals  are  shortly  to  ensue  everywhere  among  the  masses,  stirred 
up  by  the  madness  and  audacity  of  a  few. 

687.  Particularly  concerned  by  this  trend  of  events,  We  have 
not  neglected  when  opportunity  presented  itself,  to  remind  the 
children  of  the  Church  of  their  duty,  as  in  a  letter  recently  written 
to  the  Bishop  of  Bergamo  and  also  to  the  bishops  of  the  province 
of  Venice.228  Now  for  the  same  reason,  to  keep  all  Our  children 
2-8  Cf.  supra  nn.  683-684. 



wherever  they  be,  who  earn  their  living  by  the  work  of.  their  hands, 
on  the  path  of  duty  and  to  keep  them  intact  from  the  contagion 
of  Socialism,  and  there  is  nothing  more  opposed  to  Christian  teach- 
ing, We  especially  set  before  them  in  all  earnestness  Saint  Joseph, 
whom  they  shall  follow  as  their  special  guide  in  life  and  venerate 
as  their  patron 

LETTER  Con  Vivo  Compiacimento  TO  CARDINAL  POMPILI,  VICAR 

OF  ROME.229 

Prayers  are  ordered  for  Poland  because  her  national 
existence  is  threatened. 

August  5,  1920 

688.  It  is  with  the  greatest  pleasure  that  We  have  heard  that, 
following  Our  suggestion,  you  have  ordered  that  on  Sunday  next, 
in  the  venerable  church  of  the  Gesu,  solemn  prayers  shall  be  raised 
to  the  Most  High  to  invoke  the  mercy  of  the  Lord  on  unhappy 
Poland.  The  gravest  considerations  lead  Us  to  hope.  My  Lord 
Cardinal^  that  your  example  will  be  followed  by  all  the  bishops 
of  the  Catholic  world.  In  truth,  the  anxious  motherly  care  with 
which  the  Holy  See  has  always  followed  the  vicissitudes  of  the 
Polish  nation  is  well  known.  When  all  the  civil  nations  were  silent 
in  front  of  the  predominance  of  might  over  right,  the  Holy  See 
alone  protested  against  the  iniquitous  partition  of  Poland  and 
against  the  no  less  iniquitous  oppression  of  the  Polish  people.  But 
now  there  is  much  more.  Now  not  only  is  the  national  existence 
of  Poland  in  danger,  but  all  Europe  is  threatened  by  the  horrors 
of  fresh  wars.  So  it  is  not  only  love  for  Poland,  but  love  for  all 
Europe  that  moves  Us  to  hope  that  all  the  faithful  will  join  Us  in 
praying  the  Most  High  that  through  the  intercession  of  the  Most 
Blessed  Virgin,  Protectress  of  Poland,  the  people  of  that  country 
may  be  spared  this  last  disaster,  and  at  the  same  time  this  fresh 
scourge  may  be  lifted  from  Europe,  already  bled  almost  to  death. 
Praying  Almighty  God  that  the  hearts  of  the  faithful  may  respond 
to  the  Father's  appeal,  We  impart  to  you  with  all  Our  heart,  My 
Lord  Cardinal,  the  Apostolic  Benediction. 

229  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  137,  p.  249  (August  21,  1920).   Original  Italian, 
Civiltb  Cctttolica,  1920,  v.  3,  p.  369  (August  14,  1920). 


[689-693]  BENEDICT    XV 


THE  WAR.230 

Benedict  XV  will  not  be  content  until  the  armistice  is 
followed  by  a  complete  reconciliation  of  hearts. 

October  31,  1920 

689 Indeed,  how  lively  and  great  is  Our  joy  now 

that  We  receive  the  first  pilgrims  o£  Germany  to  come  here  after 

the  terrible  scourge  of  the  World  War! We  do  not  wish  to 

mention  anew  what  We  have  recently  said,  that  Our  heart  will 
not  be  at  peace  until  a  complete  reconciliation  of  hearts  has  fol- 
lowed the  armistice.  .  .  . 

690.  You,  Our  dear  ones,  are  the  first  to  make  the  journey  to 
Rome  since  those  enmities  of  war  have  come  to  an  end.   Those 
hostilities  made  Our  position  so  perilous,  since  We  well  knew  that 
We  had  sons  in  each  of  the  two  opposing  camps.  Not  only  in  the 
order  of  time  are  you  the  first  to  come  to  Us,  but  you  shall  also 
lead  others  to  the  re-establishment  of  cordial  relations,  at  least  among 
all  sons  of  the  Catholic  Church.  .  .  .  We  confine  Ourself  now 
to  remind  you,  that  the  Apostolic  See  cannot  enjoy  this  peace  that 
you  desire,  without  the  concord  of  all  its  sons  in  the  profession  of 
one  and  the  same  teaching  and  in  the  practice  of  one  and  the 
same  love.  .  .  . 

691.  ...  We  offer  the  German  Catholics  Our  blessings  and 
good  wishes,  because  they  are  united  with  Us  in  the  same  Faith 
by  the  bond  of  the  love  of  Christ— Proper  fratres  meos  et  proximos 
meos  loquebar  pacem  de  te.  For  the  sakf  of  my  brethren,  and  of 
my  neighbors,  I  spofe  peace  of  thee?^  .  .  . 

692.  To  Germany,  too,  We  say:  May  there  be  peace  in  your 
midst!    But,  without  departing  from  the  language  of  the  Bible, 
We  wish  you,  in  these  words,  not  only  that  the  horrors  of  a  new 
war  may  forever  remain  far  from  your  land,  but  also  that  fine 
customs,  domestic  peace,  progress  in  industry  and  commerce,  art 
and  science — in  a  word,  all  those  goods  that  are  the  fruit  of  peace — 
may  blossom  there. 

693.  Our  yearnings  for  your  well-being,  Our  dearest  sons,  are 

230  German  text  from  Lama,  Papst  und  Kurie,  pp.  202-204.   Original  text  in  Osserva- 

tore  Romano,  November  I,  1920. 

231  Psalms,  121,  v.  8. 



so  strong  that  it  would  be  folly  to  expect  their  fulfillment  by  merely 
natural  powers.  And,  therefore,  We  expect  them  first  through  the 
blessing  of  God,  which  We  now  call  down  on  all  German  Catholics. 
May  it  please  the  Lord  to  strengthen  by  the  superabundance  of  His 
grace  and  blessing  the  illustrious  German  episcopate,  which  We 
here  and  now  cordially  greet  in  the  person  of  its  worthy  represen- 
tative, the  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  here  present.  May  God  bless 
all  the  clergy  and  the  whole  Catholic  population  of  Germany,  and 
may  this  blessing  of  God  draw  the  clergy  and  the  people  more  and 
more  closely  around  their  bishops  and  through  these  around  the 
Holy  See.  May  the  Lord  bless  in  a  special  manner  these  pilgrims 
who  have  gathered  around  Us  on  this  memorable  day.  May  their 
families  and  communities,  too,  share  in  this  blessing.  And,  why 
should  We  not  extend  Our  wishes  and  blessings  also  to  those  Ger- 
mans who  have  not  yet  returned  into  the  arms  of  Holy  Mother  the 
Church  ?  Yes,  the  whole  land  of  St.  Boniface  be  blessed  in  memory 
of  the  joy  that  this,  the  first  pilgrimage  of  several  of  its  sons,  has 
given  Us. 


The  Pope  is  gravely  concerned  over  the  Austrian  youth. 
November  26,  1920 

694.  We  clearly  understand  from  your  common  letter  the 
enormity  of  fear  that  is  yours,  the  superabundant  cares  that  are 
yours  and,  for  these  reasons,  you  and  your  flock  are  constantly  be- 
fore Our  eyes  and  in  Our  heart.  We  are  gravely  concerned  about 
these  troubles,  especially  the  needs  of  youth  and  We  intend  once 
again  to  come  to  their  aid.  The  subjects,  with  which,  as  you  an- 
nounce, your  careful  planning  in  your  meeting  was  engaged,  con- 
firm again  the  praise  bestowed  upon  your  diligence  and  merit  from 
yet  another  motive  Our  good  wishes  for  you.  Regardless  of  the 
present  state  of  your  affairs,  regardless  of  what  the  future  has  in 
store,  you  shall  not  labor  in  vain.  For  the  rest,  Beloved  Son  and 
Venerable  Brethren,  be  of  brave  heart,  trust  in  God,  for  He  is 
faithful  and  will  not  leave  the  just  man  in  uncertainty  forever.  .  .  . 

282  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  13,  p.  12  (January  3,  1921). 

[695]  BENEDICT    XV 


THE  WAR.233 

A  call  to  Christians,  especially  the  young,  to  contribute 
to  the  relief  of  the  suffering  children  of  the  belligerent 

December  i,  1920 

695.  A  whole  year  has  now  passed  since  We  (when  the  war 
was  but  a  thing  o£  yesterday)  called  upon  all  Christians,  at  the 
approach  of  the  birthday  of  Our  Lord,234  to  turn  their  hearts  in 
pity  toward  the  children  of  Central  Europe,  who  were  so  severely 
afflicted  by  hunger  and  want  that  they  were  wasting  away  with 
disease  and  were  face  to  face  with  death.  And,  indeed,  a  wondrous 
joy  it  is  to  Us  that  Our  appeal  has  not  fallen  vainly  to  the  ground — 
an  appeal  which  was  actuated  by  that  charity  which  enfolds  in  its 
kindly  embrace  all  men,  without  distinction  of  race  or  nation, 
whosoever  bear  within  them  the  image  of  God.  The  happy  issue 
of  Our  supplication,  Venerable  Brethren,  is  especially  well  known 
to  you  who  assisted  Us  zealously  in  so  salutary  an  enterprise.  For, 
in  truth,  a  generous  supply  of  money  has  been  collected  from  the 
peoples  of  every  land.  There  has  been,  as  it  were,  a  noble  com- 
petition in  liberality,  with  the  result  that  the  Common  Father  of 
so  many  innocent  children  has  been  able  to  look  to  their  necessities 
and  dissipate  their  sorrows.  Nor  do  We  cease  to  proclaim  the  kindly 
Providence  of  God,  Whom  it  has  pleased  to  use  Us  as  a  channel 
whereby  the  manifold  blessings  of  Christian  charity  might  flow 
to  His  abandoned  little  ones.  In  this  matter  We  cannot  desist 
from  offering  a  public  tribute  of  praise  to  the  society,  entitled  the 
"Save  the  Children  Fund,"  which  has  exerted  all  possible  care  and 
diligence  in  the  collection  of  money,  clothing  and  food.  But,  indeed, 
the  general  scarcity  and  the  high  cost  of  living,  which  the  war  has 
brought  in  its  train,  are  of  such  a  complex  and  varied  character 
that  the  assistance  We  have  rendered  has  perhaps  neither  succeeded 
in  reaching  those  parts  of  Europe  where  necessity  pressed  hard, 
nor,  where  help  was  given,  has  it  always  been  adequate  to  the 
actual  need.  To  this  must  be  added  the  fact  that  in  the  course  of 

233  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  137,  p.  872  (December  25,  1920).  Original  Latin, 

A.A.S.,  v.  12,  pp.  553-556  (December  i,  1920). 

234  See  supra  nn.  655-660. 


ANNUS    JAM    PLENUS  [696] 

the  year  following  the  Encyclical  Letter  which  We  addressed  to  you, 
Venerable  Brethren,  on  this  very  topic,  there  has  been  no  appreciable 
improvement  in  the  lot  of  most  of  those  areas  where  it  is  evident 
that  the  people,  and  especially  the  young,  find  life  growing  yet 
harder  and  harder  owing  to  the  shortage  of  the  necessaries  of  life. 
Nay,  in  some  parts,  war  has  flamed  out  anew  and  calamities  of 
every  kind,  to  the  serious  loss  of  those  very  elements  that  it  is  neces- 
sary to  re-establish;  in  other  parts  where  the  civil  state  has  been 
overthrown  and  where  most  frightful  and  disgraceful  massacres 
have  been  perpetrated,  it  has  come  about  that  numberless  families 
have  been  reduced  to  penury;  that  wives  have  been  bereft  of  their 
husbands,  and  children  of  their  parents;  there  are  many  districts, 
too,  where  it  is  so  difficult  to  make  provision  for  the  food  supply 
that  as  a  consequence  the  population  is  afflicted  by  almost  the  same 
hardships  which  pressed  upon  it  in  the  hideous  days  of  the  war. 
696.  Wherefore  once  again,  inspired  by  the  consciousness  of 
that  universal  fatherhood  which  it  is  Our  office  to  sustain,  and 
with  the  words  of  the  Divine  Master  on  Our  lips—/  have  compas- 
sion on  the  multitude  .  .  .  for  they  have  nothing  to  eat — 235  now, 
when  the  anniversary  day  of  the  birth  of  Christ  draws  nigh,  a 
second  time  We  call  loudly  upon  Christian  peoples  to  give  Us  the 
means  whereby  We  may  offer  some  relief  to  the  sick  and  suffering 
children,  of  whatsoever  nationality  they  may  be.  Yes,  We  call  on 
all  who  have  hearts  of  kindness  and  pity  to  make  a  generous  offer- 
ing, but  in  particular  We  turn  to  those  young  children  who  dwell 
in  the  more  prosperous  cities  of  the  world,  to  those  who  can  with 
comparative  ease  stretch  out  a  helping  hand  to  their  poor  little 
brothers  in  Christ.  Is  not  the  birthday  of  Christ  Jesus  in  an  especial 
manner  the  feast  of  the  young?  See,  then,  how  the  desolate  chil- 
dren of  those  scattered  districts  strain  suppliant  hands  to  those  other 
happier  children,  and  seem  to  point  to  the  cradle  where  the  Divine 
Infant  cries  in  helplessness!  Yet,  is  not  that  Infant  the  Common 
Brother  of  them  all,  He,  Who  being  rich  became  poor™  Who  from 
that  manger,  as  from  the  throne  of  heavenly  wisdom,  silently  teaches 
us  not  only  the  value  of  brotherly  love  but  also  how  men  from  their 
tenderest  years  onward  must  detach  themselves  from  the  longing 
for  the  goods  of  this  world  and  share  them  with  the  poor?  .  .  . 


XV,  32- 

236 II  Corinthians,  VIII,  9. 

[697-699]  BENEDICT    XV 

697.  Surely  the  children  of  the  richer  parts  of  Europe  will  have 
it  in  their  power  to  nourish  and  clothe  those  little  ones  of  their 
own  age  who  languish  in  want,  and  especially  should  this  be  so 
at  the  approaching  season  of  the  Nativity  of  Our  Lord,  which 
parents  are  wont  to  render  still  happier  for  their  children  by  little 
gifts  and  presents.  And  shall  We  think  that  these  last  are  endowed 
with  such  a  spirit  as  to  be  unwilling  to  contribute  even  a  part  of 
their  own  little  savings,  whereby  they  might  strengthen  the  weak- 
ness of  children  who  are  in  want?    Oh3  what  a  deep  consolation, 
what  joys  they  will  secure  for  themselves,  if  haply  they  become 
the  means  whereby  those  little  brothers  of  theirs,  who  are  deprived 
of  all  help  and  all  pleasure,  should  spend  the  approaching  Christmas 
time  just  a  little  more  comfortably,  just  a  little  more  happily.  For 
even  as  the  Infant  Jesus  on  the  night  of  His  birth  blessed  with  a 
most  sweet  smile  the  shepherds  who  came  to  Him  with  gifts  to 
lighten  the  burden  of  His  poverty,  and  even  as  He  brightened  their 
souls  with  the  supreme  gift  of  faith,  so  He  will  reward  with  His 
blessing  and  heavenly  graces  those  children  who,  fired  with  love 
for  Him,  shall  soften  the  misery  and  the  sorrow  of  their  little 
brothers.  Nay,  there  is  nothing  else  more  acceptable  to  the  Infant 
Jesus  that  they  could  do  or  offer  at  this  season.  And  so  We  earnestly 
exhort  all  Christian  parents,  to  whom  the  Heavenly  Father  has 
committed  the  grave  charge  of  training  their  offspring  in  the  prac- 
tice of  charity  and  the  other  virtues,  to  use  this  happy  opportunity 
of  exciting  and  cultivating  in  the  minds  of  their  children  sentiments 
of  humanity  and  holy  compassion.  .  .  . 

698.  .  .  .  Oh,  how  Our  heart  would  expand  if  We  were  certain 
that  throughout  the  Christmas  festivities  there  would  be  no  home 
destitute  of  consolation  and  joy,  that  there  would  be  no  child  whose 
sorrow  should  wring  the  dear  heart  of  its  mother,  and  that  there 
would  be  no  mother  who  should  look  upon  her  little  ones  with 
weeping  eyes.  And  so,  Venerable  Brethren,  We  entrust  Our  project 
to  you,  even  as  We  did  a  year  ago,  that  you  may  bring  it  into  effect, 
especially  those  of  you  who  dwell  in  districts  which  enjoy  a  happier 
fortune  and  a  more  tranquil  state  of  affairs. 

699.  And  inasmuch  as  those  words  of  Christ  Our  Lord  should 
take  deep  possession  of  your  souls,  He  that  shall  receive  one  such 
little  child  in  My  name,  receiveth  Me,237  We  beg  that  you  leave 

237 "Matthew,  XVIII,  5. 


CUM    MULTA    HOC    TEMPORE  [7°°] 

no  measure  untried  whereby  the  liberality  and  generosity  of  the 
faithful  over  whom  you  are  set  may  correspond  to  the  urgency 
of  the  present  need.  Accordingly  it  is  Our  wish  that  you  forthwith 
announce  throughout  the  whole  of  your  several  dioceses  that  a 
collection  of  alms  is  to  be  made  on  the  twenty-eighth  day  of  this 
month,  the  feast  of  the  Holy  Innocents,  or  if  you  prefer,  on  the 
Sunday  immediately  preceding,  for  the  support  of  the  children 
made  needy  by  the  war,  and  that  you  particularly  recommend  this 
collection  to  the  children  in  your  diocese;  further,  that  with  all  the 
diligence  in  your  power  you  see  that  the  money  thus  collected  is 
sent  either  to  Us  or  to  the  "Save  the  Children  Fund,"  which  We 
have  before  mentioned.  For  Ourself,  in  order  that,  after  exhort- 
ing the  faithful  by  Our  words,  We  may  stir  their  generosity  by  Our 
example,  We  have  set  apart  100,000  Italian  lire  for  this  most  sacred 
work  of  charity.  .  .  . 

ALLOCUTION  Cum  Multa  Hoc  Tempore  TO  THE  COLLEGE  OF 


The  provisions  of  the  Versailles  Treaty  for  the  Catholic 
Missions  have  not  been  satisfactorily  fulfilled. 

December  16,  1920 

700 Another  cause  for  particular  concern  to  Us  comes 

from  the  fact  that  the  Catholic  Missions  are  in  great  peril;  in  fact, 
nothing  must  be  nearer  Our  heart,  whose  special  duty  it  is  to  carry 
on  the  work  of  Christ,  than  the  Missions.  You  remember  what 
We  said  on  this  very  important  topic  last  year  while  We  were 
addressing  you  on  the  third  of  July,239  that  decisions  of  the  Versailles 
Conference  which  aflfected  the  Catholic  Missions  seemed  to  Our 
joy  in  great  measure,  if  not  completely,  to  be  well  adapted  to  their 
needs,  and  that  We  were  confident  at  the  same  time  that  the  honor- 
able delegates  would  show  the  same  fairness  of  rnind  in  carrying 
out  their  decisions  which  they  used  in  making  them.  However,  the 
matter  did  not  in  all  cases  have  that  result  for  which  We  rightly 
were  hoping.  For  in  many  places  it  continued  for  some  time  to 
be  the  case  that  the  Apostolic  work  of  Holy  Church  among  the 

238 Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  12,  p.  588  (December  17,  1920). 
239  Cf.  supra  n.  635. 


[701-703]  BENEDICT    XV 

unbelievers  was  hindered  and  slowed  up  by  numerous  difficulties. 
We  indeed,  as  far  as  it  was  in  Our  power,  left  nothing  undone  to 
remove  anything  which  stood  in  the  way,  nor  was  the  effort  entirely 
in  vain.  Nevertheless,  there  remain  even  now,  in  some  places,  con- 
ditions which  are  causing  delay  and  hindrance  to  the  Missions  with 
incredible  loss  of  souls.  These  are,  no  doubt,  the  sad  consequences 
of  the  war  by  which  the  world  has  so  long  been  disturbed.  That 
they  may  be  removed  as  soon  as  possible,  and  that  the  Church  be 
in  no  way  hindered  in  spreading  Christianity,  is  the  demand  not 
only  of  religion,  but  of  civilization  as  well 


War  causes  not  only  material  but  also  moral  ruin. 
December  24,  1920 

701 You,  My  Lord  Cardinal,  in  presenting  to  Us  the 

wishes  of  the  Sacred  College  for  the  coming  Feast  of  Christmas, 
have  been  obliged  to  bring  before  Our  notice  again  that,  although 
hostility  of  arms  has  ceased  in  great  measure,  nevertheless,  "there 
still  lies  upon  the  world  an  immense  burden  of  misgivings  and  ills, 
aggravated  by  the  internal  strife  of  peoples  and  by  the  struggles 
of  the  classes  of  society." 

702.  As  you  have  declared,  My  Lord  Cardinal,  there  still  re- 
mains a  task  so  serious  and  difficult  as  not  to  have  had  its  counter- 
part in  any  other  period  of  history;  the  duty,  before  all,  of  restor- 
ing peace  to  souls,  which,  if  it  is  evidently  necessary  where  actual 
warfare  is  still  raging,  is  no  less  so  where  the  external  war  of  arms 
has  yielded  place  to  the  internal  war  of  souls;  and  with  the  task  of 
pacification  there  remains  another,  equally  important,  that  of  re- 
storing order  and  custom  without  which  there  is  no  civil  life. 

703.  The  war  .  .  .  now  allayed  for  two  years,  but  not  yet  spent 
in  all  parts  of  the  globe,  if  it  has  sown  material  ruin  which  has 
wasted  humanity,  and  which  even  at  present  moves  every  heart  to 
pity,  especially  on  beholding  the  wretched  plight  of  children,  much 
more  has  it  sown  moral  ruin,  to  which  human  wisdom,  preoccupied 
only  with  thoughts  of  power,  boundaries,  and  material  resources, 
has  never  given  a  thought. 

240  Original  Italian,  La  Civiltd,  Cattolica,  1921,  v,  i,  pp.  113-114  (January  7,  1921). 


SACRA    PROPEDIEM  [7°4"7°5] 


Mankind  needs  the  peace  which  Christ  brought  to  the 

January  6,  1921 

704  .......  For  above  all  things  Francis  wished  Tertiaries 

to  be  distinguished,  as  by  a  special  badge,  by  brotherly  love,  such 
as  is  keenly  solicitous  of  peace  and  harmony.  Knowing  this  to  be 
the  particular  precept  of  Jesus  Christ,  containing  in  itself  the  ful- 
fillment of  the  Christian  law,  he  was  most  anxious  to  conform  to  it 
the  minds  of  his  followers.  By  that  very  fact  he  succeeded  in 
rendering  the  Third  Order  the  greatest  boon  to  human  society. 
Burning  with  a  seraphic  love  of  God  and  man,  Francis  could  not 
contain  his  charity  within  his  bosom;  he  must  pour  it  forth  upon 
all  within  reach.  Hence,  though  he  began  by  reforming  the  private 
and  domestic  life  of  the  members  and  adorning  it  with  Christian 
virtues,  as  though  he  intended  nothing  else,  still  he  had  no  mind 
to  content  himself  with  that.  He  employed  the  reformation  of 
individuals  as  a  means  to  arouse  in  the  hearts  of  the  people  a  love 
of  Christian  wisdom  and  to  win  all  unto  Jesus  Christ.  This  plan 
of  Francis,  to  have  his  Tertiaries  act  as  heralds  and  messengers  of 
peace  amid  the  far-spread  hostilities  and  civil  upheavals  of  his  age, 
We  also  entertained  when  recently  almost  all  the  world  was  aflame 
with  a  horror-laden  war;  and  We  entertain  it  still,  for  the  conflagra- 
tion is  not  totally  extinguished,  rather,  its  embers  are  smoking 
everywhere  and  in  some  places  even  flaring.  Coupled  with  this 
mischief  is  an  ailment  in  the  vitals  of  our  government  —  brought  on 
by  long-standing  oblivion  and  contempt  of  Christian  principles  — 
namely,  class  struggling  so  bitterly  with  class  about  the  distribution 
of  wealth  that  the  world  is  threatened  with  ruin. 

705.  On  this  immense  field  of  action,  to  which  We,  as  Vicar  of 
the  King  of  Peace,  have  devoted  special  care  and  thought,  We 
desire  to  gather  the  concerted  efforts  of  all  children  of  Christian 
peace,  but  especially  of  the  Tertiaries,  whose  influence  in  restoring 
harmony  of  sentiments  will  be  something  wonderful,  once  their 
number  and  their  enterprise  have  generally  increased.  It  is  desir- 

241  Translation  from  Rome  Hath  $po\en,  pp.  41-43.   Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  13, 
pp.  36-37  (January  24,  1921). 


[706]  BENEDICT    XV 

able,  therefore,  that  every  town  and  village  and  hamlet  should  have 
many  members  of  the  Order — not  indeed  slack  members,  content 
with  the  mere  name  of  Tertiaries,  but  active  and  eager  for  their 
own  and  their  neighbor's  salvation.  Why  should  not  the  numerous 
and  various  associations  of  young  people,  of  workmen,  of  women, 
existing  everywhere  throughout  the  Catholic  world,  join  the  Third 
Order,  and  inspired  with  St.  Francis'  zeal  for  peace  and  charity 
devote  themselves  persistently  to  the  glory  of  Christ  and  the  pros- 
perity of  the  Church?  Mankind  needs  not  the  sort  of  peace  that 
is  built  up  on  the  laborious  deliberations  of  worldly  prudence,  but 
that  peace  which  was  brought  to  us  by  Christ  when  He  declared, 
My  peace  I  give  unto  you;  not  as  the  world  gives,  do  I  give  unto 
you.242  A  man-made  treaty,  whether  of  States  or  of  classes  among 
themselves,  can  neither  endure  nor  have  at  all  the  value  of  real 
peace,  unless  it  rests  upon  a  peaceful  disposition;  but  the  latter  can 
exist  only  where  duty,  as  it  were,  puts  the  bridle  on  the  passions,  for 
it  is  they  that  give  rise  to  discord  of  whatever  kind.  From  whence, 
asks  the  Apostle,  are  wars  and  contentions  among  you?  Are  they 
not  hence,  from  your  concupiscences,  which  war  in  your  mem- 
bers?2** Now,  it  is  Christ  Who  avails  to  harmonize  all  that  is  in 
man,  making  him,  not  serve,  but  command  his  desires,  obedient 
and  submissive  always  to  the  will  of  God;  and  this  harmony  is 
the  foundation  of  all  peace.  In  the  Order  of  Franciscan  Tertiaries, 
that  power  of  Christ  displays  itself  to  wonderful  effect 



Conditions  in  Austria,  as  constituted  by  the  Versailles 
Treaty,  are  absolutely  intolerable. 

January  24,  1921 

706.  The  specially  unhappy  conditions  now  prevailing  in  Aus- 
tria, following  on  the  fortunes  of  the  war  and  the  Treaty  of  Peace, 
have  now  assumed  such  a  serious  character  that  We  can  no  longer 
remain  silent.  This  noble  and  illustrious  nation,  which  has  acquired 

n,  XIV,  27. 

243  James,  IV,  i. 

244  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  138,  p.  177  (February  5,  1921).   Original  Italian, 

Civilth  Cattolica,  1921,  v.  I,  pp.  258-259  (January  29,  1921). 


LA    SINGOLARE  [706] 

so  many  merits  during  the  course  of  centuries  for  its  defense  of  the 
Faith  and  Christian  civilization,  has  lost  all  its  ancient  splendor 
and  is  reduced  to  about  six  million  inhabitants,  of  whom  at  least  a 
third  live  in  the  city  of  Vienna  alone.  Previously  that  capital  was 
the  center  of  a  vast  and  flourishing  empire,  from  which  it  received 
an  abundance  of  resources  and  products  of  every  kind;  now  it  is 
like  a  head  severed  from  its  body,  and  is  in  the  throes  of  misery 
and  desperation.  Commerce  has  ceased,  industry  is  paralyzed, 
money  is  enormously  depreciated,  and  it  is  impossible  to  see  how 
Austria  can  find  in  itself  the  means  to  exist  as  a  State  and  give  its 
people  bread  and  work.  The  results  of  such  a  condition  of  things 
are  being  felt  grievously  by  all  classes,  especially  the  poor,  the  sick 
and  the  young,  on  whose  behalf  We  have  appealed  repeatedly  to 
the  charity  of  all  good  people.  It  is  true  that  various  Governments 
have  been  moved  to  pity  by  the  realization  of  this  terrible  state  of 
things,  and  have  promised  help  and  subsidies  to  this  afflicted  coun- 
try; but  even  if  this  help  were  given  immediately  it  could  not  be 
thoroughly  effective,  inasmuch  as,  as  We  have  said,  Austria  lacks 
the  elements  necessary  for  its  own  proper  existence.  In  drawing 
attention  to  this  very  unhappy  state  of  things  We  do  not  intend  to 
seek  where  to  place  responsibility  or  blame.  We  simply  lament — 
and  public  opinion  is  unanimously  with  Us — that  the  actual  con- 
ditions in  Austria  are  absolutely  intolerable,  as  they  take  away  from 
an  entire  nation  the  possibility  of  getting  the  means  of  existence 
which  the  Creator  has  put  at  the  disposition  of  all  men.  In  thus 
speaking,  My  Lord  Cardinal,  We  are  sure  that  We  are  voicing 
the  sentiments  of  humanity  and  Christian  fraternity  in  the  hearts 
of  all  good  men,  and  which  all  civil  peoples,  without  distinction  of 
conquerors,  conquered  or  neutral,  have  shown  clearly  when  faced 
with  the  unhappy  lot  of  Austria.  For  the,  rest,  it  is  not  for  Us  to 
propose  a  practical  solution  of  the  question,  the  solution  of  which, 
as  it  is  of  an  eminently  political  character,  is  the  business  of  the 
Governments,  specially  those  who  signed  the  Treaty  of  Peace.  We 
are  moved  by  the  love  of  the  Divine  Master,  which  embraces  all, 
particularly  those  suffering,  and  We  confine  Ourself,  My  Lord 
Cardinal,  to  asking  you  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Diplomatic 
Corps  accredited  to  the  Holy  See  to  this  very  serious  matter,  spe- 
cially those  who  are  in  a  position  to  act  with  most  effect,  that  they 
may  bring  Our  wish  before  their  respective  Governments,  and  that, 


[707-7°^]  BENEDICT    XV 

inspired  by  the  principles  of  humanity  and  justice,  they  may  take 
the  necessary  practical  steps.  .  .  . 


The  Pope  discusses  the  "Flanders  Question'  and  gives 
advice  on  the  language  problem. 

February  10,  1921 

707.  We  have  always,  as  you  well  know,  exercised  Our  paternal 
care  and  affection  for  the  well-being  of  the  Belgian  people  not  only 
while  the  horrible  struggle  was  in  progress,  but  also  when  the  Peace 
of  Versailles  had  been  completed;  consequently,  We  thank  God, 
the  Giver  of  all  good  things,  that  He  has  granted  Us  to  see  how  your 
country,  due  to  the  unhesitating  patriotism  and  ingenuity  of  all 
ranks  of  citizens,  is  already  happily  revived  and  renewed  to  the 
point  that  even  the  hope  of  realizing  its  former  prosperity  can  now 
be  envisioned. 

708.  Nevertheless,  We  want  you  to  know,  Venerable  Brethren, 
that  We  are  deeply  concerned  over  rumors  of  dissension  and  dis- 
cord, brought  about  by  that  long  discussed  controversy,  known  as 
the  "Flanders  Question."  Yes,  it  is  a  difficult  problem  and  a  com- 
plex one,  and  even  those  who  agree  in  principle  cannot  agree 
on  the  solution.  At  this  time,  therefore,  We  intend  only  to  touch 
upon  those  aspects  of  the  problem  which  pertain  to  religion,  for 
Our  care,  as  it  always  must  be,  is  for  the  good  of  souls.  Similarly, 
Our  Predecessor,  Leo  XIII,  in  writing  to  the  Bishops  of  Bohemia 
and  Moravia  (August  20,  1901  )246  about  differences  which  had 
arisen  between  their  people  because  of  language,  stated  that  he 
would  not  participate  in  these  disputes;  but  because  of  his  Apostolic 
Office,  he  would  always  be  on  guard  lest  the  cause  of  religion  suffer 
because  of  these  quarrels.    "We  have  decided" — so  he  said — "to 
abstain  from  proposing  any  solution  to  this  affair.   A  defense  of 
one's  native  language  is  not  reprehensible,  if  it  is  kept  within  rea- 
sonable limits.   For  the  principles  which  hold  for  the  defense  of 
other  private  rights  can  be  applied  here,  so  long  as  the  common 
good  does  not  suffer  from  their  application.  It  is  the  duty  of  those 

245  Original  Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  13,  pp.  127-128  (March  u,  1921). 
24Q  Cf.  supra  nn.  230-233. 


GRATUM    VEHEMENTER  [7°9-7i:c] 

who  administer  the  affairs  o£  State  to  safeguard  the  rights  o£  in- 
dividuals in  such  a  way  that  the  common  good  may  be  protected. 
Our  duty,  however,  is  clear.  It  is  to  watch  carefully  lest  religion, 
which  is  die  first  and  chief  good  of  souls,  and  the  origin  of  all 
other  benefits,  be  imperiled  by  these  controversies." 

709.  We  are  motivated,  Venerable  Brethren,  by  the  same  con- 
cern. We  are  prompted  to  write  to  you  for  the  same  reason.  There 
is  a  danger  that  in  these  controversies  the  bonds  of  charity  between 
fellow  citizens  may  be  weakened,  or  that  that  harmony  by  which 
small  projects  grow  into  great  projects,  and  without  which  the 
greatest  achievements  can  be  destroyed  —  that  harmony  may  be 
wiped  out.  There  is  a  danger,  too,  and  this  is  the  greatest,  that 
the  clergy  may  lose  something  of  its  dignity  and  the  efficacy  of  its 
ministry,  if  it  takes  sides  too  zealously  in  these  disputes 

710.  Therefore,  it  will  be  your  duty,  Venerable  Brethren,  to 
watch  and  to  see  that  the  priest  fashion  the  education  of  the  youth 
upon  a  supernatural  plane  (a  work,  by  the  way,  to  which  he  should 
be  drawn  by  a  consciousness  of  his  office) .  And,  consequently,  the 
priest  will  be  easily  identified  and  acknowledged  as  the  "man  of 
God."  If  the  priest  is  to  gather  those  abundant  fruits  of  his  labor, 
which  he  so  ardently  desires,  let  him  be  above  all  instructed  in  all 
those  things  which  "the  times"  demand,  and  which  will  make  him 
useful,  pleasing,  and  acceptable  to  his  flock.   Above  all,  he  must 
understand  and  correctly  use  the  vernacular,  which  people  of  par- 
ticular sections  may  have,  and  with  which  he  must  communicate 
Catholic  doctrine;  otherwise  the  exercise  of  his  ministry  will  be 
patently  a  failure.  ...... 

ALLOCUTION  Gratum  Vchementer  TO  THE  COLLEGE  OF  CAR- 


Christian  regeneration  will  of  itself  bring  bac\  peace 
and  tranquillity. 

March  7, 1921 

711.  It  is  indeed  a  pleasure  for  Us  to  see  your  august  body 
assembled  round  Us  once  more,  that  We  may  speak  with  you  on 

S*T  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  138,  pp.  373*374  (March  19,  1921).    Original 
Latin,  A.A£.r  v.  13,  pp.  121-123  (March  n»  1921). 


[711]  BENEDICT    XV 

the  interests  of  the  Church  and  the  good  of  souls  entrusted  to  Our 
charge.  We  wish  that  We  could  put  a  bright  picture  before  you, 
but  the  sad  state  of  things  prevents  it,  and  indeed  the  disorder 
and  strife  still  prevailing  in  various  parts  of  the  world  cause  Us 
serious  anxiety.  In  Our  unfailing  desire  to  do  everything  possible  to 
remedy  these  evils.  We  have  lost  no  opportunity  of  helping  society 
toward  peace  and  tranquillity;  which  tranquillity  frequently  society 
gained  for  itself  in  centuries  past  by  listening  to  the  Church.  That  is 
why  We  took  advantage  recently  of  the  celebration  of  the  seventh 
centenary  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis  to  invite  the  whole  world 
to  that  spirit  of  self-sacrifice  and  Christian  charity  by  means  of 
which  St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  in  his  desire  to  bring  back  souls  to 
God,  remedied  in  such  great  measure  the  disorders  of  his  times. 
And,  indeed,  never  was  there  such  need  as  there  is  today  of  calling 
to  the  practice  of  self-sacrifice  and  brotherly  love  this  poor  human- 
ity, first  scourged  by  war,  now  thrown  into  disorder  by  lust  for 
the  things  of  this  earth  and  by  political  passions;  never  was  it 
so  necessary  as  it  is  today  that  the  reformation  of  the  individual 
on  Christian  lines  should  be  raised  to  check  effectively  the  pagan- 
ism which  is  really  infiltrating  into  every  manifestation  of  public 
and  private  life.  If  it  is  true  indeed  that  the  actual  state  of  war  has 
ceased,  still  a  sure  and  lasting  peace  has  not  yet  come  to  bring 
consolation  to  the  world,  much  less  has  there  come  back  into  fami- 
lies and  all  classes,  social  and  national,  the  tranquillity  and  order 
which  arise  from  the  spirit  of  brotherhood  and  Christian  solidarity. 
We  see  today  the  miserable  spectacle  of  fratricidal  strife  among 
citizens  of  the  same  nation,  among  peoples  born  and  grown  up 
almost  on  the  same  land,  and  now  fighting  hand  to  hand  for  it, 
raising  a  barrier  of  hatred  and  enmity  between  themselves.  We  see, 
too,  old  latent  differences  between  nations  breaking  out  again  in  a 
display  of  violence  utterly  at  variance  with  the  rules  of  humanity 
and  morality  and  which  We  deplore,  from  whichever  side  it  comes. 
By  now  it  is  evident  to  all  that  the  rules  of  peace  so  laboriously 
elaborated  by  even  the  most  experienced  politicians  are  truly  writ- 
ten on  treaties,  but  they  can  never  become  living  things,  nor  have 
strength  or  power,  nor  penetrate  consciences  unless  in  the  first  place 
they  are  based  on  the  principles  of  justice  and  equity,  and  in  the 
second  place  there  arise  again  in  minds  and  hearts  those  principles 
which  transformed  the  world  from  pagan  to  Christian  and  in  the 


UBI    PRIMUM    CUM    ARDERET  [712] 

day  of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi  healed  and  restored  a  society  full  o£ 
disorder  and  corruption.  Only  by  the  control  of  one's  own  passion 
comes  the  interior  order  of  the  individual,  base  of  social  order;  only 
by  the  Christian  practice  of  brotherly  love  will  arise  again  among 
social  classes  and  peoples  the  mutual  trust  which  is  the  fount  of 
true  and  lasting  peace.  This  is  what  We  invoke  with  Our  whole 
heart  of  the  Divine  Goodness,  this  Christian  regeneration  which  of 
itself  will  bring  back  peace  and  tranquillity  on  earth,  hoping  at  the 
same  time  that  the  centenary  we  have  been  celebrating  may  spread 
the  spirit  of  St.  Francis 

LETTER  Ubi  Primum  Cum  Arderet  TO  CARDINAL  LOGUE,  ARCH- 

The  Pope  exhorts  the  Irish  and  the  English  to  submit 
their  difficulties  to  arbitration. 

April  27,  1921 

712.  When  in  the  mysterious  designs  of  God  We  were  raised 
to  this  Chair  of  Peter,  Europe  was  ablaze  with  war.  You  are  aware 
that  with  a  full  consciousness  of  Our  Apostolic  Office  We  en- 
deavored, to  the  utmost  of  Our  power,  to  remedy  the  numerous 
and  terrible  evils  begotten  of  this  dreadful  conflict,  and  to  reconcile 
men  to  peace.  We  are  grieved  to  say,  that  though  We  left  nothing 
undone  to  restore  peace,  Our  efforts  more  than  once  proved  in- 
effectual. But  indeed,  as  We  have  already  frequently  said,  nations 
will  never  enjoy,  either  at  home  or  abroad,  lasting  tranquillity  un- 
less they  return  to  those  Christian  principles  which  they  have 
abandoned,  and  which  the  Church  hands  down  by  her  teaching. 
Meanwhile  We  are  filled  with  anguish,  when  We  consider  that 
not  a  few  nations  are  still  oppressed  by  the  weight  of  woes  pro- 
duced by  the  war.  For  although  the  clash  of  arms  has  almost 
everywhere  ceased,  yet,  on  account  of  the  extreme  scarcity  of  the 
necessaries  of  life,  many  of  every  age  and  sex,  and  those  the  inno- 
cent, are  being  cut  off,  whilst  everywhere,  even  amongst  the  na- 
tions that  have  emerged  victorious  from  the  conflict,  there  are 
apparent  signs  of  solicitude  and  anxiety  which  compel  all  goo^l 

248  Translation  from  Irish  Ecclesiastical  Record,  sen  5,  v.  17,  pp.  646-647  (June,  1921). 
Original  Latin,  A^iJS.,  v.  13,  pp.  256-258  (June  I,  1921). 


[?I3"7I4]  BENEDICT    XV 

men  to  dread  disaster  yet  to  come.  It  is,  however,  a  matter  of 
some  consolation  to  Us  that  from  the  contributions  so  liberally  sent 
Us  from  all  countries  We  have  been  enabled  more  than  once  to 
bring  some  measure  of  relief  to  impoverished  peoples. 

713.  But  while  We  are  filled  with  anxiety  in  regard  to  all  na- 
tions, We  are  most  especially  concerned  about  the  condition  of 
Ireland.    Unflinching,  even  unto  the  shedding  of  blood,  in  her 
devotion  to  the  ancient  Faith  and  in  her  reverence  for  the  Holy 
See,  she  is  subjected  today  to  the  indignity  of  devastation  and 
slaughter.  There  is  assuredly  no  doubt  that  harsh  and  cruel  occur- 
rences of  this  kind  are  in  great  part  attributable  to  the  recent  war, 
for  neither  has  sufficient  consideration  been  given  to  the  desires  of 
nations,  nor  have  the  fruits  of  peace  which  peoples  promised  to 
themselves  been  reaped.   But  in  the  public  strife  which  is  taking 
place  in  your  country  it  is  the  deliberate  counsel  of  the  Holy  See 
— a  counsel  consistently  acted  upon  up  to  the  present — in  similar 
circumstances — to  take  sides  with  neither  of  the  contending  parties. 
Such  neutrality,  however,  by  no  means  prevents  Us  from  wishing 
and  desiring,  nor  even  from  praying  and  beseeching  the  contending 
parties,  that  the  frenzy  of  the  strife  may  as  soon  as  possible  subside, 
and  that  a  lasting  peace  and  a  sincere  union  of  hearts  may  take 
the  place  of  this  terrible  enmity.  For,  indeed,  We  do  not  perceive 
how  this  bitter  strife  can  profit  either  of  the  parties,  when  property 
and  homes  are  being  ruthlessly  and  disgracefully  laid  waste,  when 
villages  and  farmsteads  are  being  set  Aflame,  when  neither  sacred 
places  nor  sacred  persons  are  spared,  when  on  both  sides  a  war 
resulting  in  the  death  of  unarmed  people,  even  of  women  and 
children,  is  carried  on. 

714.  Mindful,  therefore,  of  the  Apostolic  Office  and  moved  by 
that  charity  which  embraces  all  men,  We  exhort  English  as  well  as 
Irish  to  consider  calmly  whether  the  time  has  not  arrived  to  aban- 
don violence  and  treat  of  some  means  of  mutual  agreement.  For 
this  end  We  think  it  would  be  opportune  if  effect  were  given  to 
the  plan  recently  suggested  by  distinguished  men  as  well  as  skilled 
politicians:  that  is  to  say,  that  the  question  at  issue  should  be 
referred  for  discussion  to  some  body  of  men  selected  by  the  whole 
Irish  nation,  and  when  this  conference  has  published  its  findings, 
let  the  more  influential  among  both  parties  meet  together  and 
having  put  forward  and  discussed  the  views  and  conclusions  ar- 


CAUSA    NOBIS     QUIDEM  [715-716] 

rived  at  on  both  sides,  let  them  determine  by  common  consent 
on  some  means  of  settling  the  question  in  a  sincere  spirit  of  peace 

and  reconciliation. 

ALLOCUTION  Causa  Nobis  Quidcm  TO  THE  COLLEGE  OF  CAR- 


//  the  flame  of  war  has  been  almost  quenched,  the 
iniquitous  spirit  of  it  remains. 

June  13,  1921 

715 If  We  turn  Our  eyes  from  Palestine  to  Europe, 

there,  too,  is  seen  an  unhappy  spectacle.  Recent  events,  as  you 
know  well,  Venerable  Brethren,  have  shown  all  too  clearly  that 
disagreements  and  competitions  between  the  peoples  have  not 
ceased,  and  that  if  indeed  the  flame  of  war  has  been  almost 
quenched,  the  iniquitous  spirit  of  it  remains,  nevertheless.  Where- 
fore, renewing  once  again  Our  urgent  appeal  to  all  heads  of 
Governments  of  good  will,  We  ask  that  by  their  counsel  and  in- 
stance they  may  bring  about  that  the  peoples,  each  and  every  one, 
may  put  aside  enmity  "one  to  another,  and  after  discussion  in  the 
spirit  of  Christian  charity  may  resolve  all  such  differences  as  still 
exist  between  them,  and  so  may  come  to  troubled  Europe  the 
peace  for  which  all  long.  ...... 


Benedict  XV  insists  that  Poland  must  be  an  inde- 
pendent nation. 

July  16,  1921 

716 In  the  same  letter  you  mention  some  of  those 

benefits  which  We  have  striven  to  confer  upon  the  Polish  people. 
But  far  greater  and  far  more  illustrious  examples  are  at  hand  from 
history  as  proofs  of  that  special  love  which  this  Apostolic  See  has 

249 Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  138,  p.  822  (June  25,  1921).    Original  Latin, 

A^i.S.,  v.  15,  p.  283  (June  18,  1921). 
250  Original  La;titt,  A~A.S.,  v.  13,  pp.  424-425  (September  I,  1921). 


[7*7-7l8]  BENEDICT    XV 

always  felt  toward  your  nation.  .  .  .  When  in  the  recent  great  war 
there  were  some  who  affirmed  that  Poland  would  be  sufficiently 
provided  for  if  there  should  be  granted  to  her  a  sort  of  autonomy 
which  was  being  promised,  this  Holy  See  alone  affirmed  many 
times  and  emphatically  that  full  and  perfect  liberty,  that  is,  what 
is  called  independence,  was  necessary  for  Poland,  and  that  the 
greatest  care  should  be  taken  that  she  might  flourish  again  in  her 
pristine  dignity  as  a  moral  person. 

717.  This  love  and  this  zeal  of  Ours  toward  your  nation,  Be- 
loved Sons  and  Venerable  Brethren,  is  fixed  by  one  limit  only, 
namely,  that  which  is  indicated  by  duty  and  justice.  For  when 
peoples  contend  with  one  another  about  their  individual  designs, 
it  is  the  duty  of  the  Roman  Pontiff,  the  Common  Parent  of  all  men, 
to  favor  neither  side  and  to  keep  himself  impartial,  toward  both 
parties.  This  procedure  the  Roman  Pontiffs  have  always  followed, 
and  We  maintained  it  while  the  great  war  was  being  waged,  and 
even  recently  before  the  plebiscite  of  Upper  Silesia,  whatever 
malevolent  men,  or  certainly  men  having  too  little  respect  for  this 
Holy  See,  may  have  said  or  continue  to  say.  But  if,  when  the 
greedy  desires  of  men  are  enkindled,  it  happens — and  experience 
teaches  that  it  happens  not  rarely — that  the  right  of  another  is 
violated,  We  are  led  by  the  same  sanctity  of  duty  to  censure 
and  condemn  such  violation,  from  whatever  source  it  may  have 

PRAYER  O  Dio  di  Bonta  COMPOSED  BY  BENEDICT  XV.251 
The  Pope  prays  for  peace  in  Italy. 
July  25,  1921 

718.  God  of  goodness  and  forgiveness,  with  lacerated  heart  we 
surround  Thy  altars  and  implore  pity.  After  the  horror  of  war  the 
most  terrible  scourge  is  this  fierce  hatred  which  makes  men  of  the 
same  family  persecute  and  kill  each  other  in -party  strife.  The  land 
most  famed  for  Christian  piety,  cradle  of  civil  kindness,  is  becom- 
ing once  again  a  bloodstained  field  of  civil  war.  Have  pity,  O  Lord! 
Thou  Who  hast  revealed  the  noble  law  of  pardon  of  offenses  and 

251  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  138,  pp.  181-182  (August  6,  1921).    Original 
Italian,  A^i.S.,  v.  13,  pp.  369-370  (August  i,  1921). 


LE    NOTIZIE  [719] 

love  o£  enemies,  cause  those  who  are  not  even  enemies  but  are 
indeed  brothers  to  embrace  again,  cause  that,  after  the  bloody  weapons 
of  war  have  been  laid  down,  all  may  repeat  in  the  beloved  mother 
tongue  the  prayer  that  Thou  didst  teach:  Our  Father  Who  art  in 
heaven;  and  that  all  who  have  seen  Thy  Son  open  His  heart  and 
His  arms  to  those  who  crucified  Him  may  feel  their  souls  flooded 
with  burning  love  and  may  say  with  humility  and  trust:  Forgive 
us  our  trespasses  as  we  forgive  them  that  trespass  against  us.  Virgin 
Immaculate,  Queen  of  Hearts,  come  down  among  thy  children 
and  make  them  hear  thy  Mother's  voice.  Thou  alone  by  thy  inter- 
cession canst  reconcile  them  with  Almighty  God  and  reconcile 
them  among  themselves;  thou  alone  canst  give  them  a  taste  of  the 
sweetness  of  the  peace  that  is  a  prelude  of  eternal  life.  Amen. 



In  Russia  the  war  is  followed  by  plague  and  famine 
which  the  Holy  Father  endeavors  to  relieve. 

August  5,  1921 

719.  The  news  which  has  reached  Us  lately  of  the  conditions 
of  the  Russian  people  is,  as  you,  My  Lord  Cardinal,  well  know, 
terribly  serious.  As  far  as  can  be  gathered  from  the  first  short  and 
reserved  accounts,  We  are  faced  with  one  of  the  most  appalling 
catastrophies  in  history.  Masses  of  human  beings,  at  the  very  last 
stage  of  exhaustion,  and  ravaged  by  hunger,  typhus  and  cholera, 
are  wandering  desperately  through  a  land  now  barren,  and  seeking 
to  reach  the  more  populous  centres  where  they  hope  to  find  bread, 
and  whence  they  are  being  driven  back  by  force  of  arms.  From 
the  Volga  basin,  faced  by  the  most  terrible  of  deaths,  many  millions 
of  men  are  invoking  the  aid  of  their  human  kind.  This  cry  of 
suffering,  My  Lord  Cardinal,  has  wounded  Us  deeply.  It  is  a  case 
of  a  people  already  terribly  tried  by  the  scourge  of  war;  a  people 
on  whom  shines  the  character  of  Christ  and  one  always  firm  in  its 
determination  to  belong  to  the  great  Christian  family.  Separated 
indeed  as  they  are  from  Us  by  the  barriers  which  long  centuries 

252  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  138,  p.  245  (August  20,  1921).  Original  Italian, 
A.A.S.,  v.  13,  pp.  428-429  (September  i,  1921). 


[72°]  BENEDICT    XV 

have  raised,  they  are  the  nearer  to  Our  heart  of  a  father  in  pro- 
portion to  the  greatness  of  the  trials  through  which  they  are  passing. 
My  Lord  Cardinal,  We  feel  the  duty  laid  on  Us  to  do  all  that  Our 
poverty  makes  possible  to  help  Our  far-off  children.  But  the  ruin 
is  so  vast  that  the  peoples  must  unite  to  make  provision,  and  no 
effort,  however  great,  will  be  excessive  in  face  of  the  immensity 
o£  the  disaster.  Therefore,  We  ask  you,  My  Lord  Cardinal,  to  use 
all  the  means  at  your  disposal  to  bring  home  to  the  governments  of 
the  different  nations  the  need  for  prompt  and  efficacious  common 
action.  Our  appeal  is  directed  first  of  all  to  the  Christian  peoples 
who  know  the  infinite  charity  of  the  Divine  Redeemer  Who  gave 
His  .blood  to  make  all  brothers;  then  it  is  addressed  to  all  other 
civil  peoples,  because  every  man  worthy  of  the  name  must  feel  the 
duty  of  helping  where  another  man  is  dying.  More  than  once  dur- 
ing the  years  of  suffering  through  which  We  are  passing  the  Holy 
See  has  raised  its  voice  among  the  nations,  mindful  of  the  high  and 
sweet  mission  which  Almighty  God  has  entrusted  to  it.  If  Our 
word  is  now  heard  again,  imploring  charity  before  the  last  echo 
of  Our  recent  exhortations  and  prayers  has  died  away,  that  is  solely 
because  the  new  disaster  is  equal  to,  perhaps  greater  ^than  past 
troubles.  And  at  the  same  time  may  all  the  faithful  of  the  Church 
of  Christ  scattered  throughout  the  world,  while  they  bring  their 
offering  for  their  brothers  dying  of  hunger,  raise  to  Almighty  God 
in  all  trust  their  prayers  that  He  may  deign  to  help  Us  to  hasten 
the  end  of  so  terrible  a  scourge.  .  .  . 


The  Holy  Father  exhorts  all  nations  to  help  Russia. 

September,  1921 

720.  The  reports  arriving  from  Russia  become  even  more 
grave,  and  the  misery  is  so  great  that  only  the  united  effort  of  all, 
the  collaboration  of  both  people  and  government,  can  bring  about  a 
remedy.  Hence,  We  address,  by  means  of  Your  Excellency,  the 
Representatives  of  the  nations  reassembled  there,  and  We  appeal  to 
their  sense  of  humanity  and  fraternity  in  order  that  adequate  meas- 
ures may  quickly  be  taken  to  save  the  unhappy  Russians. 

255 Original  Italian,  Civiltd,  Cattotica,  1921,  v.  4,  p.  167  (October  6,  1921). 


GENERALMENTE  [721-724] 

ORDER  OF  ST.  pRANcis.254 

Despite  the  peace  treaties  wars  continue  in  the  world. 
September  19,  1921 

723C It  is  a  sorrowful  sight  to  see  the  troubles  which 

the  poisoned  germ  of  discord,  nourished  by  a  partisan  spirit,  has 
raised  in  the  midst  of  peoples  that  were  but  yesterday  calm  and 
peaceful;  one's  heart  aches  at  seeing  brothers  tearing  and  killing 
each  other;  certainly  it  is  hardly  in  conformity  with  the  customs  of 
civilized  peoples  to  perpetuate  bellicose  attitudes  between  the  sub- 
jects of  nations  which,  belligerents  yesterday^  are  to-day  joined  by 
peace  treaties. 

722.  What  is  the  source  of  so  much  evil?    It  is  because  men 
have  lost  sight  of  the  order  which  must  prevail  in  the  world;  it  is 
because  they  refuse  to  recognize  in  practice  the  class  differences 
which  God  has  established  in  society;  it  is  because  they  make  the 
mistake  of  believing  that  everything  ends  with  this  earthly  existence, 
without  thinking  that  the  goods  of  the  exile  must  be  used  only  to 
acquire  those  of  heaven. 

723.  Now,  it  is  these  false  ideas  rooted  in  men's  minds,  these 
vicious  attachments  of  the  heart  that  are  directly  combated  by  the 
spirit  of  St.  Francis,  which  has  been  aptly  defined  as  a  "spirit  of 
concord,  of  charity  and  of  peace."  Thus,  what  a  joy  it  is  for  Us  to 
learn  that  it  is  this  spirit  which  has  hovered  over  the  recent  Con- 
gress. Therefrom  We  can  conclude  that  the  resolutions  which  were 
there  made  will  not  be  long  in  manifesting  themselves  as  the  salt  of 
the  earth,  the  proper  remedy  for  the  evils  of  our  time 


Benedict  XV  prays  for  the  success  of  the  Conference. 
November  10,  1921 

724*    On  the  eve  of  the  opening  of  the  Conference  met  to  re- 
solve the  great  international  questions  regarding  the  Far  East  and 

254  Original  Italian,  Ciwltb  C&ttdtca,  1921,  v.  4,  pp.  72-73  (September  23,  1921). 
256  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  138,  p.  741  (December  3,  1921).  Original  Italian, 
Clviltci  Cattolica,  1921,  v.  4,  p.  458  (November  26,  1921). 

[725]  BENEDICT    XV 

thus  to  reach  disarmament.  We  pray  fervently  to  God  for  the  happy 
success  of  the  initiative  taken  by  the  Chief  Magistrate  of  the  great 
American  Republic  for  the  uplifting  of  trembling  humanity. 

Peace  at  home  and  abroad  is  the  one  thing  now  desired 
by  all  people. 

November  21,  1921 

725.  While  it  is  a  pleasure  to  meet  you  once  again,  there  are 
at  the  same  time  many  reasons  for  anxious  consideration,  the  most 
important  of  which  is  the  new  organization  of  relations  between 
the  Church  and  several  States.  No  one  can  help  noting  how, 
since  the  recent  terrible  war,  new  States  have  arisen  and  also  some 
previously  existing  have  now  largely  increased  territory.  There  is 
much  that  might  be  said  on  this  point  which  for  the  moment  need 
not  be  dwelt  on,  but  it  is  obvious  that  these  States  have  no  right  to 
claim  those  privileges  which  the  Holy  See  had  granted  to  others  by 
Concordats  or  special  conventions  inasmuch  as  arrangements  made 
between  certain  parties  must  not  carry  either  advantage  or  detri- 
ment to  others.  We  see,  too,  how,  in  consequence  of  serious  and 
radical  political  changes,  some  States  are  now  in  a  condition  that 
they  cannot  be  considered  to  be  the  same  moral  entity  with  which 
the  Holy  See  treated  before.  From  that  it  follows  naturally  that  the 
agreements  and  conventions  previously  concluded  between  the  Holy 
See  and  those  States  have  no  longer  any  value.  Still,  if  the  heads 
of  such  republics  or  States  desire  to  stipulate  new  agreements  with 
the  Church  more  consonant  with  the  changed  political  conditions, 
they  may  be  assured  that,  where  there  is  no  special  obstacle,  the 
Holy  See  is  disposed  to  treat  with  them  as  indeed  it  is  already 
treating  with  some  nations.  But  We  declare  once  again  to  you, 
Venerable  Brethren,  that  never  will  We  allow  that  in  such  agree- 
ments anything  shall  find  place  that  is  contrary  to  the  liberty  and 
dignity  of  the  Church,  for  it  is  most  distinctly  necessary  in  the  inter- 
ests of  civil  society  itself,  especially  in  such  times  as  these,  that  the 
liberty  and  dignity  of  the  Church  should  be  secure  and  intact.  For 
it  is  undeniable  that  harmony  between  the  civil  and  religious  society 

256  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  138,  pp.  741-742  (December  3,  1921),   Original 
Latin,  A.A.S.,  v.  13,  pp.  521-524  (November  23,  1921). 



is  most  necessary  for  the  tranquillity  of  public  order,  the  founda- 
tion of  well-being  in  every  sense.  Peace,  indeed,  at  home  and 
abroad  is  the  one  thing  now  desired  by  the  peoples  who  have 
suffered  so  much,  and  We  see  with  the  greatest  sorrow  and  anxiety 
that  the  solemn  Peace  Treaty  has  not  received  the  seal  of  peace  of 
minds,  and  nearly  all  nations,  especially  in  Europe,  are  even  now 
being  torn  by  such  serious  and  bitter  dissensions  that  for  their  settle- 
ment more  than  ever  is  felt  the  need  of  God's  intervention.  .  .  . 

726.  Let  us,  then,  have  recourse  to  His  mercy  and  not  only 
seek  it  with  humble  prayers  but  endeavor  to  make  it  propitious  to 
us  with  holiness  of  life  and  charity  to  those  in  need.  .  .  . 

727.  But  if  We  turn  specially  to  Almighty  God  to  seek  ready 
and  efficacious  remedy  for  the  evils  with  which  human  society  is 
overborne,  not  on  that  account  do  We  intend  that  any  means  and 
remedies  must  be  neglected  that  are  suggested  by  reason  and  ex- 
perience.  Certainly  the  rulers  of  the  peoples  must  use  such  means 
and  remedies  in  seeking  to  ensure  the  common  good,  but  it  would 
be  in  the  highest  degree  wrong  to  count  on  them  alone  and  not  on 
divine  aid.  So  We  see  with  pleasure,  Venerable  Brethren,  that  the 
representatives  of  several  nations  have  met  in  Washington  for  the 
purpose  of  coming  to  an  agreement  with  regard  to  the  reduction 
of  armaments;  and  not  only  do  We  sincerely  hope  that  their  labors 
may  reach  a  happy  issue,  but  also,  together  with  all  good  men,  We 
pray  God  to  illuminate  them  with  the  light  of  His  wisdom,  for 
not  only  is  the  object  to  lift  a  weight  now  insupportable  from  the 
peoples — which  in  itself  is  no  small  thing — but,  what  is  more  im- 
portant, to  remove  ...  the  danger  of  future  wars 

Congres  Democratique  International?*1 
The  Holy  Father  blesses  all  true  peace  efforts. 
December  4,  1921 

728.  The  Holy  Father  thanks  you  for  the  sentiments  which  you 
have  expressed  to  him  in  the  name  of  the  delegates  to  the  First 
International  Democratic  Congress  in  Paris,  and  he  prays  God  to 
bless  the  common  efforts  which  you  propose  to  make  in  the  service 
of  true  peace  for  the  peoples'  welfare. 

257  Original  French,  Documentation  Catholique,  v.  7,  c.  1165  (May  13,  1922). 





No  PRELATE  in  modern  times  has  come  to  the  Throne  of  Peter 
with  a  background  more  varied  than  that  of  Achilles  Car- 
dinal Ratti,  who,  as  Pius  XI,  succeeded  Benedict  XV  in 
1922.  Country  curate,  Oxford  lecturer,  professor  of  sacred  eloquence, 
apostle  of  Milanese  chimney-sweeps,  prefect  of  two  great  libraries, 
mountain  climber,  chaplain  of  a  nun's  convent,  Papal  Nuncio  to 
the  Republic  of  Poland,  archbishop  of  a  great  diocese — these  were 
some  of  the  positions  he  had  filled  before  his  election.  A  strong 
character,  a  devotion  to  exacting  scholarship,  a  life  so  rich  in  experi- 
ence, all  blended  to  form  one  of  the  greatest  popes  of  the  past 
three  hundred  years. 

Desio,  in  the  foothills  of  Lombardy,  was  the  town  in  which  he 
was  born  on  May  31,  1857,  the  fourth  son  of  a  silk  weaver.  His 
ecclesiastical  studies  were  made  at  the  Seminary  of  San  Carlo  in 
Milan  and  the  Collegio  Lombardo  in  Rome.  After  ordination  in 
1879  and  two  y^ars  of  graduate  work  for  doctorates  in  canon 
law  and  theology  at  the  Gregorian  University  and  the  Sapienza 
in  Rome,  he  returned  to  Milan  to  do  parochial  work  in  the  village 
of  Barni.  Shortly  afterward  he  was  selected  to  teach  theology  and 
sacred  eloquence  in  his  alma  mater  at  Milan,  till,  five  years  later, 
he  received  an  appointment  as  associate  in  the  historic  Ambrosian 
library.  During  the  thirty-odd  years  he  labored  among  the  docu- 

ments  of  the  library,  he  was  a  frequent  contributor  to  learned 
reviews  of  Italy,  concentrating  largely  on  historical  and  paleograph- 
ical  problems.  Ever  the  priest,  he  acted  as  chaplain  to  the  nuns 
of  the  Convent  of  the  Cenacle,  and  gave  much  of  his  spare  time  to 
apostolic  work  among  the  working  boys  of  the  city.  His  holidays 
were  spent  in  travel  and  in  mountain  climbing,  and  in  1889  he  was 
the  first  Italian  ever  to  scale  the  peak  of  Monte  Rosa  from  the 
Italian  side.  Called  to  Rome  in  1911,  he  was  made  Pro-Prefect  of 
the  Vatican  Library,  and  in  1914  succeeded  Father  Ehrle  as  Prefect. 
Benedict  XV  sent  Monsignor  Ratti  to  Poland  in  1918  as  Apostolic 
Visitor  to  assist  in  the  reorganization  of  the  newly  erected  Polish 
Republic.  His  status  was  raised  to  Nuncio  in  1919,  and  he  was  conse- 
crated titular  Archbishop  of  Lepanto  in  the  Cathedral  of  Warsaw. 
Returning  to  Rome  in  1921,  he  was  appointed  Cardinal  Archbishop 
of  Milan,  and  was  elected  pope  on  February  65,1922. 

*  "The  Peace  of  Christ  in  the  Reign  of  Christ"  he  chose  as  the  ideal 
of  his  pontificate.  A  strong-willed,  far-sighted,  outspoken  charac- 
ter, with  a  passion  for  work  and  the  habit  of  initiative,  Pius  gave 
his  flock  seventeen  years  of  vigorous  leadership.  Seldom  has  a  pope 
seemed  so  conscious  of  the  universal  character  of  the  Church.  In 
thirty-seven  penetrating  encyclicals,  he  spoke  his  mind  on  the  prob- 
lems of  his  age,  taking  the  entire  world  into  his  confidence.  Never 
has  a  pope  done  more  to  encourage  the  laymen  to  share  in  the 
apostolate  of  the  priesthood. 

His  accomplishments  in  the  field  of  diplomacy  were  impressive. 
In  1929  he  ended  the  troublesome  Roman  Question  by  concluding 
the  Treaty  of  the  Lateran  with  Italy,  creating  a  tiny  but  independent 
state  under  his  sovereignty.  He  concluded  concordats  with  Latvia, 
Poland,  Bavaria,  Rumania,  Lithuania,  Prussia,  Baden,  Germany, 
Austria,  Jugoslavia,  and  working  agreements  with  Portugal  and 
Czechoslovakia.  Keenly  aware  of  the  dangers  of  Nationalism,  he 
did  not  hesitate  to  condemn  instances  of  exaggerated  patriotism  or 
State  encroachment  on  the  rights  of  die  Church  and  the  individual. 
U Action  Fran$aise  of  the  French  Royalists  was  condemned  in  1925; 
the  governments  of  Russia,  Germany,  Spain,  Italy  and  Mexico  felt 
the  sting  of  his  criticism  when  they  infringed  on  the  rights  of  the 

His  death  on  February  10, 1939,  elicited  an  outpouring  of  admira- 
tion for  his  character  and  achievements  from  every  quarter  of  the 




The  best  guarantee  of  peace  is  not  a  forest  of  bayonets, 
but  mutual  confidence  and  friendship, 

April  7,  1922 

729.  It  is  with  lively  pleasure  that  We  have  read  the  timely 
letter  which  you  have  addressed  to  your  people  on  the  occasion 
of  the  international  conference  which  brings  together  for  the  first 
time,  in  this  glorious  town,  in  amicable  discussion,  the  victors  and 
the  vanquished,  and  toward  which  turn  all  the  general  hopes  jof 
the  peoples.  As  the  representative  of  the  God  of  peace  and  love, 
Who  with  particular  providence  has  regard  to  the  poor  and  needy, 
and  Who  in  an  unfathomable  decision  called  Us  so  suddenly  to 
take  up,  along  with  Our  succession  to  the  Pontificate,  the  mission 
of  charity  and  peace  of  Our  regretted  Predecessor,  We  confidently 
hope  that  the  representatives  of  the  Powers  will,  with  calm  and 
in  a  spirit  ready  for  any  sacrifice  on  the  altar  of  the  common  weal, 
consider  the  sad  circumstances  under  which  all  nations  are  suffer- 
ing, this  being  the  first  condition  for  the  finding  of  an  efficacious 
remedy  and  the  first  real  step  toward  that  universal  peace  which 
everyone  so  ardently  desires. 

730.  If  in  the  very  shock  of  arms,  according  to  the  beautiful 
device  of  the  Red  Cross— Inter  arma  caritas — Christian  charity  ought 
to  reign,  that  should  hold  good  with  all  the  stronger  reason  after 
arms  have  been  laid  down  and  treaties  of  peace  have  been  signed, 
the  more  so  since  international  enmities,  which  are  the  sad  heritage 
of  war,  are  prejudicial  to  the  victor  nations  and  the  prelude  of  a 
difficult  future  for  all. 

731.  It  should  not  be  forgotten  that  the  best  guarantee  of  peace 
is  not  a  forest  of  bayonets,  but  mutual  confidence  and  friendship. 
If  the  conference  should  exclude  from  its  discussions  not  only  exist- 
ing treaties  but  also  the  reparations  required,  that  need  not  prevent 
a  further  exchange  of  views  which  might  help  the  conquered  to  a 

1  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  139,  p.  485  (April  15,  1922).    Original  Italian, 
A.A.S.,  v.  i43  pp.  217-218  (April  20,  1922). 



speedier  fulfillment  of  their  obligations,  and  would  work  out  to  the 
advantage  of  the  victors. 

732.  Animated  by  these  sentiments  of  equal  love  toward  all 
nations,  which  is  inspired  by  the  charge  laid  upon  Us  by  the  Divine 
Redeemer,  We  extend  to  all  the  faithful  the  invitation  which  you, 
Venerable  Brother,  have  addressed  to  your  people,  and  We  exhort 
them  to  join  their  prayers  with  Ours  for  the  success  of  the  confer- 
ence. May  the  blessing  of  Our  Lord  be  upon  it,  and  may  the  result 
of  its  decisions,  which  We  are  sure  will  be  taken  in  a  sentiment 
of  good-will,  bring  to  suffering  mankind  that  concord  which,  whilst 
bringing  people  together,  may  set  them  again,  after  eight  years  of 
sorrow  and  ruin,  on  the  shining  path  of  work,  progress  and  civil- 
ization, and  so  realize  the  ideal  of  the  Church.  .  .  . 

LETTER  //  Vivissimo  Desiderio  TO  CARDINAL  GASPARRI,  SECRE- 

Peace  consists  not  merely  in  the  cessation  of  hostilities, 
but  chiefly  in  the  reconciliation  of  men. 

April  29,  1922 

733.  The  strong  desire  We  feel  to  see  established  in  the  world 
the  reign  of  true  peace,  which  consists  not  merely  in  the  cessation 
of  hostilities,  but  chiefly  in  the  reconciliation  of  men,  makes  Us 
follow  with  the  liveliest  interest  and  even  with  great  anxiety,  the 
course  of  the  Conference  at  Genoa  for  the  blessing  of  God  on  which 
We  have  already  invited  the  faithful  to  offer  fervent  prayers. 

734.  We  cannot  conceal  from  Your  Eminence  the  keen  satis- 
faction with  which  We  learned  that,  thanks  to  the  good-will  of  all, 
the  great  obstacles  which  from  the  beginning  seemed  to  preclude 
the  possibility  of  any  accord  had  been  overcome.  No  one  can  doubt 
that  the  happy  issue  of  so  great  a  Congress,  including  as  it  does 
representatives  of  nearly  every  civilized  nation,  will  mark  an  his- 
toric date  for  Christian  civilization,  especially   in  Europe.    The 
peoples  which  have  suffered  so  much  in  "the  past  conflict  and  its 
recent  unhappy  consequences  justly  desire  that  the  work  of  the 
Conference  may  'result  in  the  removal,  as  far  as  is  possible,  of  the 

2  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  139,  p.  582  (May  6,  1922).  Original  Italian,  A.A.S., 
v.  14,  pp.  265-267  (May  8,  1922). 


[735-739]  PIUS   xi 

danger  of  fresh  wars,  and,  as  soon  as  may  be,  in  the  economic 
restoration  of  Europe.  With  the  complete  realization  of  such  noble 
aims,  which  are  indeed  interdependent,  or  with  the  preparation 
of  the  foundations  for  their  future  fulfillment,  the  Genoa  Confer- 
ence will  have  deserved  well  of  mankind  by  preparing  almost  a 
new  era  of  peace  and  progress,  in  which  one  will  be  able  to  say 
in  the  words  of  the  Bible:  Justitia  et  pax  osculatce  suntB — that  charity 
must  not  be  separated  from  justice. 

735.  Such  a  return  to  the  normal  state  of  human  society  in  its 
essential  elements,  according  to  the  rules  of  right  reason  which  is 
certainly  a  divine  ordinance,  will  be  of  the  utmost  advantage  for 
all,  victors  and  vanquished,  but  particularly  for  the  poor  suffering 
peoples  in  Eastern  Europe,  who,  already  desolated  by  war,  internal 
strife  and  religious  persecution,  are  now  decimated  by  famine  and 
disease,  though  they  possess  so  many  sources  of  wealth  that  could 
be  precious  elements  in  social  restoration. 

736.  To  reach  these  people,  though  separated  from  Our  Com- 
munion by  a  misfortune  of  ancient  times,  may  Our  words,  with 
those  of  Our  lamented  Predecessors,  be  a  message  of  pity  and  com- 
fort, and  at  the  same  time  of  the  ardent  prayer  of  Our  fatherly 
heart  that  they  may  enjoy  with  Us  the  same  gifts  of  unity  and 
peace  in  the  common  participation  in  the  Holy  Mysteries. 

737.  If  by  a  stroke  of  misfortune  the  efforts  for  sincere  pacifi- 
cation and  lasting  accord  at  this  Conference  should  come  to  nought, 
who  can  think  without  trembling  how  greatly  would  be  aggravated 
the  conditions  already  so  miserable  and  menacing  of  Europe,  with 
the  prospect  of  still  greater  sufferings  and  the  danger  of  a  con- 
flagration which  would  bring  down  the  whole  fabric  of  Christian 
civilization,  since,  as  St.  Thomas  says  (De  Regimine  Principum, 
L  10 )  and  as  experience  confirms:  desperatio  audacter  ad  qualibet 
attentanda  pr&cipitat. 

738.  Therefore,  in  the  name  of  the  universal  mission  of  charity 
entrusted  to  Us  by  the  Divine  Redeemer,  We  again  implore  all 
peoples  to  unite  in  a  Christian  spirit  and  mutual  good-will,  in  the 
effort  to  promote  the  common  good  which  will  give  to  each  nation 
so  acting  great  and  lasting  benefits. 

739.  But  as  this  cannot  be  fully  achieved  without  the  grace  of 
that  God  Who  is,  and  ought  to  be,  recognized  as  the  prime  Author 

8  Psalms,  LXXXIV,  n. 


TO    GENOA     CONFERENCE  [740-741] 

and  supreme  Sustainer  of  society — Rex  re  gum  et  Dominus  Domi- 
nantium4—Wz  exhort  all  Christian  people  to  have  recourse  to  Him, 
on  behalf  of  civilized  society,  in  the  beautiful  prayer  which  in  the 
venerable  liturgy  of  Holy  Week  We  have  offered  up  for  the 
Church:  "That  our  God  and  Lord  would  be  pleased  to  give  it 
peace,  maintain  it  in  union  and  preserve  it  over  the  earth.  .  .  . 
And  grant  us  who  live  in  peace  and  tranquillity  grace  to  glorify 
God,  the  Father  Almighty."  So,  verily,  may  be  attained  that  public 
prosperity  which  is  the  natural  aim  of  all  civilized  society,  as  well 
as  of  the  Church  which  guides  men  toward  their  supernatural  end: 
"That  we  may  so  pass  through  the  good  things  of  time  that  we 
may  not  lose  those  that  are  eternal." 

740.  In  bringing  these  feelings  and  wishes  to  your  knowledge, 
in  order  that  Our  diplomatic  representatives  may  be  Our  inter- 
preters with  their  respective  Governments  and  peoples,  We  impart 
to  Your  Eminence  with  all  Our  heart  Our  Apostolic  Blessing. 


The  Holy  Sec  requests  that  religious  rights  be  safe- 
guarded in  any  agreement  with  Russia, 

May  15,  1922 

741.  In  the  letter  which  the  Holy  Father  sent  on  April  29  to 
the  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State,  His  Eminence  was  charged  to  com- 
municate to  the  Powers  with  which  the  Holy  See  has  diplomatic 
relations  His  Holiness1  wishes  for  the  success  of  the  Genoa  Confer- 
ence, particularly  as  regards  the  Russian  nation.  Inasmuch  as  con- 
ditions do  not  permit  the  Holy  See  approaching  each  one  of  the 
Chancelleries  through  the  ordinary  channel  of  the  Pontifical  repre- 
sentatives to  the  different  nations,  it  uses  the  opportunity  of  the 
presence  at  Genoa  of  the  delegations  of  the  States  with  which  it 
has  diplomatic  relations  to  deliver  to  them  directly  the  text  of  that 
Pontifical  document,  and  to  call  their  attention,  and  through  them 

*  I  Timothy,  VI,  15. 

B  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  139,  pp.  641-642  (May  20, -1922).  Original  French, 
Documentation  Cathotique,  v.  7,  c.  1211  (May  20,  1922). 


[742]  PIUS  xi 

the  attention  of  the  Conference,  to  certain  points  of  special  impor- 
tance. At  the  historic  moment  at  which  there  is  question  of  the 
readmission  of  Russia  in  the  association  of  the  civil  nations,  the 
Holy  See  desires  that  the  religious  interests,  which  are  the  basis 
of  all  true  -civilization,  shall  be  safeguarded  in  Russia.  In  conse- 
quence, the  Holy  See  asks  that  in  the  agreement  to  be  established 
between  the  Powers  represented  at  Genoa  there  shall  be  inserted 
in  some  manner,  but  in  a  very  explicit  manner,  the  three  following 
clauses:  (i)  Full  liberty  of  conscience  for  all  citizens,  Russian  or 
foreign,  is  guaranteed  in  Russia;  (2)  private  and  public  exercise  of 
religion  and  worship  is  also  guaranteed  (this  clause  is  in  agreement 
with  the  declarations  made  at  Genoa  by  the  Russian  delegate,  M. 
Tchitcherin) ;  (3)  religious  immovable  property  which  belonged  or 
still  belongs  to  any  religious  confession  whatsoever  shall  be  restored 
to  it  and  respected. 

ALLOCUTION  Tres  Opportune-merit  ON  THE  OPENING  OF  THE 


Peace  is  the  first  and  indispensable  condition  of  all 
social  reconstruction. 

May  24,  1922 

742 And  with  this  Eucharistic  Congress,  the  first  of 

a  new  series,  must  begin,  and  by  the  grace  of  God,  by  the  infinite 
goodness  and  mercy  of  the  Eucharistic  Heart  of  Jesus,  will  begin 
that  full  pacification  which  is  the  first  and  indispensable  condition 
of  all  social  reconstruction.  That  is  to  say,  that  there  must  begin 
a  real  and  true  regeneration  which  consists  in  the  return  of  society 
to  Jesus  Christ  and  the  return  of  Jesus  Christ  in  human  society; 
the  regeneration  which  holds  in  itself  the  truest,  soundest  substance 
of  all  reconstruction  and  reconstitution.  The  pride  and  vainglory  of 
the  human  mind  have  driven  out  Jesus  Christ,  exiled  Him,  con- 
fined Him  in  His  solitary  tabernacles;  unbridled  lust  for  worldly 
goods  has  made  the  minds  of  men  mutually  bitter,  barbarous  and 
hostile.  Together  with  the  banishment  of  the  Lord  peace  has  left 

6  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  139,  pp.  706-707  (June  3,  1922).   Original  French, 
Actes  de  Pie  XI,  v,  i,  pp.  65-66. 


TRES    O  P  P  OR  T  U  N  E  M  E  N  T  C742] 

humanity.  The  Sacrament  of  the  Eucharist,  solemn  recognition, 
solemn  adoration  of  this  the  most  holy  among  all  holy  Sacraments, 
most  divine  among  divine  things,  that  is  the  remedy.  Here  it  is, 
where  the  human  mind  bows  itself  before  the  majesty  of  God, 
offering  Him  the  homage  of  the  faith  which  believes,  sees  not  but 
adores  and  acknowledges;  it  is  in  this  Sacrament  that  minds  become 
softened  and  regain  gentleness;  it  is  in  this  Sacrament  that  all  are 
seated  at  the  same  Table  and  feel  themselves  truly  brothers,  great 
and  small,  masters  and  servants,  rulers  and  ruled.  Peace,  the  peace 
that  all  are  seeking  because  it  has  not  yet  returned  to  spread  its 
white  wings  over  troubled  humanity,  the  peace  that  the  world  can- 
not give  because  it  can  offer  nothing  more  than  goods  unworthy 
of  the  human  heart  and  insufficient  for  its  happiness,  this  peace 
Jesus  Christ  in  the  Blessed  Sacrament  alone  can  give.  You  have 
asked  Him  and  He  comes  to  you;  breaking  the  silence  of  the 
tabernacle,  once  more  He  is  seen  amongst  men  and  peace  smiles  on 
the  world.  Not  the  image  but  the  living  reality  of  that  peace,  which 
the  world  cannot  give  but  neither  can  it  take  away.  You  are  the 
true  peace,  you  who  have  come  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  from 
all  the  countries  harried  only  yesterday  by  awful  war,  come  here, 
forgetting  the  past,  remembering  only  the  bonds  of  unity  joining 
you  in  the  faith  and  charity  of  Jesus  Christ,  Our  dear  daughters, 
the  International  Union  of  Catholic  Women,  have  just  given  an 
eloquent  example  of  this  great  thing.  Always  first,  the  Christian 
women—at  the  Sepulchre,  at  the  Cross— you,  Our  dear  children, 
have  followed  them  here,  in  a  wonderfully  impressive  assembly, 
a  magnificently  solemn  representation  of  all  those  who  are  follow- 
ing you  in  spirit,  a  superb  flight  of  souls  coming  to  rest  here,  in 
this  land  sanctified  by  the  blood  of  martyrs,  in  this  Rome  through 
which  Christ  is  Roman,  Rome  which,  for  that  very  reason,  is  the 
country  of  all  Christian  souls  wherever  they  may  be,  from  what- 
ever corner  of  the  world  their  prayers  may  rise.  Welcome,  then, 
in  your  Father's  house,  the  house  of  peace,  the  peace  we  all  desire, 
of  which  all  feel  with  more  or  less  urgency  the  need:  all,  in  the 
complete  light  of  the  Faith,  in  the  impulse  which  seeks  salvation 
where  alone  it  can  be  found,  all  in  the  one  same  recognition  of  the 
need  that  human  society  should  turn  to  God,  that  God  should  turn 
Himself  to  human  society 


743-744]  PIUS   xi 


May   Christ  in   the  Holy   Eucharist  bring  peace  to 
human  society! 

May  29,  1922 

743 May  it  please  the  Lord,  the  Prince  of  Peace,  to 

Extend  His  Kingdom  over  every  branch  of  human  society,  that  the 
minds  of  all  men  may  be  brought  together  in  the  brotherhood  of 
faith  and  love,  and  over  the  land  but  lately  drowned  in  blood  and 
tears  the  dawn  of  peace  may  rise,  from  the  mystic  ark  of  the  holy 
tabernacles  the  dove  with  the  olive  branch  may  wend  its  flight 
through  the  skies.  .  .  . 


Above  all  else  the  Holy  Father  has  social  peace  at 

July  10,  1922 

744 As  a  matter  of  fact,  by  choosing  as  your  subject 

for  this  year,  uThe  State  and  Economic  Life,"  you  intend  to  ad- 
vance still  further  your  studies  on  the  economic  restoration  of 
society.  The  Holy  See  cannot  but  pray  for  the  happy  realization 
of  this  plan;  in  reality,  nothing  that  is  able  to  re-establish  or 
strengthen  good  order  in  human  relations  can  be  a  matter  of  in- 
difference to  the  Holy  Father.  He  has  at  heart,  above  all  else,  social 
peace  within  nations  as  well  as  international  peace  among  them. 
He  is  constantly  concerned  with  problems  relative  to  the  economic 
improvement  of  the  working  classes;  he  is  always  ready  to  aid  in 
bringing  about  general  prosperity  which  will  spread  reasonable  well- 
being  among  the  down-trodden,  and  which,  moreover,  will  be  very 
useful  for  the  perfection  of  the  religious  and  moral  life 

7  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  139,  pp.  745-746  (June  10,  1922).   Original  Italian, 

A.A.S.,  v.  14,  p.  343  (June  8,  1922). 

8  Original  French,  Documentation  Catholique,  v.  8,  c.  281  (August  19,  1922), 


I    DISORDINI  [745-748] 


The  Pope  exhorts  the  Bishops  of  Italy  to  wor^  for  the 
pacification  of  their  country. 

August  6,  1922 

745.  The  disorders  which  saddened  Italy  in  the  past  weeks 
brought  to  all  who  love  their  country  with  sincere  affection  a  deep 
sorrow  together  with  a  distressing  fear  for  the  future.  While  the 
sad  condition  of  Italy  most  urgently  demands  the  unanimous  meet- 
ing together  of  all  classes  of  citizens,  .  .  .  factional  passions  drag 
them  into  bloody  conflict. 

746.  The  sublime  mission  of  peace  and  of  love  which   the 
Divine  Redeemer  wishes  to  be  entrusted  to  Us  in  times  so  sad,  and 
with  it  also  the  congenital  feeling  of  love  of  country,  ennobled,  and 
not  extinguished,  by  the  universality  of  Our  pastoral  care,  do  not 
permit  Us  to  remain  silent  any  longer  in  the  face  of  such  a  painful 

747.  The  cruel  tempest  which  has  swept  over  the  earth  has  left 
in  Italy  also,  in  fact,  more  in  Italy  than  elsewhere,  very  sad  germs 
of  hatred  and  violence,  while  in  many  hearts  it  has  lulled  to  sleep 
the  natural  horror  of  shedding  blood.  Hence,  we  see  factions  mul- 
tiply, their  adherents  becoming  more  bitter  every  day,  running  often 
now  in  one  direction,  now  in  another,  to  perpetrate  bloody  crimes 
with  an  endless  train  of  reprisals  which  overturn  the  whole  struc- 
ture of  social  life.   Out  of  this  come  immense  losses,  at  home  as 

well  as  abroad consequences  of  this  fratricidal  war,  which 

is  most  contrary  to  the  elementary  principles  of  Christian  society, 
no  less  than  to  the  genuine  spirit  of  divine  charity,  which  is  the 
essence  of  Catholicism. 

748.  There  can  be  no  remedy  for  all  these  evils  save  by  return- 
ing to  God  and  to  the  complete  observance  of  His  laws,  the  con- 
tempt of  which  has  been  the  cause  of  so  much  misfortune.  .  .  . 
Let  men  return,  therefore,  to  Christ,  Who  desired  to  make  them  all 
brothers  at  the  price  of  His  own  Blood.  In  turning  to  Him,  men 
will  also  love  one  another,  because  in  the  love  of  God  and  of  one's 
neighbor  is  contained  the  whole  law  of  the  Gospel.  And  with  the 
return  of  all  to  Christ,  the  social  relations  between  rulers  and  sub- 
jects, between  peoples  and  governments  will  be  regulated,  relations 
9  Original  Italian,  A.A.S.,  v.  14,  Pp.  481-484  (August  31,  1922). 

[749-751!  PIUS   xi 

on  which  every  well-ordered  society  is  based,  and  which  are 
wonderfully  directed  even  in  their  details  by  the  law  of  the 
Gospel  .  .  . 

749.  Now,  as  Leo  XIII,  in  his  Encyclical  Immortak  Dei  of 
November  i,  1885,  and  in  his  discourse  to  the  Eminent  Cardinals 
of  April  ii,  1899,  teaches  with  such  eloquence  and  efficacy,  the 
mission  of  the  Church  is  precisely  to  reconcile  men  with  God,  and 
thus  restore  among  them  Christian  peace  and  brotherhood  and, 
at  the  same  time,  social  prosperity.  .  .  . 

750.  We  are  not  ignorant,  Venerable  Brethren,  of  your  fidelity 
to  this  divine  mission  of  the  Church;  continue,  with  ever-increasing 
zeal,  especially  in  these  fearful  days,  your  work  as  peace-makers, 
which  is  indeed  not  the  least  part  of  that  ministerium  reconcilia* 
tionis  which  the  Lord  has  given  us,  in  keeping  with  the  words  of 
the  Apostle:  But  all  things  are  of  God,  Who  hath  reconciled  us  to 
Himself  by  Christ;  and  hath  given  to  us  the  ministry  of  reconcilia- 
tion .10    Continue  it  in  your  instruction  and  in  your  enlightened 
direction  of  souls;  continue  it  with  all  the  means  proper  to  your 
exalted  pastoral  office  and,  above  all  else,  with  public  and  private 
prayer,  already  so  highly  recommended  by  Our  Predecessor,  who 
wished  to  give  an  example  of  it  himself  and  proposed  the  touching 
formula  for  it.  ... 


Christian  charity  extends  to  all  men  without  distinction 
of  race. 

September  17,  1922 

751 Indeed,  We  are  confident  that  the  clergy  and 

faithful  of  Great  Britain  will  derive  from  the  Conference  an  in- 
crease of  faith,  and  will  imbibe  that  spirit  of  brotherly  love  which 
should  inspire  the  citizens  of  the  nation  whose  Empire  extends  so 
widely  over  land  and  sea.  We  speak  of  that  brotherly  love  whereby 
we  are  all  brethren  in  Christ  Jesus,  Whose  power  is  such  that  when 

10  n  Corinthians,  V,  18. 

11  Translation  from  The  Tablet,  v.  140,  p.  469  (October  7,  1922).    Original  Latin, 

A.A.S.,  v.  14,  pp.  547-548  (October  31,  1922). 


ORA    SONO     POCHI    MESI  [752"754] 

allowed  to  take  deep  root  in  the  heart,  all  distinctions  of  nationality 
are  set  aside;  and  in  the  Catholic  missionary,  to  whatever  nation  or 
congregation  he  belongs,  a  Catholic  recognizes  a  brave  and  gener- 
ous man  who  is  duly  exercising  the  function  of  the  Apostolate  to 
the  heathen  at  the  cost  of  the  utmost  toil  and  often  of  life  itself. 
Moreover,  imbued  with  this  spirit,  Catholics  will  contribute  gener- 
ously to  the  support  of  the  Sacred  Missions  without  distinction, 
just  as  Christian  charity  extends  to  all  men  whatsoever  without 
distinction  of  race  from  which  they  have  sprung 

LETTER  Ora  Sono  Pochi  Mesi  TO  THE  BISHOPS  OF  ITALY.12 

The  Italian  people  must  strive  to  preserve  peace  in 
their  own  country. 

October  28,  1922 

752.  Only  a  few  months  ago,  confronted  by  the  evils  and  the 
fratricidal  struggles  which  saddened  Our  beloved  country,  We  sent 
you  an  earnest  appeal,  exhorting  you  to  devote  your  pastoral  care 
to  the  task  of  pacifying  the  souls  and  the  hearts  of  men.  We  fully 
appreciate  the  eagerness  with  which  you  answered  Our  paternal 
invitation,  but,  unfortunately,  the  tranquillity  so  greatly  to  be  de- 
sired has  not  yet  returned  among  the  beloved  people  of  Italy,  and 
Our  soul  is  agai